IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science

Issue 6  Part 1 • June 2011

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2

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Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):C1 - 1269
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• IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): C2
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• Special Issue on Electrical Discharges in Vacuum

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1270 - 1271
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• Measurements of the Ion Species of Cathodic Arc Plasma in an Axial Magnetic Field

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1272 - 1276
Cited by:  Papers (5)
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Metal and gas ion species and their charge state distributions were measured for pulsed copper cathodic arcs in argon background gas in the presence of an axial magnetic field. It was found that changing the cathode position relative to anode and ion extraction system, as well as increasing the gas pressure, did not affect much the arc burning voltage and the related power dissipation. However, th... View full abstract»

• Continuous Transient Cathode Spot Operation on a Microprotrusion: Transient Cathode Potential Drop

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1277 - 1283
Cited by:  Papers (7)
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Time-dependent cathode potential drop (CPD) is studied for a transient cathode spot on a Cu cathode protrusion when the spot operates continuously. A transient heat model was self-consistently developed, taking into account the kinetics of cathode vapor flow in a Knudsen layer, considering the momentum and energy conservation in the sheath, the electron relaxation zone, and the hydrodynamic region... View full abstract»

• Arcing Behavior on Different TMF Contacts at High-Current Interrupting Operations

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1284 - 1290
Cited by:  Papers (17)
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Vacuum circuit breakers are widely used in the medium-voltage area. The majority of the installed vacuum tubes are equipped with electrodes using the transverse-magnetic-field design forcing the electric arc on a circular motion to avoid severe local overheating. A vacuum test switch was used to investigate the arc movement behavior between spiral- and cup-shaped electrodes at high-current interru... View full abstract»

• Observation of the Plasma Plume at the Anode of High-Current Vacuum Arc

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1291 - 1295
Cited by:  Papers (11)
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Stable and bright plumes with a distinct and bright shell are observed at the anode of the high-current vacuum arc burning during 10 ms at a current of up to 15 kA in peak. A plume is attached to a hot spot at the anode. The substance inside a plume is almost dark. Light from a plume shell is emitted mostly by neutral atoms. A distinct bright shell is surrounded by substances emitting light in ion... View full abstract»

• Time- and Spectrum-Resolved Study of a Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1296 - 1302
Cited by:  Papers (10)
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Optical emission of a single cathode spot is studied to improve understanding of cathode spot initiation and dynamics. A single cathode spot was generated with high reproducibility in a gap under UHV conditions at a liquid Ga-In-alloy cathode. Discharges were initiated by rectangular voltage pulses of 100-ns length produced by a cable generator. Spot radiation was recorded in time with a high temp... View full abstract»

• Temperature Distribution Dependence on Refractory Anode Thickness in a Vacuum Arc: Experiment

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1303 - 1306
Cited by:  Papers (7)
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The time-dependent anode temperature was measured in a hot refractory anode vacuum arc (HRAVA) sustained between a consumed water-cooled cylindrical Cu cathode and nonconsumed cylindrical W anodes with thicknesses of separated by gaps of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm. Arc currents of were applied for periods up to 210 s. The anode temperature was measured using high-temperature thermocouples at different p... View full abstract»

• Temperature Distribution Dependence on Refractory Anode Thickness in a Vacuum Arc: Theory

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1307 - 1310
Cited by:  Papers (1)
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Anode heating by plasma heat flux in a vacuum arc was modeled. The model included the nonlinear 2-D heat conduction equation with temperature-dependent thermophysical material properties and heat losses by Stefan-Boltzmann radiation from the anode surfaces. The heat conduction equation was solved numerically for 32-mm-diameter tungsten cylindrical anodes with different anode thicknesses and arc cu... View full abstract»

• Low-Current Vacuum Arcs With Short Arc Length in Magnetic Fields of Different Orientations: A Review

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1311 - 1318
Cited by:  Papers (18)
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Investigations, carried out in recent years, of such characteristics of short-length low-current vacuum arcs as the mean current, conducted by the cathode spot; direction and velocity of motion of the spot; and arc voltage as a function of magnitude of the magnetic field vector and the angle of its inclination to the arc axis are discussed. Also, recent spectroscopic investigations of the column o... View full abstract»

• Spectroscopic Studies of Low-Current (Single-Spot) Short Vacuum Arcs in Axial Magnetic Field

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1319 - 1323
Cited by:  Papers (8)
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Measurements of radiation intensity spatial distribution for different copper ionization states (CuI, CuII, and CuIII) were carried out in short (8 and 4 mm long) low-current vacuum arcs with copper electrodes. The arc current was I = 60 A = Is [where Is is the mean current per cathode spot (CS)]. That is, the single-spot arcs were investigated. The spatial and temporal resol... View full abstract»

• Cathode Spot Dynamics and Arc Structure in a Dense Axial Magnetic-Field-Stabilized Vacuum Arc

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1324 - 1329
Cited by:  Papers (8)
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The structures of cathode roots on axial magnetic field (AMF)-stabilized contacts at gap distances of a few millimeters are investigated by observation of the arc behavior with a high-speed high-resolution electronic camera. While the current that is carried by a single cathode spot is almost independent of the arc current, the number of cathode spots and the voltage drop between the contacts line... View full abstract»

• Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Drawn Vacuum Arc in Initial Expanding Stage and in Forced Current-Zero Stage

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1330 - 1335
Cited by:  Papers (8)
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Experiments on a drawn vacuum arc with forced current zero, which was formed by injection of a countercurrent with a frequency of 1 kHz, were conducted in a detach able vacuum chamber. The prospective peak main current was 3.5 kA. Arc characteristics were investigated with the aid of a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 μs. In this paper, the influence of axial magnetic fi... View full abstract»

• Arc Behavior of Intermediate-Frequency Vacuum Arc on Axial Magnetic Field Contacts

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1336 - 1343
Cited by:  Papers (7)
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A vacuum circuit breaker has advantages of low maintenance cost and high reliability. It reaches the priority in aviation field. This paper focuses on the arc behavior of intermediate-frequency (400, 650, and 800 Hz) vacuum arc in commercial-type vacuum interrupters with axial magnetic field contacts. With high-speed photography and volt-ampere characteristics, three different arc modes were ident... View full abstract»

• Investigations on the Motion of High-Current Vacuum-Arc Cathode Spots Under a Magnetic Field

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1344 - 1348
Cited by:  Papers (9)
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Much research has been done on the motion of low-current vacuum-arc cathode spots (CSs). The relationship between the motion velocity of CSs and the magnetic field, particularly the relationship between the direction of CS motion and the ratio of Bz/Bt, has been revealed. However, little investigation on the motion of CSs in high-current vacuum arcs has been conducted before.... View full abstract»

• Diagnostics of the Cathode Sheath Expansion After Current Zero in a Vacuum Circuit Breaker

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1349 - 1353
Cited by:  Papers (10)
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Langmuir probes operating in the electron saturation current mode were used to detect the time of the arrival of the cathode sheath at the probe position. The probe current was measured just before and after current zero (CZ) followed the transient recovery voltage in a gap with copper electrodes. Probe measurements were accompanied with the detection of the postarc currents. Basic plasma paramete... View full abstract»

• $V!{-}t$ Characteristics of Vacuum Interrupter After Large Current Interruption

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1354 - 1357
Cited by:  Papers (1)
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Because of the contact material's evaporation and ejection of some metal particles out of the contact gap during the flow of the vacuum arc, the contact surface may exhibit some erosion after each operation of vacuum circuit breakers. In this paper, the insulation properties were investigated for vacuum interrupters with the rated voltage of about 10-kV operating voltage after short-circuit curren... View full abstract»

• Parallel and Series Operation of Vacuum Interrupters for Circuit Breakers and a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1358 - 1363
Cited by:  Papers (4)
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The increase of fault current flowing to a power transmission line by the increase of demand for power might become a problem around the world. It is considered that installation of a superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to the power system is effective as one of some provisions. Therefore, the development of an SFCL which can be applied to a power system with high current and voltage is n... View full abstract»

• Vacuum Switch Chopping Current in an Inverter Circuit

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1364 - 1369
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When small currents are interrupted by a vacuum switch, it is well known that the chopping current and the associated overvoltage are observed. Many investigations on the current-chopping phenomena in alternating-current (ac) circuits have been carried out, but there are no data available on inverter circuits in spite of their recent wide application to synchronous motor systems. In this paper, ch... View full abstract»

• High-Current Vacuum Arc: The Relationship Between Anode Phenomena and the Average Opening Velocity of Vacuum Interrupters

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1370 - 1378
Cited by:  Papers (15)
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In order to understand the influence of the average opening velocity on the high-current vacuum arc anode phenomena, high-speed photography was used to observe the anode phenomena of the vacuum arc discharge in vacuum interrupters. The contact diameters used in the vacuum interrupters were 12 and 25 mm, respectively. The contact materials included Cu, CuCr25, and CuCr50. The arc current frequency ... View full abstract»

• 1-MV Vacuum Insulation for the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1379 - 1385
Cited by:  Papers (5)
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The ITER is an international project which aims to develop an experimental reactor as a step to realize fusion energy. To inject 33 MW of 1 MeV D0 neutral beams for heating and current drive in ITER plasmas, D- ions are accelerated to 1 MeV. The electrostatic accelerator consists of five acceleration stages, and each acceleration gap has to withstand 200 kV. Gaps between the ... View full abstract»

• Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1386 - 1393
Cited by:  Papers (3)
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Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We describe an approach to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. ... View full abstract»

• Fluxes of Charged Particles From Plasma of Nanosecond Vacuum Spark

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1394 - 1397
Cited by:  Papers (4)
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Fluxes of ions and electrons from plasma of a nanosecond high-voltage vacuum spark have been studied. Differences in the determination of the plasma expansion velocities by the probe method, the method of recording the flux of particles, and the Thomson spectrometer have been established. It has been shown that the spectrum of explosive emission electrons includes a high-energy part with energies ... View full abstract»

• A Study of an Ion Flow of a Combined Vacuum and Surface Discharge Plasma

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):1398 - 1402
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The energy and mass compositions of a stream of combined discharge plasma have been studied. The discharge was a combination of a vacuum gap breakdown and a discharge on the surface of a dielectric. Explosive emission electrons from the cathode accelerated plasma formed by a surface breakdown on the walls of a hole in a dielectric insert located in front of the anode. The measurements revealed tha... View full abstract»

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
tps-editor@ieee.org
Phone:505-988-5751
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