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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 2 • Date June 2011

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - 2069
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Focus-Scanning Leaky-Wave Antenna With Electronically Pattern-Tunable Scatterers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2070 - 2077
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A focus-scanning leaky-wave antenna is proposed. It is based on evanescent wave scattering by electronically pattern tunable scatterers fabricated of fine cascade connections of field effect transistors (FETs). The focus is tailored by switching the FETs so that numbers of the scattered waves cause constructive interference at the target point. Our prototype achieved focus-scanning at 2.4 GHz. The proposed antenna can be used as a very low-cost and lightweight phased array especially suitable to indoor use. View full abstract»

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  • Leakage-Reduced Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide With Periodic Structures and its Antenna Application

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2078 - 2086
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1577 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple method is described where the need of via holes is not required to suppress the inherent leakage of a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW). Pairs of slots are periodically etched on the side ground planes in close proximity to the central signal line. When one period of the structure is considered as a coupled-line section, it provides an open-open boundary condition leading to the all-pass frequency response. To further reduce the possible mode conversion caused by the impedance discontinuity, pairs of small patches are loaded inside the slots. Since the self-resonant frequency of the small patches is far beyond the frequency of interest, the impedance seen from the signal line to the small patches is relatively high suppressing the leakage. The proposed leakage-reduced CBCPW transmission lines both possess good insertion/return loss responses, low loss factor, and flat group delay characteristics. The operation frequency range of the proposed structures is up to 45 GHz. Both structures are then integrated with the coplanar patch antenna. It is demonstrated that using the proposed structures as feed lines could not only improve the antenna efficiency but also lower the cross polarization levels of the coplanar patch antenna, which operates at 5.5 GHz. More importantly, the proposed via-free structures would be more suitable for use in microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits. View full abstract»

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  • A Printed Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on a Sinusoidally-Modulated Reactance Surface

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2087 - 2096
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1779 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple procedure for designing a sinusoidally-modulated reactance surface (SMRS) that radiates at an arbitrary off-broadside angle is outlined. The procedure allows for nearly independent control of the leakage and phase constants along the surface. Printing an array of metallic strips over a grounded dielectric substrate is discussed as a way to practically implement the theoretical SMRS. A method of mapping the gaps between metallic strips to a desired surface impedance is presented as an efficient alternative to mapping methods used in the past. A printed leaky-wave antenna with a sinusoidally-modulated surface reactance is designed using the procedure mentioned above. The TM-polarized antenna radiates at 30° from broadside at 10 GHz, and exhibits an experimental gain of 18.4 dB. Theoretical, simulated, and experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Concept Study of a Shorted Annular Patch Antenna: Design and Fabrication on a Conducting Cylinder

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2097 - 2102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the shorted annular patch (SAP) antenna on an electrically conducting cylinder. The SAP antenna has been credited with superior multipath suppressing properties which makes it interesting for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) applications. GNSS applications demand integration of filters and low noise amplifiers as close to the radiating structure as possible. To this goal, the SAP is mounted on an electrically conducting cylinder which serves as a quality shielded housing for accompanying electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Design of Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Artificial Ground Structure With Rectangular Unit Cells

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2103 - 2110
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1287 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a broadband circularly polarized patch antenna using an artificial ground (AG) structure with rectangular unit cells as a reflector. The AG structure changes the reflection phase in accordance with the polarization state of the incident wave. By properly combining the transmitted wave from the antenna and the reflected wave from the AG structure, broadband circular polarization can be obtained. The AG structure and the antenna are simulated using a full-wave solver and the results show a 10 dB return loss bandwidth of 48.6% and a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 20.4%. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results. The radiation characteristics of the antenna are almost the same as those for an antenna with a PEC reflector. View full abstract»

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  • Spherical Fidelity Patterns of UWB Antennas

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2111 - 2119
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1950 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The time domain radiation properties of UWB antennas are analyzed, especially the angular dependent impulse distortion, with respect to the signal transmitted in the main beam direction, is investigated. The correlation properties of the radiated pulses are determined by the so called fidelity F. The fidelity F is together with the peak pulse amplitude P a powerful tool for the characterization of impulse radiating antennas. The results are applied to two different UWB antennas, a Vivaldi antenna and a Bow-tie antenna. The spatial regions with good correlation and high peak power are determined for both by measurements for verification. The results are vital for UWB impulse communications, and for UWB Radar as well. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Method of Conductivity Measurements for Carbon-Fiber Monopole Antenna

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2120 - 2126
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The relation between loss resistance and conductivity for monopole antennas over a ground plane is derived. Its accuracy was confirmed by good agreement between it and finite element and method of moments simulations. This relation may be used to calculate conductivity of any material that radiates. A Wheeler Cap system was setup. System losses were determined by equating the loss resistance of a 70 mm long × 1.17 mm diameter copper monopole at resonance with that predicted using the published conductivity for this material. The loss resistance of a 70 mm long × 2 mm wide × 2 mm thick monopole antenna manufactured from an aerospace grade carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate, IM7/977-3 prepreg tape with a [0 45 90-45]2s stacking sequence, was measured then corrected for system loss. The conductivity of the CFRP laminate was calculated to be 51,000 S/m at 980 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • A Compressed Sensing Approach for Array Diagnosis From a Small Set of Near-Field Measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2127 - 2133
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique for array diagnosis using a small number of measured data acquired by a near-field system is proposed. The technique, inspired by some recent results in the field of compressed sensing, requires the preliminary measurement of a failure-free reference array. The linear system relating the difference between the field measured using the reference array and the field radiated by the array under test, and the difference between the coefficients of the reference and of the AUT array, is solved using a proper regularization procedure. Numerical examples confirm that the technique gives satisfactory results in terms of failure detection with a reduction in the number of data of two orders of magnitudes compared to standard back-propagation technique and of one order of magnitude compared to the number of elements of the array, provided that the number of fault elements is small. This result is relevant in practical applications, since the high cost of large array diagnosis in near-field facilities is mainly caused by the time required for the data acquisition. Accordingly, the technique is particularly suitable for routine testing of arrays. View full abstract»

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  • A Ball Grid Array Package With a Microstrip Grid Array Antenna for a Single-Chip 60-GHz Receiver

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2134 - 2140
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of a ball grid array package and more importantly describes the integration of a microstrip grid array antenna in the package in a low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology for a single-chip 60-GHz receiver. The grid array package has a small volume of 13.5 × 8 × 1.265 mm3 and can house a 60-GHz receiver die of current size. The package samples were fabricated and measured. The package part demonstrates low insertion loss <; 0.08 dB and excellent matching with return loss >; 22 dB below 5 GHz; while the antenna part achieves good matching (|S11 | ≤ -10 dB), high efficiency (η >; 88%), and directional patterns with the main beam in the boresight direction from 57 to 64 GHz as well as high gain with the peak value of 14.5 dBi at 60 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Beamforming by Left-Handed Extraordinary Transmission Metamaterial Bi- and Plano-Concave Lens at Millimeter-Waves

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2141 - 2151
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1964 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A deep analysis of bi- and plano-concave lens made of stacked subwavelength hole arrays in terms of focus and angular power distribution is presented. The key difference between these left-handed extraordinary transmission lenses (LHET-lenses) and the classical metallic lenses is based on the fact that contrary to the latter ones, LHET-lenses work in the cut-off region of the circular waveguide formed by consecutive stacked holes. This leads to a negative index of refraction, whereas metallic lenses exhibit a positive but less than one index of refraction. View full abstract»

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  • Focal Array Fed Dielectric Lenses: An Attractive Solution for Beam Reconfiguration at Millimeter Waves

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2152 - 2159
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the radiation capabilities of focal array fed dielectric lens antennas using the FDTD method. Several relevant configurations sharing the same lens architecture (namely an extended hemispherical lens coated with a quarter wavelength matching layer), but illuminated by different sub-array topologies, are compared. In particular, we study the impact of the feeding amplitude coefficients, sub-array size and location upon the radiation patterns and beam scanning performance of the lens. Our numerical results demonstrate that such lens configurations are very attractive and flexible for beam synthesis at millimeter waves (beam shaping, beam scanning and beam reconfiguration). These conclusions are confirmed successfully by several experimental results in Ka-band obtained with a 8 × λ0 lens in Rexolite illuminated by linear printed antenna arrays of variable size. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Terahertz Antenna Based on a Silicon Lens Fed by a Leaky Wave Enhanced Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2160 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a novel antenna concept suitable for future integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. The antenna consists of an extended hemispherical lens antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed that can be integrated with sensors and detectors such as Schottky diodes. In this antenna architecture, a couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed by a waveguide opening ground plane and a silicon lens. Due to these modes, the field radiated by the waveguide inside the lens is a very directive pattern that illuminates the upper part of the lens. Having a directive primary field helps to increase the f-number of the lens improving several factors as spill over, off axis distortions and coating layer fabrication. The antenna structure is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology and lends itself nicely for large format imaging arrays. In this contribution, we investigate the important parameters of a single antenna such as reflection coefficient, directivity, Gaussicity, phase center and off-axis displacement tolerances, and we validate our simulations by measuring the far field radiation patterns of a 545 GHz prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Wave Diffraction by Semi-Infinite Strip Grating

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2169 - 2177
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonlinear operator equation in terms of the operator of reflection by a plane periodic semi-infinite grating of thin metal strips is obtained for the H-polarized electromagnetic wave incidence. This equation is solved numerically for an incident plane wave. The algorithm created allows the solution of a nonlinear operator equation in the Fourier amplitude of the reflected field with the method of successive iterations. The initial approach chosen is substantiated, and the solution convergence is numerically verified. The field reflected by a semi-infinite grating is calculated and analyzed for different numerical values of the exciting wave angle of incidence, the strip width and the incident field wavelength. View full abstract»

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  • Dipole Excitation of Periodic Metallic Structures

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2178 - 2187
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The excitation of a periodic structure composed of two- or three-dimensional metallic scatterers by a finite dipole source is studied through the application of the Array Scanning Method. The difficulties in the numerical implementation are discussed in details, providing general guidelines and suggesting a useful preprocessing procedure to determine the number of quadrature points needed in the involved spectral integrations to obtain a given accuracy in the field calculation. The problem of transmission and reflection from two typical periodic screens (arrays of apertures in a metallic plate and arrays of metallic spheres) is first addressed in order to show the differences between a finite-source and the conventional plane-wave excitation. Finally, results for the near field of a recently proposed two-dimensional periodic leaky-wave antenna (an array of metallic patches over a ground plane) are also presented examining for the first time its main characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Bloch Analysis of 1-D Periodic Lines Through the Simulation of Truncated Structures

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2188 - 2195
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A common approach to perform dispersive analyses of waveguides periodic along one direction is based on the electromagnetic simulation of a single spatial period of the structure. However, the resulting equivalent two-port network representation of the single cell may lead to inaccurate modal results, since mutual coupling between cells has been neglected. When a finite number of adjacent cells are simulated, with the aim of improving the accuracy of the analysis, spurious solutions are introduced; they are shown here to be related to the nonuniqueness of root-extraction operations in the complex plane. A simple automatic method is proposed to recover the correct solution and to test the convergence of the analysis as the number of simulated cells is increased. View full abstract»

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  • Physical Bounds and Sum Rules for High-Impedance Surfaces

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2196 - 2204
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-impedance surfaces are artificial surfaces synthesized from periodic structures. The high impedance is useful as it does not short circuit electric currents and reflects electric fields without phase shift. Here, a sum rule is presented that relates frequency intervals having high impedance with the thickness of the structure. The sum rule is used to derive physical bounds on the bandwidth for high-impedance surfaces composed by periodic structures above a perfectly conducting ground plane. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the result, and show that the physical bounds are tight. View full abstract»

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  • Power Stored and Quality Factors in Frequency Selective Surfaces at THz Frequencies

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2205 - 2216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A study of the external, loaded and unloaded quality factors for frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) is presented. The study is focused on THz frequencies between 5 and 30 THz, where ohmic losses arising from the conductors become important. The influence of material properties, such as metal thickness, conductivity dispersion and surface roughness, is investigated. An equivalent circuit that models the FSS in the presence of ohmic losses is introduced and validated by means of full-wave results. Using both full-wave methods as well as a circuit model, the reactive energy stored in the vicinity of the FSS at resonance upon plane-wave incidence is presented. By studying a doubly periodic array of aluminium strips, it is revealed that the reactive power stored at resonance increases rapidly with increasing periodicity. Moreover, it is demonstrated that arrays with larger periodicity-and therefore less metallisation per unit area-exhibit stronger thermal absorption. Despite this absorption, arrays with higher periodicities produce higher unloaded quality factors. Finally, experimental results of a fabricated prototype operating at 14 THz are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Simple Procedure to Derive Lower Bounds for Radiation Q of Electrically Small Devices of Arbitrary Topology

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2217 - 2225
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new and simple technique is presented to derive absolute lower bounds for the radiation Q of electrically small radiating devices. In contrast to many other techniques available in open literature, the new technique is applicable to any topology. It does not rely on defining a canonical volume, like for example a sphere or an ellipsoide, around the antenna, nor is it based on the scattering properties of the topology or any efficiency, but it takes into account possible currents actually flowing on the real device. It yields values for the lower bound strongly depending on the topology. Moreover, it allows to prove several well-known minimum radiation Q's for basic topologies, such as the spherical TM mode, and the spherical inductor. View full abstract»

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  • Boundary Effects on the Determination of Metamaterial Parameters From Normal Incidence Reflection and Transmission Measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2226 - 2240
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1868 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method is described for the determination of the effective electromagnetic parameters of a metamaterial based only on external measurements or simulations, taking boundary effects at the interfaces between a conventional material and metamaterial into account. Plane-wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the interfaces are regarded as additional unknowns to be determined, rather than explicitly dependent on the material parameters. Our technique is thus analogous to the line-reflect-line (LRL) calibration method in microwave measurements. The refractive index can be determined from S-parameters for two samples of different thickness. The effective wave impedance requires the additional assumption that generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) account for the boundary effects. Expressions for the bulk permittivity and permeability then follow easily. Our method is validated by comparison with the results using the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) for determining properties of an ordinary material measured in a coaxial line. Utilizing S-parameters obtained from 3-D full wave simulations, we test the method on magnetodielectric metamaterials. We compare the results from our method and the conventional one that does not consider boundary effects. Moreover, it is shown that results from our method are consistent under changes in reference plane location, whereas the results from other methods are not. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Bessel Beams Generation Using Guided Modes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2241 - 2247
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. View full abstract»

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  • Stability Analysis and Improvement of the Conformal ADI-FDTD Methods

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2248 - 2258
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to model curved conducting boundaries with high accuracy, conformal alternating direction implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) methods have been developed with applications of Dey-Mittra's and Yu-Mittra's conformal techniques. We show that the conformal ADI-FDTD methods developed as such lose the unconditional stability although it is expected with the ADI schemes. We present the theoretical analysis and numerical experiments that proves our findings. We then present a modified conformal ADI-FDTD technique with better stability than those based on Yu-Mittra's and Dey-Mittra's conformal techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Implicit ID-FDTD Algorithm Based on Crank-Nicolson Scheme: Dispersion Relation and Stability Analysis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2259 - 2267
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1018 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new implicit isotropic-dispersion finite difference time domain (ID-FDTD) algorithm is proposed, which is formulated based on the Crank-Nicolson (CN) implicit scheme. The update equation of the new scheme is given for a three dimension (3D) problem and a general lossy medium including electric and magnetic losses. The dispersion relation of the CN ID-FDTD scheme is obtained based on the eigen-analysis technique. Also, the unconditional stability is mathematically proved by using the energy method. For a practical application, a maximum time-limit is proposed for free space. To validate the proposed scheme, a 2D cavity problem is considered. The electric fields inside the cavity, which are calculated by the proposed, conventional CN FDTD schemes, and the exact solution, are compared. View full abstract»

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  • FDTD Modeling of Dispersive Bianisotropic Media Using Z-Transform Method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2268 - 2279
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for simulating electromagnetic wave interaction with a dispersive chiral medium is extended to include the simulation of dispersive bianisotropic media. Due to anisotropy and frequency dispersion of such media, the constitutive parameters are represented by frequency-dependent tensors. The FDTD is formulated using the Z-transform method, a conventional approach for applying FDTD in frequency-dispersive media. Omega medium is considered as an example of bianisotropic media, the frequency-dependent tensors of which are based on analytical models. The extended FDTD method is used to determine the reflection and transmission coefficients of co- and cross-polarized electromagnetic waves from omega slabs, illuminated by normally incident plane waves. Three cases are simulated: 1) a slab of uniaxial omega medium with its optical axis parallel to the propagation vector; 2) a slab of rotated uniaxial omega medium with its optical axis not parallel to the propagation vector; and 3) a slab of biaxial omega medium. The results are validated by means of comparisons with analytical solutions. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung