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Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2  Part 1 • Date June 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Objective Video Quality Assessment Methods: A Classification, Review, and Performance Comparison

    Page(s): 165 - 182
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasing demand for video-based applications, the reliable prediction of video quality has increased in importance. Numerous video quality assessment methods and metrics have been proposed over the past years with varying computational complexity and accuracy. In this paper, we introduce a classification scheme for full-reference and reduced-reference media-layer objective video quality assessment methods. Our classification scheme first classifies a method according to whether natural visual characteristics or perceptual (human visual system) characteristics are considered. We further subclassify natural visual characteristics methods into methods based on natural visual statistics or natural visual features. We subclassify perceptual characteristics methods into frequency or pixel-domain methods. According to our classification scheme, we comprehensively review and compare the media-layer objective video quality models for both standard resolution and high definition video. We find that the natural visual statistics based MultiScale-Structural SIMilarity index (MS-SSIM), the natural visual feature based Video Quality Metric (VQM), and the perceptual spatio-temporal frequency-domain based MOtion-based Video Integrity Evaluation (MOVIE) index give the best performance for the LIVE Video Quality Database. View full abstract»

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  • An Evaluation of Parameterized Gradient Based Routing With QoE Monitoring for Multiple IPTV Providers

    Page(s): 183 - 194
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future communication networks will be faced with increasing and variable traffic demand, due largely to various services introduced on the Internet. One particular service that will greatly impact resource management of future communication networks is IPTV, which aims to provide users with a multitude of multimedia services (e.g. HD and SD) for both live and on demand streaming. The impact of this will be higher, when we consider multiple IPTV services overlaid on the same network. In this paper we propose a resource management scheme for a network provider that supports multiple IPTV providers. The proposed solution incorporates a new distributed routing mechanism in the underlying network that incorporates QoE monitoring. Through this monitoring process, network providers are able to provide timely updates of quality of flows for each IPTV provider. Simulation work has been conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed solution in comparison to standard approaches. View full abstract»

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  • An Empirical Comparative Study of Prediction Methods for Estimating Multipath Due to Signal Scattering From Wind Turbines on Digital TV Services

    Page(s): 195 - 203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several authors have theoretically studied the effect of wind turbines on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the UHF band. The International Telecommunication Union also proposes a simplified model to evaluate the impact caused to television reception by a wind turbine in the Recommendation ITU-R BT.805. This paper presents an empirical study of the above-mentioned prediction methods for estimating signal scattering from wind turbines in the UHF band, comparing predicted values with empirical data obtained from a DTV measurement campaign carried out in Spain. As signal scattering is independent of the transmission standard or modulation, the results are applicable to any broadcasting and wireless communication signals in the UHF band that may be affected by the multipath interference caused by a wind farm. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Evaluation of Multimedia Content Distribution Over Multi-Homed Wireless Networks

    Page(s): 204 - 215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing availability of IP based heterogeneous wireless access technologies coupled with the increasing capabilities of mobile devices is creating opportunities for multimedia distribution. Through its multi-homing feature, the ability to support multiple network connections in a single end to end association, the transport layer Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) can enable seamless and transparent communication sessions over multiple heterogeneous networks. This paper analyzes the performance of multimedia distribution when making use of two multi-homing SCTP-based approaches: Single Path Transfer and Concurrent Multi-path Transfer, in which a single or all paths within an association are used simultaneously for data transmission. In this investigation various retransmission policies and different parameter sets are used in turn and recommendations are made for achieving best results during video delivery. In order to perform this study a novel realistic evaluation tool-set was proposed and is described, which can simulate video delivery over SCTP. Our simulation results and analysis show how to optimize the transmission of multimedia content over SCTP associations in both single and multipath scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Quality-Oriented Multiple-Source Multimedia Delivery Over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Page(s): 216 - 230
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel quality-oriented algorithm for multiple-source delivery of multimedia over heterogeneous wireless networks, which enables maintaining high levels of user-perceived quality. Unlike existing solutions, which perform delivery adaptation by adjusting the original multimedia quality to varying network conditions, this solution is based on dynamically balancing the multimedia content among multiple streams in order to achieve its goal. The proposed scheme and three other known approaches are compared in terms of estimated user-perceived quality. Simulation results show how this scheme outperforms the other solutions, including cases where the number of simultaneous receivers increases significantly. In addition, real environment tests show how the proposed scheme provides higher quality in terms of both objective and subjective metrics than competing approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction and Transmission Optimization of Video Guaranteeing a Bounded Zapping-Delay in DVB-H

    Page(s): 231 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1579 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Zapping-delay is an important factor contributing to the quality-of-experience (QoE) of any multimedia service; the longer the zapping-delay, the worse is the QoE. Therefore, for a good QoE, it is necessary to bind zapping-delay within acceptable bounds. Coded video uses a motion compensated prediction structure that contributes to the zapping-delay. In DVB-H, zapping-delay is further increased because of the time-sliced burst transmission architecture. Hence, any attempt to bind zapping-delay must consider both the prediction structure of coded video, as well as the time-sliced transmission architecture of DVB-H. This paper analyzes prediction structure of video as binary relations generating a prediction graph. Reachability concepts of graph theory are then applied to construct binary valued indicator functions. These indicator functions inform about the reception, decoding, and play-out states of each access-unit in the video sequences. zapping-delay is studied by dissecting the components that it is composed off. Conditions for minimizing each of them individually, while the final zapping-delay does not exceed a known bound, is found. Emphasis is also laid on gradual quality enhancement after the display of the new program has started. View full abstract»

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  • RF Watermark Backward Compatibility Tests for the ATSC Terrestrial DTV Receivers

    Page(s): 246 - 252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a single frequency network (SFN) for the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television (DTV) system, co-channel interference induced by the multiple transmitters and/or repeaters which use the same output channel is inevitable. Since the presence of interference results in the performance degradation of the SFN, it is crucial to manipulate the interference by adjusting the transmit power and the emission time of each transmitter and repeater within the SFN. In the ATSC terrestrial DTV system, in order to facilitate the interference manipulation process, a transmitter identification (TxID) signal which is embedded in the transmit signal from each transmitter and repeater is recommended. However, such an embedded signal may degrade the DTV signal quality even though the injection level of the TxID signal is very low compared to the DTV signal. Hence, the effect of the TxID signal on the DTV signal needs to be investigated before deploying the SFN with TxID signal. In this paper, the effect of the TxID signal on the performance of legacy DTV receivers is investigated not only with extensive computer simulation but also with laboratory and field tests. According to the various test results, the average performance loss of the conventional DTV receiver due to the TxID signal is less than 0.2 dB when the TxID signal is injected at 30 dB below the DTV signal power. View full abstract»

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  • Pixel Interlacing Based Video Transmission for Low-Complexity Intra-Frame Error Concealment

    Page(s): 253 - 257
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When multi-path fading and interference frequently disrupts a mobile radio communication system, it can seriously undermine its reliability for transmission of compressed video signals. In this paper, we present a pixel interlacing based video transmission system for low-complexity Intra-frame error concealment over error-prone mobile networks, especially under severe channel conditions. The proposed method, despite its low-complexity which is based on a simple pixel interlacing technique at the encoder, can significantly enhance the quality of the corrupted video signal. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve image quality (with the average PSNR gain up to 15.80 dB) in comparison with the existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • The Relationship Among Video Quality, Screen Resolution, and Bit Rate

    Page(s): 258 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    How much bandwidth is required for good quality video for a given screen resolution? Data acquired during two Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) projects allow at least a partial answer to this question. This international subjective testing produced large amounts of mean opinion score (MOS) data for the screen resolutions QIF, CIF, VGA, and HD; for H.264 and similar modern codecs; and for many bit rates. Those data are assembled in the present report. For each screen resolution, MOS is plotted as a function of bit rate. A plot of all four data sets together shows the bit rate that would be required to achieve a given level of video quality for a given screen resolution. Relations among the four data sets are regular, suggesting that interpolation across screen resolutions might be reasonable. Based on these data, it would be reasonable to choose a bit rate, given a screen resolution; it would not be reasonable to choose a screen resolution given a bit rate. View full abstract»

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  • Improve the Performance of LDPC Coded QAM by Selective Bit Mapping in Terrestrial Broadcasting System

    Page(s): 263 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we employ selective bit mapping to improve the performance of the LDPC coded QAM scheme for terrestrial DTV broadcasting system. The threshold of message-passing decoding can be considerably lowered by selectively mapping the binary components of LDPC codeword to the positions in the m-tuples to be mapped into 2mQAM symbols. In our approach, the mapping pattern is described by bit-mapping polynomials, based on which density evolution can be applied. The optimization algorithm is developed with two implementation concerns, using the Chinese DTMB standard as an example. Numerical results illustrate that our proposed approach can improve the decoding threshold by 0.05 dB to 0.499 dB depending on the code rate and the order of QAM modulation. Simulation results show that the actual BER improvement varies from 0.09 dB to 0.6 dB with different code-modulation combinations in both single-carrier and OFDM modes. View full abstract»

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  • Co-Channel Analog Television Interference in the TDS-OFDM-Based DTTB System: Consequences and Solutions

    Page(s): 270 - 276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During digital television (TV) transition, analog signal disturbs digital terrestrial television (DTT) transmission in an area where a simulcast service is available. In the TDS-OFDM- based DTTB system, the receiver is extremely sensitive to the co-channel interference (CCI) introduced by analog TV service. The CCI not only generates strong narrow-band interference in the frequency domain, but also greatly degrades the estimation of time-domain demodulating parameters in TDS-OFDM receiver. In this paper, a method of the time-domain autocorrelation of the received DTT signal is developed to detect the CCI, and it utilizes the line synchronization mechanism of analog TV signals. Also an IIR filter, setting one notch at each carrier of analog TV signal, is designed to reject the CCI in the time domain. From the filtered signal, synchronization errors and channel responses can be estimated by means of conventional algorithms for TDS-OFDM receiver. A DTMB receiver is designed to verify the proposed solutions and its robustness against the CCI is enforced about 20 dB in terms of signal interference ratio (SIR). View full abstract»

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  • Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Carrier and Sampling Frequency Offsets for OFDM Systems

    Page(s): 277 - 283
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, carrier and sampling frequency offsets (CFO and SFO, respectively) can destroy the orthogonality of the subcarriers and degrade the system performance. In this paper, we propose a new joint CFO and SFO maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme extending Moose's CFO estimation scheme using two long training symbols in the frequency-domain (FD). In particular, we derive FD Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs) for the mean square errors (MSEs) of the CFO and SFO estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed ML scheme exhibits better performance than the other existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • PAPR Reduction Using Low Complexity PTS to Construct of OFDM Signals Without Side Information

    Page(s): 284 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Partial transmit sequence (PTS) is one of the most well-known peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction techniques proposed for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The main drawbacks of the conventional PTS (C-PTS) are high computational complexity and transmission of several side information bits. A new PTS with simple detector is proposed in this paper to deal with these drawbacks of C-PTS. The candidates can be generated through cyclically shifting each sub-block sequence in time domain and combining them in a recursive manner. At the receiver, by utilizing the natural diversity of phase constellation for different candidates, the detector can successfully recover the original signal without side information. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed scheme performs very well in terms of PAPR. The probability of detection failure of the side information demonstrates that the detector could work without any side information with high reliability. The proposed scheme achieves almost the same bit error rate (BER) performance as the C-PTS with perfect side information, under both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and Rayleigh fading channel. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on a Companding Technique With Trapezium Distribution

    Page(s): 291 - 298
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has become the most widely adopted technology in wireless communication systems. OFDM is limited mainly by its high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). A uniformly distributed nonlinear companding scheme efficiently reduces PAPR with a low Bit Error Rate (BER). However, the uniformly distributed companding scheme cannot perform variably to satisfy the different performance requirements for the systems. Therefore, this work proposes a novel scheme that transforms the OFDM signals into a trapezium distribution. The uniformly distributed companding scheme is a special case of the proposed scheme. The general formulas of the proposed scheme are derived and the trade-off between PAPR reduction and BER performance is achieved by setting the value of a parameter. Then, the simulation results show the PAPR reduction and the BER over the AWGN and multipath channels, indicating that the proposed scheme provides a favorable trade-off between the PAPR reduction and the BER. View full abstract»

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  • PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals by PTS With Grouping and Recursive Phase Weighting Methods

    Page(s): 299 - 306
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As one of attractive techniques, partial transmit sequence (PTS) provides an effective solution for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. However, optimal PTS (O-PTS) requires an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors, resulting in large computational complexity. In this paper, two phase weighting methods with low computational complexity for PTS, named grouping phase weighting (GPW) and recursive phase weighting (RPW), are proposed. These two methods focus on simplifying the computation for candidate sequences and obtaining the same candidate sequences compared to O-PTS. Moreover, the combination of two phase weighting methods can obtain further computational complexity reduction. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, compared with O-PTS, PTS employing GPW or/and RPW can not only dramatically reduce computational complexity but also have an advantage of no loss in PAPR reduction performance. View full abstract»

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  • A Pilot Symbol Pattern Enabling Data Recovery Without Side Information in PTS-Based OFDM Systems

    Page(s): 307 - 312
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Partial transmit sequence (PTS) scheme is one of the most popular peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction schemes for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In the PTS scheme, one OFDM symbol is partitioned into disjointed sub-blocks, and each sub-block is multiplied by a phase factor to generate signals with low PAPR. For data recovery, receivers must have side information (SI), e.g., phase factors, from transmitters. In this letter, a novel data recovery scheme in PTS-based OFDM systems without SI is proposed. In the proposed scheme, an additional pilot symbol is intentionally inserted at the end of each sub-block, so that efficient data decoding based on channel estimation can be executed with known pilot symbols. Simulation results show that the BER performance of the proposed scheme without SI is approximately the same as those of the PTS scheme with perfect SI and a maximum likelihood decoding scheme. Considering the cost for SI encoding and decoding, the proposed scheme is practically more advantageous over the PTS scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Incremental Raptor Decoding Over BEC for 3GPP MBMS and DVB IP-Datacast Services

    Page(s): 313 - 318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application layer forward error correction (FEC) schemes of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) standard and IP Datacast over Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) services employ systematic Raptor codes. Additionally, the 3GPP MBMS standard suggests the use of efficient enhanced Gaussian elimination (EGE) matrix inversion algorithm for the Raptor decoder. In this letter we propose a new incremental EGE (IEGE) algorithm, based on the specification of the EGE. We perform a detailed performance and complexity comparison with EGE, for various decoding scenarios. We show that IEGE performs up to 15.8 times better. Additionally, we investigate the choice of the decoding scheme, based on the symbol arrival rate. View full abstract»

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  • Fountain Codes With PAPR Constraint for Multicast Communications

    Page(s): 319 - 325
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    The Forward Link Only (FLO) merit of fountain codes is utilized to avoid excessive retransmission requests for multicast communications. Two important and basic classes of fountain codes, Random Linear (RL) codes and Luby Transform (LT) codes, are considered in this paper as application layer Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes. High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is a notorious physical layer problem in OFDM systems. We take the PAPR constraint into account in the encoding of fountain codes for OFDM multicast communications. We propose a selective mapping (SLM) technique that selects the best P candidates among the QP candidates. This SLM technique performs significant better than the conventional SLM technique that selects the best candidate among the Q candidates. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation verify the excellence of our designs. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to “Efficient Motion Vector Interpolation for Error Concealment of H.264/AVC” [Mar 11 75-80]

    Page(s): 326
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    In the above paper (ibid., vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 75-80, Mar. 2011), the financial support information was omitted from the first footnote. It is provided here. View full abstract»

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  • 61st Annual IEEE Broadcast Symposium — Save the Date

    Page(s): 327
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IBC2011 Experience the Future

    Page(s): 328
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting information for authors

    Page(s): C4 - C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting covers the field of broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects of broadcasting.

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Editor-in-Chief
Yiyan Wu
Communications Research Ctr Canada