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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May-June 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 58
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1078
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Eradication of Invasive Organisms From Ballast Water With Electrodeless Pulsed-Discharge Hybrid Reactor

    Page(s): 1079 - 1085
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel plasma reactor with high-voltage pulsed discharge in water through pinhole was proposed to treat algae. It produced multiple effects, i.e., shock waves, ultraviolet light, hydroxyl radicals, and strong electric field at the same time. In this paper, the killing effect of different alga was studied. The results showed that the inactivation rate reached 100%, where Chlorophyta was the most difficult to treat, the diatom the second, and Chrysophyte was the easiest. Platymonas spp. was more difficult to treat than Chlorella among the Chlorophyta. The chlorophyll a in the treated algae solution decreased with the increase of peak voltage. The result also showed that there were no differences between the two measurement methods for the survivability of algae: the optical microscope and spectrophotometer. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Design and Capability Evaluation of a Tribo-Aerodynamic Charging Process for Fine Particles

    Page(s): 1086 - 1092
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    Robustness and capability are critical issues for the industrial application of any novel electrostatic process. The aim of this paper is double: show how an experimental design methodology can contribute to assessing the robustness of a given tribo-aerodynamic charging process and validate a procedure for evaluating the capability of two tribo-aerodynamic chargers with respect to the specific requirements of electrostatic separation applications. The results of three fractional factorial experimental designs performed on starch and flour powders, in two devices similar to the triboguns employed for electrostatic powder coating, demonstrate that the tribo-aerodynamic charging is robust with respect to the three main control variables of the process: the injection and vortex pressures of the air in the pneumatic circuit and the material feed rate. The capability indexes computed for both the straight- and spiral-type tribocharges were satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Triboelectric Charging of Insulators—Evidence for Electrons Versus Ions

    Page(s): 1093 - 1099
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    Whether electrons or ions are involved in triboelectric charging of insulators remains elusive. We designed polymers whose surface compositions (determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) differed from the bulk. Charging against insulators related to their topmost surface compositions, but against metals related to their bulk compositions. We propose the hypothesis that the former involves ion exchange between the topmost surfaces and the latter involves electron tunneling into the bulk, thus postulating a relationship between charging mechanism and charge penetration depth, which is supported by the fact that ions are known to adsorb to polymer surfaces and electrons are considered to penetrate into the bulk. Integration of this with the frequently conflicting evidence and hypotheses of others has, for the first time, led to a coherent though qualitative overall understanding of brief contact charging mechanisms: ion exchange for insulator-insulator contacts, both electron and ion exchange for metal-insulator contacts, and electron exchange for metal-metal contacts, consistent with successively increasing “electron availability” at these interfaces. We suggest that this concept of relative surface “availability” of the charge exchange agent also accounts for the predominance of mobile ion exchange over hydroxide ion and electron exchange when mobile-ion-containing organic salts or polymers are involved. View full abstract»

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  • Emission Spectroscopy of Pulsed Powered Microplasma for Surface Treatment of PEN Film

    Page(s): 1100 - 1108
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    Microplasma can be found in many applications. The technology is also used for surface treatment of polymers. The process of surface treatment by microplasma is environmental friendly, and it could be realized at low cost due to the relatively low discharge voltage (around 1 kV) even under atmospheric pressure and the small size of the power supply and reactor. This paper presents the surface treatment by microplasma of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) film using Ar gas and mixtures of Ar with N2 and O2. The microplasma process was analyzed by the emission spectroscopy method. An experimental Marx generator with MOSFET switches was used as a pulsed high-voltage power supply. The emission spectra were measured by an intensified charge coupled device camera, a spectrometer, and a photomultiplier tube. Surface wettability of the PEN film was confirmed by measuring the contact angle before and after the microplasma surface treatment. It was observed that the contact angle of the PEN film decreased, especially with the O2/Ar mixture. The analysis using an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer showed the decrease of C1s, which correspond to the C-H bond. The emission spectrum of the microplasma discharge in the N2/Ar mixture showed Ar peaks, OH peaks, N2 second positive band system peaks (N2 SPS), N2 first positive band system peaks ( N2 FPS), and decrease in the peak intensities of ArI and OH for microplasma discharge in the O2/Ar mixture. The lifetime emission signals for the N2 SPS for the microplasma discharge in 0.25% N2 in Ar were around 1 μs. The calculation of the microplasma rotational and electron temperatures shows low rotational and high electron temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Effects of Solution Conductivity on Electrospinning Process and Fiber Morphology

    Page(s): 1109 - 1117
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    The electrospinning process and morphology of electrospun nanofibers depend on many processing parameters. These parameters can be divided into three main groups: 1) solution properties; 2) processing conditions; and 3) ambient conditions. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive investigation of the effects of changing the conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)/water solution on the electrospinning process and fiber morphology. The effects of the conductivity of PEO solution on the jet current and jet path are discussed. Furthermore, the fiber diameter and fiber uniformity are investigated by using scanning electron microscopy techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Surface Potential Versus Electric Field Measurements Used to Characterize the Charging State of Nonwoven Fabrics

    Page(s): 1118 - 1125
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    Surface potential and electric field measurement techniques are widely used for the investigation of the corona charging of dielectric surfaces in a wide range of industry applications. The aim of this paper is to estimate which of these techniques are the most appropriate for characterizing the charging state of nonwoven fibrous dielectrics and point out the “noise factors” that might distort the results of the measurements. The experiments were performed on samples of nonwoven polypropylene sheets, in contact with or at a well-defined distance from a grounded plane electrode. The effect of the variability of the position of the probes with respect to the samples was also investigated. Several recommendations have been formulated regarding the use of these techniques for monitoring the charging state of nonwoven fabrics in industry applications. View full abstract»

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  • Speed and Flux Control of Induction Motors Using Emotional Intelligent Controller

    Page(s): 1126 - 1135
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    This paper presents a real-time implementation of an improved emotional controller for induction motor (IM) drives. The proposed controller is called brain-emotional-learning-based intelligent controller. The utilization of the new controller is based on the emotion-processing mechanism in the brain and is essentially an action selection, which is based on sensory inputs and emotional cues. This intelligent control is based on the limbic system of the mammalian brain. The controller is successfully implemented in real time using a PC-based three-phase 2.5-kW laboratory squirrel-cage IM. In this paper, a novel but simple model of the IM drive system is achieved by using the intelligent controller, which simultaneously controls the motor flux and speed. This emotional intelligent controller has a simple computational structure with high auto learning features. The proposed emotional controller has been experimentally implemented in a laboratory IM drive, and it shows good promise for niche industrial-scale utilization. View full abstract»

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  • New Strategies for Application of Adaptive Filters in Active Power Filters

    Page(s): 1136 - 1141
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    This paper describes new strategies to improve the transient response time of harmonic detection using adaptive filters applied to shunt active power filters. Two cases are presented and discussed, both using an adaptive notch filter, but one uses the least mean square algorithm to adjust the coefficients and the other uses the recursive least squares algorithm. The synchronization of the adaptive notch filter orthogonal input signals, which are generated by the Clarke transformation of the load currents, is achieved automatically without the need of a phase-locked loop. This procedure significantly reduces the real-time computation burden. Simulations using Matlab/Simulink are presented to clarify the algorithm, and practical implementation is performed using the DSP Texas Instruments TMS320F2812. The experimental results are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An Alternative Optical Method for Acoustic Resonance Detection in HID Lamps

    Page(s): 1142 - 1148
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    Acoustic resonances are observed in high-pressure discharge lamps operated with ac input modulated power frequencies in the kilohertz range. This paper describes an optical resonance detection method for high-intensity discharge lamps using computer-controlled cameras and image processing software. Experimental results showing acoustic resonances in high-pressure sodium lamps are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Family of Piezoelectric-Transformer-Based Bridgeless Continuous-Conduction-Mode Charge-Pump Power-Factor-Correction Electronic Ballasts

    Page(s): 1149 - 1158
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    This paper presents a family of the piezoelectric-transformer (PT)-based bridgeless continuous-conduction-mode (CCM) charge-pump (CP) power-factor-correction (PFC) electronic ballasts for a 32-W 4-ft linear fluorescent lamp, including the voltage-source (VS) type, current-source (CS) type, and VS-CS (VSCS) type. By replacing the LC resonant tank and high-voltage transformers in discrete CCM VS, CS, and VSCS CP-PFC electronic ballasts with PTs, the cost and volume can be reduced. The experimental results compare the presented electronic ballasts according to the performance of power factor, total harmonic distortion, crest factor, dc-bus voltage stress, and efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost System for Weld Tracking Based on Artificial Vision

    Page(s): 1159 - 1167
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (925 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A laser-stripe system for the automation of welding processes in heavy industries is presented. Conventional methods use human intervention. A new solution using only common usage computer components has been developed, offering at least the same quality of performance at a low price, making laser systems without human intervention attractive for cost sensitive applications in heavy industries. A new system that guarantees satisfactory tracking results even when the welding gap geometry varies strongly or is distorted by noise has been developed. View full abstract»

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  • Discomfort Glare Comparison for Various LED Cap Lamps

    Page(s): 1168 - 1174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are investigating different lighting technologies with the objective of improving mine safety. This paper presents the results from an ongoing study that compares discomfort glare for different light-emitting diode (LED) cap lamps using the de Boer glare rating scale. The cap lamps tested included two commercially-available LED cap lamps and one NIOSH prototype LED cap lamp tested at three different illumination levels. Prior research indicated that the NIOSH prototype enabled much better visual performance as compared to other LED cap lamps. It uses three LEDs that produce multiple illumination areas in comparison to commercially-available cap lamps that use one LED and projects a narrow spot pattern. Across subjects and cap lamp test conditions, measured illuminances (averaged at both eyes) varied from 0.62 to 3.73 lx, whereas the de Boer glare ratings varied from 4.86 to 7.71. An analysis of variance based on 15 subjects indicated a significant difference in the discomfort glare due to cap lamps (F4, 52 = 18.01, p <; 0.001). Post hoc tests indicate that one of the commercially available cap lamps exhibited lower discomfort scores, with no statistically significant differences detected between the others. Thus, the NIOSH prototype cap lamp does not cause excessive discomfort glare yet enables better visual performance. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Specific Energy to Shrink the Carbon Footprint in a Copper Electrowinning Facility

    Page(s): 1175 - 1179
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    Various technologies and strategies to reduce specific energy consumption are examined. Results include 16 harvest cycles for 30 cells, totaling 62 400 cathodes with a weight of 2500 ton. The industrial site was Zaldivar, which is a Barrick mining operation located at 175 km southeast from Antofagasta, Chile. The production averages 140 000 ton/year of copper cathodes. With the technologies tested in this paper, 14 000 MWh and corresponding 14 000 ton of CO2 will be saved per year. View full abstract»

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  • Power Transmission to Distant Offshore Facilities

    Page(s): 1180 - 1183
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    Supplying power to offshore oil platform facilities is a challenging task due to the high power demands and long distances involved. While it is possible to supply power by ac submarine transmission cable to a nearby offshore load, this becomes impractical for loads with long distances and/or high power demands. This paper examines technically and economically two alternatives for subsea transmission: high-voltage alternating current and high-voltage direct current (HVdc). The most effective solution is determined to supply approximately 530 MW of load for several proposed offshore fields (from a few kilometers up to 100 km from the shore). Additionally, this paper sheds some light on voltage source converter technology and how it positively impacts the HVdc setup and efficiency, improving the economics of supplying electrical power to offshore installations. View full abstract»

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  • Developing and Installing Substations for Oil and Gas Facilities in Very Cold and Remote Locations

    Page(s): 1184 - 1192
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    Oil and gas companies are venturing into colder, more remote locations in their search for attainable oil and gas reserves. In many instances, extracting these “harder to reach” reserves requires power intensive unconventional methods. Heaters, drill rigs, compressors, pumps, and other exploration and production equipment required for the exploration and production operations can amount to hundreds of megawatts. To supply these large loads, oil and gas companies are using electric power at higher voltage levels and installing their own transmission and distribution substations and, in some cases, their own transmission and distribution network. Historically, substation designs were based on previous engineering experience and knowledge. Given the challenges associated with frontier extreme weather locations, defaulting to traditional designs may be a flawed approach. This paper discusses different aspects to consider in the development and installation of remote high-voltage substations in very cold conditions, with emphasis on a few key criteria: personnel safety and environmental issues, reliability and availability, low maintenance, remote monitoring and control, equipment and material suitable for cold environment, and cost effectiveness. Other considerations such as unique end-user requirements, qualified labor resources, logistics challenges, and cost optimization will also be discussed. A methodology incorporating the aforementioned factors will be offered for selecting a substation solution for a large oil and gas facility in a cold and remote location. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Overvoltage Protection of Shore-to-Ship Power Supply System

    Page(s): 1193 - 1200
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    It is known that an unpredictable threat of transient overvoltage exists in a power system. Therefore, transient overvoltage protection analysis, commonly known as insulation coordination, should be performed to design cold-ironing power systems. This paper provides a review of the transient surge environment, transient overvoltage analysis, and the application of metal-oxide surge arresters at specific locations within the shore-to-ship power supply system to enhance transient overvoltage protection to minimize equipment damage. View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic Analysis and Multistage Filter Design for a Large Bleach Production Facility

    Page(s): 1201 - 1209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern sodium chlorate or sodium hypochlorite-making processes (commonly known as “bleach”) take salt and water through an electrolytic process. The electrolytic process requires a significant amount of dc power. Bleach production plants, equipped with rectifiers, can generate potentially damaging harmonic currents if not mitigated or controlled. This paper presents a combination of harmonic mitigation methods applied at a large bleach production facility. The harmonic mitigation methods consisted of transformer phase shifting and multistage harmonic filter banks applied at 34.5 kV to satisfy IEEE Standard 519-1992 harmonic distortion limits at the point of common coupling. The authors faced several challenges with the harmonic filter design that included various operating conditions within the facility as well as numerous utility substation loading and capacitor combinations. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Testing of a 45-MW 100-Hz Quadruple-Star Synchronous Motor for a Liquefied Natural Gas Turbo-Compressor Drive

    Page(s): 1210 - 1219
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    Over the last few decades, the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been pushing the development of electric drives with increasingly high power ratings, up to several tens of megawatts. A consolidated technology in this field entails dual-star two-pole synchronous motors fed by load-commutated inverters with supply frequencies between 50 and 80 Hz. This paper presents a novel drive concept for very high-power and high-performance LNG applications based on a 45-MW four-pole 100-Hz quadruple-star synchronous motor supplied by four pulsewidth modulation multilevel voltage source inverters. The genesis, development, and industrial implementation of this new design concept are outlined. Full-load drive system testing and commissioning results are presented which successfully validate the proposed solution. View full abstract»

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  • Applying High-Resistance Neutral Grounding in Medium-Voltage Systems

    Page(s): 1220 - 1231
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of high-resistance neutral grounding (HRNG) to medium-voltage (MV) distribution systems is one of the least understood and often misapplied methods of system neutral grounding. An HRNG grounded system is the only intentionally grounded neutral grounding method suitable for industrial systems that allows normal operation (no voltage dips, no power surges, no shutdowns, and minimal damage) for an indefinite time period after the inception of the most common of all faults, i.e., the single-line-to-ground fault. The complexity of applying an HRNG system is due to lesser understood factors, such as the relationship between system charging current, neutral grounding resistor let-through current, and point-of-fault ground-fault current; point-of-fault arcing voltage magnitudes; escalating arcing fault phenomena; and point-of-fault energy levels, all of which are not easily determined nor easily estimated. This paper addresses the application of HRNG neutral grounding systems on MV industrial ac power distribution systems. The seemingly perfect HRNG grounding system, with ground-fault-current magnitudes often limited to 10 A or less, has a limited window of application on MV systems, such that when misapplied may actually place the electrical system backbone components at risk, as well as trip the system offline due to escalating arcing faults resulting in phase-to-phase faults. HRNG applications in MV generator protection and MV arc flash mitigation are not within the scope of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Toward Practical Quantification of Induction Drive Mixed Eccentricity

    Page(s): 1232 - 1239
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    As far as industrial applications of induction drives are concerned, one of the most critical issues is the statement of acceptable mixed eccentricity degree and of other mechanical abnormal conditions. These troubles cause characteristic spectral components in several drive quantities, but for the sake of economy, monitoring the electrical quantities involved in drive control is preferable. Among them, current signals (i.e., motor current signature analysis) are the signals of choice for assessing the machine conditions, although no analytical link between the current signature and the eccentricity degree through machine parameters has ever been presented. Each trouble produces spectral lines at typical frequencies in the stator current: monitoring them is a usual procedure, but the threshold to discern acceptable intrinsic defects from alarming situations is hardly defined. This paper presents the formulation of a mixed eccentricity index developed through the interaction between static and dynamic eccentricities on stator windings and rotor cage. The index can be computed by a no- or mild-load test without spectral resolution problems, and it does not require any preliminary knowledge of machine health conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Torque Density and Efficiency Improvements of a Switched Reluctance Motor Without Rare-Earth Material for Hybrid Vehicles

    Page(s): 1240 - 1246
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    A machine design of a switched reluctance motor having competitive torque and efficiency as well as compactness with respect to an interior permanent-magnet (IPM) synchronous motor (IPMSM) in a hybrid electric vehicle (Toyota Prius 2003) has been investigated. A torque of 400 N·m is set as a target with an outer diameter of 269 mm with an axial length of 156 mm, including coil end lengths. In addition, a 50-kW field weakening capability must be competitive to the IPMSM. The highest efficiency of 95% is also aimed. Stator and rotor structures and iron material are investigated. Test machines are built. Static and light load tests are carried out. View full abstract»

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  • Permanent-Magnet Flux-Switching Integrated Starter Generator With Different Rotor Configurations for Cogging Torque and Torque Ripple Mitigations

    Page(s): 1247 - 1256
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    This paper investigates the cogging torque and torque ripple features of a permanent-magnet flux-switching integrated starter generator. The effects of the rotor pole arc width on the cogging torque, torque ripple, and output torque are first established using finite-element analysis (FEA). Three torque ripple reduction techniques based on the optimization of three different rotor pole configurations, namely, uniform, step skewed, and axial pairing, are then proposed. The torque characteristics of each rotor configuration at varying load currents and phase angles are studied in detail. A prototype machine with a common stator and the three optimized rotor configurations are built for experimental validation. Both the FEA results and the experimental tests show that the step skewed and axial pairing techniques can alleviate the cogging torque significantly, but the latter is less effective than the former in reducing the overall torque ripple. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Monitoring of Airgap Eccentricity for Inverter-Fed Induction Motors Under Standstill Conditions

    Page(s): 1257 - 1266
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    There are many limitations to applying online spectrum analysis techniques for diagnosis of closed-loop inverter-fed induction motors due to variable load or frequency operation, and the masking effect of the current regulator. In this paper, a new automated approach for testing inverter-fed induction machines for airgap eccentricity is proposed. The main concept is to use the inverter to excite the machine with a pulsating field at multiple angular positions to observe the variation of equivalent impedance due to eccentricity, whenever the motor is stopped. It is shown that the increase in the value of the equivalent (leakage) inductance under standstill excitation can be used as an indicator of increasing airgap eccentricity. Standstill testing can provide reliable assessment of eccentricity that is independent of variations in operating conditions, load interferences, or motor type. An experimental study on a 7.5-hp induction motor verifies that eccentricity can be detected with high sensitivity and reliability without additional hardware. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck