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Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Industrial Control

    Page(s): 161 - 162
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  • Decentralized Control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Page(s): 163 - 170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Environmental concerns and limited availability of natural resources have made solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) a promising alternative for large-scale electricity production. A control system is needed for SOFCs to meet operational objectives and ensure safe operation. Previous studies showed that the control of SOFC is challenging due to its slow response time, tight operating constraints and unavailability of some key measurements. In this work, simple yet reliable decentralized proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are systematically designed based on a benchmark nonlinear dynamic model of SOFC . The design procedure involves selection of controlled variables (CVs), input-output pairing selection, and PID controller tuning. For CV selection, a novel method is proposed such that maintaining the CVs at constant setpoints facilitates constraint satisfaction for all key variables. Closed-loop simulations demonstrate that the proposed decentralized PI controllers are able to closely meet the control objectives of SOFC even in the presence of changing operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Control of a Plastic Film Manufacturing Web Process

    Page(s): 171 - 178
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of a plastic film manufacturing process and the development and implementation of a model-based Cross-Directional (CD) controller. The model is derived from first-principles and some empirical relationships. The final validated nonlinear model could provide a useful offline platform for developing control and monitoring algorithms. A new controller is designed which has a similar structure to that of Internal Model Control (IMC) with the addition of an observer whose gain is designed to minimize process and model mismatch. The observer gain is obtained by solving a multiobjective optimization problem through the application of a genetic algorithm. The controller is applied to the nonlinear model and simulation results are presented demonstrating improvements that can be achieved by the proposed controller over two existing CD controllers. View full abstract»

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  • A Multidimensional Critical State Analysis for Detecting Intrusions in SCADA Systems

    Page(s): 179 - 186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (913 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A relatively new trend in Critical Infrastructures (e.g., power plants, nuclear plants, energy grids, etc.) is the massive migration from the classic model of isolated systems, to a system-of-systems model, where these infrastructures are intensifying their interconnections through Information and Communications Technology (ICT) means. The ICT core of these industrial installations is known as Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA). Traditional ICT security countermeasures (e.g., classic firewalls, anti-viruses and IDSs) fail in providing a complete protection to these systems since their needs are different from those of traditional ICT. This paper presents an innovative approach to Intrusion Detection in SCADA systems based on the concept of Critical State Analysis and State Proximity. The theoretical framework is supported by tests conducted with an Intrusion Detection System prototype implementing the proposed detection approach. View full abstract»

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  • A Virtual Metrology System for Predicting End-of-Line Electrical Properties Using a MANCOVA Model With Tools Clustering

    Page(s): 187 - 195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ability to predict end-of-line electrical properties of wafer in semiconductor manufacturing processes is critical to developing and maintaining a high yield. However, this is difficult because an advanced wafer manufacturing process consists of 300-400 steps, and in-line metrology data is only available for a few steps and for infrequently sampled wafers. Although a large amount of equipment sensor outputs are readily available for most wafers, most of the sensor variables may not be related to the end-of-line properties. Further, differences in end-of-line properties of wafers processed by tools of the same stage do not imply differences in the values of sensor variables between these tools. Thus, it is important to develop a reliable screening and model building procedure to construct a robust virtual metrology model with good generalization capability. Despite its simplicity, this approach is found to have significantly better generalization capability than nonlinear models, as well as substantial improvement in modeling and prediction capabilities of linear models that use only in-line metrology. The proposed method is also evaluated by an industrial application in a local fabrication unit. View full abstract»

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  • Integral-Square-Error Performance of Multiplexed Model Predictive Control

    Page(s): 196 - 203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well-known that faster sampling increases computational load but gives better performance. Multiplexed Model Predictive Control (MMPC) has been proposed recently. Its motivation was to reduce real-time computational load. The reduction in computational load can be used gainfully to increase sampling rate and improve performance. Hence, in this paper, we derive a formula to compute the Integral-Square-Error (ISE) performance of a MMPC controlled system. Given the plant and disturbance models, the ISE formula derived allows one to investigate how the ISE changes with control design parameters, such as the sampling interval and control weighting. This enables one to select, for example, a suitable sampling interval for the MMPC design to achieve the desired ISE performance. In addition, we validated the ISE formula on a multizone semiconductor manufacturing thermal process. View full abstract»

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  • DSP-Based Control of Grid-Connected Power Converters Operating Under Grid Distortions

    Page(s): 204 - 211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power electronic Grid-Connected Converters (GCCs) are widely applied as grid interface in renewable energy sources. This paper proposes an extended Direct Power Control with Space Vector Modulation (DPC-SVM) scheme with improved operation performance under grid distortions. The real-time operated DPC-SVM scheme has to execute several important tasks as: space vector pulse width modulation, active and reactive power feedback control, grid current harmonics and voltage dips compensation. Thus, development and implementation of the DPC-SVM algorithm using single chip floating-point microcontroller TMS320F28335 is described. It combines large peripheral equipment, typical for microcontrollers, with high computation capacity characteristic for Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). The novelty of the proposed system lies in extension of the generic DPC-SVM scheme by additional higher harmonic and voltage dips compensation modules and implementation of the whole algorithm in a single chip floating point microcontroller. Overview of the laboratory setup, description of basic algorithm subtasks sequence, software optimization as well as execution time of specific program modules on fixed-point and floating-point processors are discussed. Selected oscillograms illustrating operation and robustness of the developed algorithm used in 5 kVA laboratory model of the GCC are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Variable Structure Systems With Sliding Modes in Motion Control—A Survey

    Page(s): 212 - 223
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    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the application of Variable Structure Systems (VSSs) with Sliding Mode (SM) methods in motion control systems. Our aim is to give implementable sliding mode design solutions for complex motion systems, actuators and supply converters. This paper provides a frame for further study of sliding mode applications in motion control systems. View full abstract»

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  • FPGAs in Industrial Control Applications

    Page(s): 224 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies and their contribution to industrial control applications. Authors start by addressing various research fields which can exploit the advantages of FPGAs. The features of these devices are then presented, followed by their corresponding design tools. To illustrate the benefits of using FPGAs in the case of complex control applications, a sensorless motor controller has been treated. This controller is based on the Extended Kalman Filter. Its development has been made according to a dedicated design methodology, which is also discussed. The use of FPGAs to implement artificial intelligence-based industrial controllers is then briefly reviewed. The final section presents two short case studies of Neural Network control systems designs targeting FPGAs. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Embedded System Design for Industrial Applications

    Page(s): 244 - 254
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a survey on embedded systems design and applications. Several platforms for embedded systems, including microcontrollers, microprocessors, field-programmable gate arrays, digital signal processors, and application-specific integrated circuits are discussed and compared. A survey of embedded system-based industrial applications is presented. Examples of real-life design decisions specific to development of such systems are also presented. The carefully selected three design case study examples include industrial control of wind tunnel with emphasis on actuator control, a mobile robot navigation system with emphasis on integration and synchronization of several subsystems, and optimized implementation of computationally intensive control system on a small microcontroller system. View full abstract»

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  • Managing Process Model Complexity via Concrete Syntax Modifications

    Page(s): 255 - 265
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While Business Process Management (BPM) is an established discipline, the increased adoption of BPM technology in recent years has introduced new challenges. One challenge concerns dealing with the ever-growing complexity of business process models. Mechanisms for dealing with this complexity can be classified into two categories: 1) those that are solely concerned with the visual representation of the model and 2) those that change its inner structure. While significant attention is paid to the latter category in the BPM literature, this paper focuses on the former category. It presents a collection of patterns that generalize and conceptualize various existing mechanisms to change the visual representation of a process model. Next, it provides a detailed analysis of the degree of support for these patterns in a number of state-of-the-art languages and tools. This paper concludes with the results of a usability evaluation of the patterns conducted with BPM practitioners. View full abstract»

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  • Precise Position/Force Hybrid Control With Modal Mass Decoupling and Bilateral Communication Between Different Structures

    Page(s): 266 - 276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we achieve haptic communication between different structures. In haptic communication, tactile sensation is transmitted to a remote place by cooperating robots. Conventional haptic communication is implemented under the assumption that the masses of the actuators are equal. We have found that haptic communication system is a kind of position/force hybrid control system and that it is not necessary to follow that assumption. In addition, exact modeling of haptic communication system and decoupling of tasks are essential for highly precise haptic communication. First, we describe the kinetic and dynamic behaviors of haptic communication system for cardiac surgery. The deterioration of haptic performance is shown to depend on an interference term, due to off-diagonal parameters in the modal mass matrix. Second, we propose a novel hybrid controller for the decoupling of the responses, and we analyze its performance, stability, and robustness. Simulations and experiments toward cardiac surgery are shown, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost Dual Rotating Infrared Sensor for Mobile Robot Swarm Applications

    Page(s): 277 - 286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel low-cost position detection prototype from practical design to implementation of its control schemes. This prototype is designed to provide mobile robot swarms with advanced sensing capabilities in an efficient, cost-effective way. From the observation of bats' foraging behaviors, the prototype with a particular emphasis on variable rotation range and speed, as well as 360° observation capability has been developed. The prototype also aims at giving each robot reliable information about identification of neighboring robots from objects and their positions. For this purpose, an observation algorithm-based sensor is proposed. The implementation details are explained, and the effectiveness of the control schemes is verified through extensive experiments. The sensor provides real-time location of stationary targets positioned 100 cm away within an average error of 2.6 cm. Moreover, experimental results show that the prototype observation capability can be quite satisfactory for practical use of mobile robot swarms. View full abstract»

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  • Model-Based Verification and Estimation Framework for Dynamically Partially Reconfigurable Systems

    Page(s): 287 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unified Modeling Language (UML), an industry de-facto standard, has been used to analyze dynamically partially reconfigurable systems (DPRS) that can reconfigure their hardware functionalities on-demand at runtime. To make model-driven architecture (MDA) more realistic and applicable to the DPRS design in an industrial setting, a model-based verification and estimation (MOVE) framework is proposed in this work. By taking advantage of the inherent features of DPRS and considering real-time system requirements, a semiautomatic model translator converts the UML models of DPRS into timed automata models with transition urgency semantics for model checking. Furthermore, a UML-based hardware/software co-design platform (UCoP) is proposed to support the direct interaction between the UML models and the real hardware architecture. The two-phase verification process, including exhaustive functional verification and physical-aware performance estimation, is completely model-based, thus reducing system verification efforts. We used a dynamically partially reconfigurable network security system (DPRNSS) as a case study. The related experiments have demonstrated that the model checker in MOVE can alleviate the impact of the state-space-explosion problem. Compared to the synthesis-based estimation method having inaccuracies ranging from -43.4% to 18.4%, UCoP can provide accurate and efficient platform-specific verification and estimation through actual time measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Partitioning Real-Time Applications Over Multicore Reservations

    Page(s): 302 - 315
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (869 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A full exploitation of the computational power available in a multicore platform requires the software to be specified in terms of parallel execution flows. At the same time, modern embedded systems often consist of more parallel applications with timing requirements, concurrently executing on the same platform and sharing common resources. To prevent reciprocal interference among critical activities, a resource reservation mechanism is highly desired in the kernel to achieve temporal isolation. In this paper, we propose a general methodology for abstracting the total computing power available on a multicore platform by a set of virtual processors, to allocate applications independently of the physical platform. The application, described as a set of tasks with precedence relations expressed by a directed acyclic graph, is automatically partitioned into a set of subgraphs that are selected to minimize either the overall bandwidth consumption or the required number of cores. View full abstract»

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  • Communication Infrastructures for Distributed Control of Power Distribution Networks

    Page(s): 316 - 327
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    Power distribution networks with distributed generators (DGs) can exhibit complex operational regimes which makes conventional management approaches no longer adequate. This paper looks into key communication infrastructure design aspects, and analyzes two representative evolution cases of Active Network Management (ANM) for distributed control. Relevant standard initiatives, communication protocols and technologies are introduced and underlying engineering challenges are highlighted. By analyzing two representative case networks (meshed and radial topologies) at different voltage levels (33 and 11 kV), this paper discusses the design considerations and presents performance results based on numerical simulations. This study focuses on the key role of the telecommunications provision when upgrading and deploying distributed control solutions, as part of future ANM systems. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable Offline Optimization of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 328 - 339
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    Sensor networks are increasingly used to control and monitor industrial and manufacturing processes. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a cost function for wireless sensor networks of this kind under energy consumption constraints. We focus, in particular, on the problem of coverage optimization through scheduling. Following existing approaches, we use a mixed integer linear program formulation. We show how to use partitioning techniques to decompose the problem into separate subproblems, solved individually, overcoming the exponential complexity typical of integer linear programming, while minimizing the loss in optimality. In addition, we evaluate the achieved degree of optimality by computing relatively tight bounds with respect to the optimal solution. Finally, we employ simple but effective heuristics to further improve our solution. The results show that our procedure is very efficient and scalable, and is able to find solutions that are very close to optimal. These characteristics make our approach a perfect fit for large and fixed deployments of wireless sensors, typical in factory automation and industrial applications. To show the generality of the approach, we apply our methodology to three different models of varying complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Library Support in an Actor-Based Parallel Programming Platform

    Page(s): 340 - 353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2030 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Actor model-based design is actively researched for parallel embedded SW design since the model exposes the potential parallelism explicitly in an architecture-neutral form. In most actor-oriented models, actors are self-contained and data channels are the only sharable object between actors, and they compose a system in a flat layer. In contrast, it is common to use shared library functions and construct vertically layered software for efficiency and modularity. To fill this gap between modeling and implementation, we propose a special actor, library task, with new types of ports: library master port and library slave port. It is a sharable and mappable object that defines a set of function interfaces inside. N:1 master-slave connection allows sharing a library task and the master-slave connection can specify vertically layered software and client-server applications naturally. To support the library task in our embedded software design environment, we develop an automatic mapping algorithm as well as an automatic code generator. The design environment with the library task is applied for two target platforms: IBM CELL Broad band Engine and an ARM-based multicore simulator. Preliminary experiments show that the special actor, or library task, extends the expression power of the previous actor model with efficiently generated codes. View full abstract»

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  • Neural Network Assisted Computationally Simple PI ^\lambda D ^\mu Control of a Quadrotor UAV

    Page(s): 354 - 361
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) require robust control schemes that can alleviate disturbances such as model mismatch, wind disturbances, measurement noise, and the effects of changing electrical variables, e.g., the loss in the battery voltage. Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) type controller with noninteger order derivative and integration is proposed as a remedy. This paper demonstrates that a neural network can be trained to provide the coefficients of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type approximator, that approximates to the response of a given analog PIλDμ controller having time varying action coefficients and differintegration orders. The results obtained show that the neural network aided FIR type controller is very successful in driving the vehicle to prescribed trajectories accurately. The response of the proposed scheme is highly similar to the response of the target PIλDμ controller and the computational burden of the proposed scheme is very low. View full abstract»

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  • Item-Level RFID in a Retail Supply Chain With Stock-Out-Based Substitution

    Page(s): 362 - 370
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    In this paper, we present a model to help evaluate the impact of an introduction of item-level radio-frequency identification (RFID) in a retail environment where stock-out-based substitution is common. There are two main thrust areas in this work. First, we examine the impact of RFID in a centralized setting where retailer and manufacturer are one entity. This thrust area is concerned with evaluating the profitability of RFID and exploring which product properties favor an RFID implementation. Second, we examine the impact of RFID in a decentralized setting, where retailer and manufacturer independently maximize their profits. We investigate the problem of sharing the costs of RFID, from both the perspective of tag costs and fixed costs. Our research shows that the presence of substitution at the shelf plays a major role in determining the expected benefits of an RFID implementation, as well as in determining the optimal allocation of these benefits among retailer and manufacturer. It is therefore critically important that decision makers make strong efforts to correctly account for subsitution effects when evaluating potential item-level RFID implementations in the retail sector. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Data-Driven Modeling Approach for Real-Time Final Product Quality Prediction in Batch Process Operation

    Page(s): 371 - 377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Making on-specification products is a primary goal, and also a challenge in chemical batch process operation. Due to the uncertainty of raw materials and instability of operating conditions, it may not produce the desired on-spec final product. It would be helpful if one can predict the product quality during each operation, so that one can make adjustments to process conditions in order to make on-spec product. This paper addresses the issue of real-time prediction of final product quality during a batch operation. First, a data-driven modeling approach is presented. This multimodel approach uses available process information up to the current points to capture their time-varying relationships with the final product quality during the course of operation, so that the prognosis of product quality can be obtained in real-time. Then, due to its data-driven nature, the focus is given on how to make the models robust in order to eliminate the effect of noise, especially, outliers in the data. A model-based outlier detection method is presented. The proposed approach is applied to a generic chemical batch case study, with its prediction performance being evaluated. View full abstract»

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    Page(s): 378
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    Page(s): 379
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Aims & Scope

Knowledge in the IST (Information Society Technologies) field envisions a technology bifurcation in the field of intelligent automation systems and real-time middle-ware technologies in the next 5-10 years. The scope of the journal considers the industry’s transition towards more knowledge-based production and systems organization and considers production from a more holistic perspective, encompassing not only hardware and software, but also people and the way in which they learn and share knowledge. The journal focuses on the following main topics: Flexible, collaborative factory automation, Distributed industrial control and computing paradigms, Internet-based monitoring and control systems, Real-time control software for industrial processes, Java and Jini in industrial environments, Control of wireless sensors and actuators, Systems interoperability and human machine interface.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Kim F. Man
City University of Hong Kong