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Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial for May 2011 Issue

    Page(s): 185 - 188
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  • Economic Evaluation Model for International Standardization of Correlated Technologies

    Page(s): 189 - 198
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Standardization is becoming increasingly important, and therefore firms need to begin planning for standardization as early as the R&D stage. While the costs of implementing early standardization are high and have a low probability of success, the potential benefits can greatly exceed the initial costs if the project is successfully managed. In cases of correlated technologies, the degree of uncertainty for implementing standardization is greatly increased; however, correlated technologies can result in a larger benefit and lower cost when they are jointly developed with standardization in mind from the beginning. In this study, we propose an economic evaluation model to analyze both the benefits and costs of correlated technology development and standardization, utilizing the concept of cost-of-ownership model. We also apply the proposed model to a realistic case and perform sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of various parameter settings. This study is expected to contribute to a more accurate evaluation of the economic value of standardization. View full abstract»

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  • Market Information Processing in New Product Development: The Importance of Process Interdependency and Data Quality

    Page(s): 199 - 211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While there is a growing interest in the role of market information processing activities (i.e., the acquisition, dissemination, and use of market information) in new product development (NPD), a number of gaps remain in our knowledge on this topic. When investigating the performance impact of market information processing, most studies have treated the three activities as independent. Our research adds to the extant knowledge by exploring not only both direct relationships between each of the market information processing activities and new product performance, but also interaction effects. We, thus, ask the question of whether there may be synergies in obtaining performance increases by jointly improving two processing activities, rather than just considering each activity independently. In addition, we investigate these effects for different levels of information quality; a topic largely neglected in the market information processing literature. Our analysis is based on empirical data from 152 Dutch NPD projects. The results indicate that market information acquisition and use are both directly associated with increased performance. We also find significant interaction effects for information acquisition and dissemination, and for information dissemination and use. Finally, the importance of information quality is emphasized, with lower quality information producing lower performance and wiping out the effects between various aspects of market information processing and new product performance. We provide several implications of our findings for managers and academics. View full abstract»

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  • The Impact of Technology Transfer Office Characteristics on University Invention Disclosure

    Page(s): 212 - 227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors examine faculty disclosure of inventions, which is an important precursor of university licensing. The authors hypothesize that invention disclosure (ID) is an increasing function of R&D expenditures, faculty size, faculty quality, royalty share, and technology transfer office (TTO) independence from university funding. The authors also argue that, because TTO size is a measure of TTO agent research expertise, large TTOs should be able to build stronger relationships with a broader range of faculty, which should attract more faculties to disclose inventions. In addition, the creation of such strong TTO-faculty relationships requires tacit knowledge of faculty skills, interests, and motivations, and the acquisition of this knowledge takes time. Thus, TTO age should also positively influence ID. Analysis of data from 123 TTOs indicates that the number of IDs is positively related with federal R&D expenditures and TTO size, and negatively related with TTO funding independence. In contrast, faculty size, royalty share to inventors, and TTO age are positively and significantly correlated with the number of IDs only among universities with small TTOs, while faculty quality is positively and significantly correlated with the number of IDs only among universities with large TTOs. View full abstract»

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  • Forecasting the Diffusion of Innovation: A Stochastic Bass Model With Log-Normal and Mean-Reverting Error Process

    Page(s): 228 - 249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Forecasting the diffusion of innovations plays a major role in managing technology development and in engineering management overall. In this paper, we extend the conventional Bass model stochastically by specifying the error process of sales as log-normal and mean-reverting. Our model satisfies the following reasonable properties, which are generally ignored in the existing literature: sales cannot be negative, the error process can have a memory, and sales fluctuate more when they are high and less when they are low. The conventional and widely used model that assumes normally distributed error term does not have these properties. We address how to forecast properly under the log-normal and mean-reverting error process, and show analytically and numerically that in our extended model sales forecasts can substantially alter conventional Bass forecasts. We also analyze the model empirically, showing that our extension can improve the accuracy of future sales forecasts. View full abstract»

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  • Who Can Cultivate University Ties More in China? A Local Firm or a Foreign Firm?

    Page(s): 250 - 261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    University ties are an important innovation resource for both foreign direct investment (FDI) firms and local firms. Since these university connections involve local personal ties, which are established through long-term efforts that require social and cultural embeddedness, it is probably more difficult for FDI firms to establish such ties than it is for local firms. However, FDI firms, which have two advantages, size and R&D capacity, can possibly compensate for that disadvantage. This paper contributes to the current innovation and international business literature by comparing the effect of university ties on innovation between local firms and FDI firms due to their heterogeneous resources and capabilities. Specifically, this paper examines the joint influence of university ties, R&D capacity, and firm size in both FDI firms and local firms in China. The results show that R&D capacity and firm size have different moderating effects on FDI firms and local firms, suggesting that internal capability and external personal relationship with universities are substitutes in local firms but complementary in FDI firms. Our results are relevant for practicing managers because they show that acquiring the knowledge in universities is contingent on firm characteristics as well as ownership types. View full abstract»

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  • Globally Radical Technologies and Locally Radical Technologies: The Role of Audiences in the Construction of Innovative Impact in Biotechnology

    Page(s): 262 - 274
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We argue that the decision of inventors to build upon a pioneering technology is a function not just of technical merit but also of social forces. The identification of technological predecessors in the patenting process (i.e., prior art) goes beyond merely delineating legal boundaries of a technological claim; the act, we posit, also provides a roadmap for potential inventors to follow. Thus, in technologies where such a roadmap does not exist (i.e., “new to the world” technologies), innovative impact is stifled as compared to technologies where such roadmaps are preserved (i.e., “new to the firm” technologies). To build our story, we distinguish between two types of radical technologies-globally radical technologies (GRTs) and locally radical technologies (LRTs)-and juxtapose them in an exploration of the technology's cumulative impact of entrepreneurial firm invention. Results from a negative binomial regression analysis of inventions in the U.S.-based biotechnology industry show that LRTs are far more likely to be cited in the long run than GRTs, as hypothesized. View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing Component Importance in Multifunction Multicapability Systems Developmental Maturity Assessment

    Page(s): 275 - 294
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, a system maturity scale, i.e., system readiness level (SRL), was proposed to measure the maturity that a system achieves during development. However, this SRL assesses maturity for systems from only a single function and capability perspective, and is unable to assess maturity for multifunction multicapability (MFMC) systems. With ever increasing systems that provide multiple functions and capabilities, it is challenging for managers to properly allocate resources to ensure the achievement of critical capabilities and functions. In order to prioritize the allocation of resources for component development, it is common to perform importance analysis during system development and maintenance. Therefore, this paper first enhances the original SRL definition for maturity assessment at the capability, function, and system levels, and then, proposes the use of component importance analysis for the identification of the most important components for system development. This paper approaches component importance by introducing three important measures with respects to three main factors: technology readiness level/integration readiness level, developing cost, and developing effort. The paper uses an illustrative example of a MFMC system to show the proposed methodology and enhanced definitions and concludes with a discussion of the added value and future work. View full abstract»

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  • The Organizational Design of Large R&D Collaborations and Its Effect on Time and Budget Efficiency: The Contrast Between Blueprints and Reality

    Page(s): 295 - 306
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Organizing large R&D collaborations in such a way as to maximize time and budget efficiency often seems to be an impossible proposition. Our study addresses this phenomenon by investigating two large R&D collaborations in the aerospace industry, whereas previous studies have typically investigated the formally ascribed design interfaces and the informal communication networks from separate viewpoints, we integrate these two perspectives and examine the structure and alignment of both. In our study, two large R&D collaborations were examined involved in the development of telescopes for the space industry. Our empirical analyses result in three important findings. First, the informal networks in both large R&D collaborations are far more dense than the formal networks and the alignment between formal and informal networks in large R&D collaborations is rather small. Second, network efficiency is far higher in the formal network than in the informal network, and third, investigating the effect of the units' network efficiency on time and budget efficiency, we find that both are positively impacted by the network efficiency of units in large R&D collaborations. Our findings also indicate that informal networks can be managed toward higher time and budget efficiency by way of various team sizes, and especially, the formal positioning of units. View full abstract»

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  • Assessing the Effectiveness of Quality Management in a Global Context

    Page(s): 307 - 322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Manufacturers are faced with growing obstacles to quality coordination and assurance, as illustrated by the recent quality failures for toy cars and pet food. The objective of this paper is to contribute insight into these obstacles based on the theoretical domain of competitive capability progression (CCP), as well as the related concept of performance frontiers. Four hypotheses are developed and tested with data collected in a worldwide survey of manufacturing plants. In order to provide a relevant context for both CCP and the theory of performance frontiers, we focus on two sets of countries: more recently industrialized economies in Asia (China, Taiwan, South Korea), and long-standing industrialized economies in Western Europe (Germany, Finland, Italy, Sweden). We analyze the effectiveness of quality management in these two groups in terms of their impact on perceived and actual quality performance, and offer explanations for the difficulties that exist in global quality management. Our findings stress the importance of having a common understanding of what defines good quality across plants globally. Contributions to both theory and practice are highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Network Structures and Online Technology Adoption

    Page(s): 323 - 333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (805 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    How do social network structures influence online technology adoption? As few studies have examined the impact of social network structures on technology adoption, especially with regard to online teams deciding what technology to adopt, the answer to this question has remained elusive. In this research, we argue that comembership is one of the most important mechanisms through which online social networks are built and online network structures emerge. We further test the magnitude of the influence of network structures on technology adoption in virtual workspaces. We focus on three key network structure variables: network centrality, network closure, and network brokerage. We argue that network centrality and network brokerage are positively related to online technology adoption, yet network closure has the opposite impact. To illustrate our theory and test the hypotheses, we build online social networks using open-source software development data and examine the adoption of the latest software version control technology. Methodologically, we address the heterogeneity and simultaneity issues between network structures and adoption behavior; thus, we show a compelling relationship between network structures and online technology adoption. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Empowerment on Performance in Open-Source Software Projects

    Page(s): 334 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enduring issue that intrigues researchers and practitioners in open-source software (OSS) development is what motivates individuals to participate and make contributions, given the lack of numerating mechanisms. Amidst several end-state-focused motives advocated by prior studies (such as improved programming skills and future career growth), we add that an important contributing factor is empowerment , the positive feelings derived from task assessments in OSS projects. Through survey data collected from 233 OSS participants, we assess how components of psychological empowerment (i.e., autonomy, competence, meaningfulness, and impact) derived from OSS tasks may affect the work output of participants. In particular, we demonstrate that competence and impact have a positive influence on OSS participants' performance, while autonomy and meaningfulness have a slightly negative influence on performance. In addition, empowerment's effects on performance can be mediated by effort expended. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of this study are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Achieving High Robustness in Supply Distribution Networks by Rewiring

    Page(s): 347 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new rewiring approach for distribution networks called randomized local rewiring (RLR). We evaluate the robustness of original and rewired distribution networks using new metrics and show that the choice of a network topology can affect its robustness considerably. Some supply and distribution networks exhibit characteristics similar to those of scale-free networks. Simulation results show that applying RLR to such distribution networks can improve the network robustness on the supply availability and network connectivity metrics when both random and targeted disruptions are likely to occur. A unique feature of our model is a tunable rewiring parameter, which makes it possible to design networks with the same performance on the supply availability, network connectivity, and average delivery efficiency metrics in the presence of both types of disruptions. This paper will describe the robustness metrics and the new approach, illustrate the experimental results in the context of a military logistic and a retailer's distribution network, and discuss the insights gained about choosing the right topology for achieving higher robustness. View full abstract»

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  • Social Competency and New Product Development Performance

    Page(s): 363 - 376
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previous studies have fruitfully investigated the success factors of new product development. Most of these studies explored the phenomenon from the firm/team level. Little has been done from the perspective of how individuals within new product teams contribute to new product development (NPD) and its performance. Yet, any organizational output should be imputable to specific individuals, and understanding the various individuals' respective contributions is paramount to explaining the collective outcome. In this study, we explore the role of social competency of individual members of teams in the NPD process. Our results show that individuals within NPD teams having social competency are social architects who understand and can successfully manage the interaction between organizational and behavioral variables. We find that social competency is a reliable predictor of new product performance. Also, we find that learning is both a mediating and moderating variable, while technological competency and market knowledge are moderators of social competency in its relationship to NPD performance. The implication is that firms should take individual characteristic variables such as social competency into consideration when they develop and commercialize product innovations. View full abstract»

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  • Project-Scheduling Problem With Random Time-Dependent Activity Duration Times

    Page(s): 377 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce a random time-dependent project -scheduling problem (RTPSP), in which activity duration times are represented as randomness as well as time dependence. Under these circumstances, the resulting RTPSP is far more complex when compared with existing project-scheduling problems. The complexity stems identifying the critical path, a core issue when dealing with project-scheduling problems. Considering the critical path, we first show that using “standard” path algorithms (e.g., the well-known Dijkstra method) are not able to arrive at solutions. Subsequently, we propose an approach of handling the critical path of RTPSP. Next, we formulate the RTPSP and present three stochastic-programming models to address various requirements arising within this framework. The proposed models are handled through techniques that combine mechanisms of stochastic simulation and genetic optimization. Stochastic simulation is exploited here to estimate the value of uncertain functions that do not exist in the general project-scheduling problems. Numerical experiments are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Journal subscription information

    Page(s): 388
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  • Forthcoming Engineering Management Related Conferences

    Page(s): 389 - 391
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  • Papers to be Published in Future Issues of IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management

    Page(s): 391 - 392
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  • 2011 IEEE international technology management conference (ITMC 2011)

    Page(s): 393
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  • May 2011 IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management - readership survey

    Page(s): 394 - 395
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  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org [advertisement]

    Page(s): 396
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  • IEEE Engineering Management Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management information for authors

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas