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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2011

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • A Decomposition-Based Approach to Linear Time-Periodic Distributed Control of Satellite Formations

    Page(s): 481 - 492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing a distributed controller for a formation of spacecraft following a periodic orbit. Each satellite is controlled locally on the basis of information from only a subset of the others (the nearest ones). We describe the dynamics of each spacecraft by means of a linear time-periodic (LTP) approximation, and we cast the satellite formation into a state-space formulation that facilitates control synthesis. Our technique exploits a novel modal decomposition of the state-space model and uses linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) for suboptimal control design of distributed controllers with guaranteed H performance for formations of any size. The application of the method is shown in two case studies. The first example is inspired by a mission in a low, sun-synchronous Earth orbit, namely the new Dutch-Chinese Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration mission (FAST), which is now in the preliminary design phase. The second example deals with a formation of spacecraft in a halo orbit. View full abstract»

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  • Straight Line Path Following for Formations of Underactuated Marine Surface Vessels

    Page(s): 493 - 506
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1072 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of formation control and path following for underactuated 3-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) marine surface vessels is considered. The proposed decentralized controller makes the vessels asymptotically constitute a desired formation that follows a given straight line path with a given forward speed profile. The controller consists of a cross-track control law, based on line-of-sight guidance, and a nonlinear synchronization control law. The closed-loop dynamics of both the cross-track errors and the synchronization errors are analyzed in detail using nonlinear cascaded systems theory and the overall cascaded system is shown to be both uniformly globally asymptotically stable and uniformly globally exponentially stable under mild assumptions. The proposed control strategy is validated in experiments in both calm water and in waves using a scale model vessel. View full abstract»

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  • A Two-Stage Online Prediction Method for a Blast Furnace Gas System and Its Application

    Page(s): 507 - 520
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1353 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The byproduct gas in steel industry is one of the most significant energy resources of an enterprise. Due to the large quantity of yield, fluctuation, and various categories of users encountered in a blast furnace gas (BFG) system, it is very difficult to accurately predict the amount of gas to be generated and forecast the users' consumption demand. In this paper, a two-stage online prediction method based on an improved echo state network (ESN) is proposed to realize forecasting in the BFG system. In this method, one completes the prediction realized at the levels of BFG generation and consumption using a class of ESN with input compensation and parameter optimization. At the second stage, to predict gas holder level of the BFG system, the energy flows being predicted at the first stage are denoised, and their correlation with the holder level are determined by using a concept of grey correlation with time delay. Then the effect factors exhibiting high correlation levels are extracted to construct the model of the gas holder. The prediction system designed in this manner is applied in the Energy Center of Baosteel Co., Ltd, China. The results demonstrate that the prediction system exhibits high accuracy and can provide an effective guidance for balancing and scheduling of the byproduct energy. View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic Control Arrays Method With a Real Time Application to Periodic Position Control

    Page(s): 521 - 530
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (563 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel method is presented for systems with periodic references and/or disturbances by employing controllers in an array structure for each dispersed harmonic components. The method is based on automatically and appropriately setting the complex levels of the harmonic components of the control signal. Both computer simulation and real time experimental results are presented to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Control of a Hybrid Two-Component Development Process for Xerography

    Page(s): 531 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Development is one of the six key steps in xerographic printing processes. Under certain printing conditions, the “deveopability” of the toner particles tends to degrade resulting in a loss of image quality. Existing process controls have limited authority in compensating for this degradation, and, ultimately, a service operation may be required to install fresh toner. From a customer perspective, this machine maintenance results in productivity loss and added cost, both of which need to be minimized. In this paper, a control oriented model that characterizes “developability loss” is derived from an experimentally validated comprehensive statistical model. The resulting model considers the stress case of printing “low area coverage” documents (e.g., text pages) in a low relative humidity environment, and it maps the development voltage and toner dispensing rate actuators to the developed toner mass per unit area, which is the sensed output and is also used as a surrogate for print quality. Under these operating conditions, system analysis shows that developability loss is unavoidable. Given this result, a constrained time optimal control problem is formulated to determine the dispensing strategy to maximize the printer operating time while maintaining acceptable developability. Numerical solution shows that for the stress operating condition leading to developability loss, the optimal dispensing strategy increased the operating time by 170% compared with a conventional dispensing strategy. View full abstract»

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  • A Stochastic Optimal Control Approach for Power Management in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Page(s): 545 - 555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the problem of optimally splitting driver power demand among the different actuators (i.e., the engine and electric machines) in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Existing studies focus mostly on optimizing PHEV power management for fuel economy, subject to charge sustenance constraints, over individual drive cycles. This paper adds three original contributions to this literature. First, it uses stochastic dynamic programming to optimize PHEV power management over a distribution of drive cycles, rather than a single cycle. Second, it explicitly trades off fuel and electricity usage in a PHEV, thereby systematically exploring the potential benefits of controlled charge depletion over aggressive charge depletion followed by charge sustenance. Finally, it examines the impact of variations in relative fuel-to-electricity pricing on optimal PHEV power management. The paper focuses on a single-mode power-split PHEV configuration for mid-size sedans, but its approach is extendible to other configurations and sizes as well. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Multi-Objective Vehicular Adaptive Cruise Control

    Page(s): 556 - 566
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel vehicular adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can comprehensively address issues of tracking capability, fuel economy and driver desired response. A hierarchical control architecture is utilized in which a lower controller compensates for nonlinear vehicle dynamics and enables tracking of desired acceleration. The upper controller is synthesized under the framework of model predictive control (MPC) theory. A quadratic cost function is developed that considers the contradictions between minimal tracking error, low fuel consumption and accordance with driver dynamic car-following characteristics while driver longitudinal ride comfort, driver permissible tracking range and rear-end safety are formulated as linear constraints. Employing a constraint softening method to avoid computing infeasibility, an optimal control law is numerically calculated using a quadratic programming algorithm. Detailed simulations with a heavy duty truck show that the developed ACC system provides significant benefits in terms of fuel economy and tracking capability while at the same time also satisfying driver desired car following characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Hydraulic Manipulators With Accurate Parameter Estimates

    Page(s): 567 - 575
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a general direct adaptive robust control (DARC) framework, the emphasis is always on the guaranteed transient performance and accurate trajectory tracking in presence of uncertain nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties. Such a direct algorithm suffers from lack of modularity, controller-estimator inseparability, and poor convergence of parameter estimates. In the DARC design the parameters are estimated by gradient law with the sole purpose of reducing tracking error, which is typical of a Lyapunov-type design. However, when the controller-estimator module is expected to assist in secondary purposes such as health monitoring and fault detection, the requirement of having accurate online parameter estimates is as important as the need for the smaller tracking error. In this paper, we consider the trajectory tracking of a robotic manipulator driven by electro-hydraulic actuators. The controller is constructed based on the indirect adaptive robust control (IARC) framework with necessary design modifications required to accommodate uncertain and nonsmooth nonlinearities of the hydraulic system. The online parameter estimates are obtained through a parameter adaptation algorithm that is based on physical plant dynamics rather than the tracking error dynamics. While the new controller preserves the nice properties of the DARC design such as prescribed output tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy, more accurate parameter estimates are obtained for prognosis and diagnosis purpose. Comparative experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Ultracapacitor Assisted Powertrains: Modeling, Control, Sizing, and the Impact on Fuel Economy

    Page(s): 576 - 589
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1934 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers modeling and energy management control problems for an automotive powertrain augmented with an ultracapacitor and an induction motor. The ultracapacitor-supplied motor assists the engine during periods of high power demand. The ultracapacitor may be recharged via regeneration during braking and by the engine during periods of low power demand. A reduced-order model and a detailed simulation model of the powertrain are created for control design and evaluation of fuel economy, respectively. A heuristic rule-based controller is used for testing the impact of different component combinations on fuel economy. After a suitable combination of engine, motor, and ultracapacitor sizes has been determined, a model predictive control strategy is created for power management which achieves better fuel economy than the rule-based approach. Various component sizing and control strategies tested consistently indicate a potential for 5% to 15% improvement in fuel economy in city driving with the proposed mild hybrid powertrain. This order of improvement to fuel economy was confirmed by deterministic dynamic programming which finds the best possible fuel economy. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative Learning Control for Multiple Point-to-Point Tracking Application

    Page(s): 590 - 600
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers a general class of linear iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm applied to tracking tasks which require the plant output to reach given points at predetermined time instants, without the specification of intervening reference points. A framework is developed in the frequency-domain in which the reference is updated between trials. It is shown that superior convergence and robustness properties are obtained compared with those associated with using the original class of ILC algorithm to track a prescribed arbitrary reference trajectory satisfying the point-to-point output constraints. Experimental results using a non-minimum phase test facility are presented to illustrate the theoretical findings. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Rotor Position and Speed of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Guaranteed Stability

    Page(s): 601 - 614
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The control algorithms used in high performance ac drives require the knowledge of rotor position and, in the case of speed regulation, also of speed. Since in many applications rotational transducers cannot be installed, their reconstruction is needed. The use of observers is stymied by the fact that the dynamics of electrical machines are highly nonlinear and does not belong to the class studied by the nonlinear control community. In this paper solutions to both problems, which are particularly tailored for the widely popular permanent magnet synchronous motors, are provided. A key step for the design of both observers is the choice of a suitable set of coordinates. The position observer is a standard gradient search whose detailed analysis reveals outstanding (global asymptotic) stability properties. Furthermore, the analysis clearly exhibits the interplay between rotor speed and the gain of the gradient search-that (essentially) determines its convergence rate. The position observer is a simple two-dimensional nonlinear system, hence is easily implementable. The speed observer is designed following the immersion and invariance technique and is also shown to be globally convergent. Simulation and experimental results of the position observer, used together with a classical field-oriented control algorithm, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Smooth Feedback Control of a Three-Pole Active Magnetic Bearing System

    Page(s): 615 - 621
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, a class of smooth feedback controllers is proposed for the stabilization of a three-pole active magnetic bearing (AMB) system. The three-pole AMB system is strongly nonlinear and nonaffine. Conventional controllers are nonsmooth and complicated, which is difficult for implementation and further study. The proposed smooth controllers are designed utilizing a linear transformation on the system inputs (coil currents). As a result, simple smooth controllers, such as quadratic state feedback controller, can be obtained. The domain of attraction of the origin under the smooth controller is estimated. The proposed smooth controller is verified through both numerical and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) for Driver Assistance Using an Event-Driven Prompting Display

    Page(s): 622 - 627
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visual display systems showing lateral roadway position of a vehicle have been used in advanced vehicle control and safety systems for driver assistance in hazardous conditions, e.g., in snowplowing operations. A simple simulation of lateral control stability of the vehicle indicates the adverse effect of dead-time resulting from the driver glancing back and forth between windshield and display. An event-driven prompting display is presented to reduce the effect of the dead-time and improve the safety of the driver assistance system. Test results in actual driving provide a comparison of the performance of the new display versus the original display system, and clearly indicate the improvement in lateral stability in driving a vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • ANN and Non-Integer Order Modeling of ABS Solenoid Valves

    Page(s): 628 - 635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief presents an electric model of an on/off solenoid valve used to regulate brake pressure in anti-lock braking control systems (ABS). The model has been derived with the purpose to test and validate some coil driver integrated circuits in a Hardware-in-the-loop approach. The valve model is composed by magneto-dynamic, mechanical and fluid dynamic subsystems. The global system is highly nonlinear and presents hysteresis phenomena due to the ferromagnetic effect. A non-integer order system has been adopted to simply represent the high order dynamics present into the system, while Duhem equations coupled with two different neural networks are used to model the hysteresis. Several experimental trials have been performed in order to validate the suitability of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Nonsingular Terminal Sliding-Mode Control for Nonlinear Magnetic Bearing System

    Page(s): 636 - 643
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study presents a robust nonsingular terminal sliding-mode control (RNTSMC) system to achieve finite time tracking control (FTTC) for the rotor position in the axial direction of a nonlinear thrust active magnetic bearing (TAMB) system. Compared with conventional sliding-mode control (SMC) with linear sliding surface, terminal sliding-mode control (TSMC) with nonlinear terminal sliding surface provides faster, finite time convergence, and higher control precision. In this study, first, the operating principles and dynamic model of the TAMB system using a linearized electromagnetic force model are introduced. Then, the TSMC system is designed for the TAMB to achieve FTTC. Moreover, in order to overcome the singularity problem of the TSMC, a nonsingular terminal sliding-mode control (NTSMC) system is proposed. Furthermore, since the control characteristics of the TAMB are highly nonlinear and time-varying, the RNTSMC system with a recurrent Hermite neural network (RHNN) uncertainty estimator is proposed to improve the control performance and increase the robustness of the TAMB control system. Using the proposed RNTSMC system, the bound of the lumped uncertainty of the TAMB is not required to be known in advance. Finally, some experimental results for the tracking of various reference trajectories demonstrate the validity of the proposed RNTSMC for practical TAMB applications. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the Enhanced Dynamic Causal Digraph Method on a Three-Layer Board Machine

    Page(s): 644 - 655
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief presents an enhanced dynamic causal digraph (EDCDG) reasoning method for fault diagnosis. In order to improve the fault isolation ability of the dynamic causal digraph method, a new algorithm for separating the positive and negative fault effect contributions is proposed. The proposed method was tested with an application on a three-layer board machine process. The results show that the proposed method, compared to the conventional dynamic causal digraph method, is able to detect the correct nodes, to form a better fault propagation path and to identify the responsible arcs when the system is affected by a process fault. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Time-Varying Systems Using Multi-Wavelet Basis Functions

    Page(s): 656 - 663
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief introduces a new parametric modelling and identification method for linear time-varying systems using a block least mean square (LMS) approach where the time-varying parameters are approximated using multi-wavelet basis functions. This approach can be applied to track rapidly or even sharply varying processes and is developed by combining wavelet approximation theory with a block LMS algorithm. Numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method for dealing with severely nonstationary processes. Application of the proposed approach to a real mechanical system indicates better tracking capability of the multi-wavelet basis function algorithm compared with the normalized least squares or recursive least squares routines. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle Velocity Estimation and Experiments

    Page(s): 664 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief presents a nonlinear observer for estimating the longitudinal and lateral velocities based on Dugoff's tire model and vehicle dynamics. The observer has a fixed gain structure and can make full use of information about acceleration measurements and nonlinear vehicle model. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the stability of the observer, and the robustness of the observer with respect to additive disturbances is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability theory. The performance of the observer is compared with that of existing approaches and evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Notch Filter Using Real-Time Parameter Estimation

    Page(s): 673 - 681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The control of flexible systems is often difficult due to the exact frequencies of the elastic modes being hard to identify. These flexible modes may change over time, or vary between units of the same system. The variation in the modal dynamics may cause a degradation in performance or even instabilities unless compensated for by the control scheme. Controllers designed for these types of systems use notch filters for suppression, however variation in the parameters of the flexible modes cause the need for wide notch filters. An adaptive scheme is proposed which uses an online estimator based on plant parameterization. Since the estimator is able to identify the modal dynamics, an adaptive notch filter is able to track an incorrectly modeled or varying flexible mode. The adaptive notch filter can be designed narrower, adding less phase lag at lower frequencies, thereby allowing an increase in bandwidth and disturbance rejection capability. Simulation and experimental verification of the adaptive mode suppression scheme is given through the use of a laser beam pointing system. The adaptive scheme is compared to a nonadaptive scheme, and is able to decrease the standard deviation of the experimentally measured tracking error by 14% even when the flexible dynamics are unknown. View full abstract»

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  • Control Performance Assessment Subject to Multi-Objective User-Specified Performance Characteristics

    Page(s): 682 - 691
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    User-specified benchmark has been used for control loop performance assessment. Structured closed-loop responses which are subject to various performance characteristics constraints are proposed in this work and served as a user-specified benchmarks against which the existing controller performance is compared. The performance characteristics constraints can be a mixture of variance upper bound, pole location, peak amplitude and model approximation constraint. An linear matrix inequality-based approach is used to formulate this multi-objective problem and a cone complementarity linearization algorithm is applied to find an optimal solution. Simulation studies and experimental results are provided to demonstrate application of the proposed benchmarks. View full abstract»

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  • An Intelligent Bi-Cooperative Decoupling Control Approach Based on Modulation Mechanism of Internal Environment in Body

    Page(s): 692 - 698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to develop more effective decoupling control methods for complex coupling system, we present an intelligent bi-cooperative decoupling controller (IBCDC) inspired from the modulation mechanism of internal environment in body. The IBCDC consists of a coordination control unit (CCU), a model identification unit (MIU), a decoupling control evaluation unit (DEU), and two control units. The DEU includes a reinforcing decoupling control block (RDCB) and a suppression decoupling control block (SDCB). Every control unit or block including an original control block (OCB) and a decoupling compensation block (DCB) is designed according to different physiological organs or systems. Under the coordination of the CCU, all the control units or blocks communicate with each other to exchange the control or decoupling control information. Through adjusting the actuators harmoniously, the coupling influences among different control loops can be reduced or almost eliminated. The simulation results demonstrate that the IBCDC can almost eliminate the coupling influence with better control performance. Compared with other decoupling control methods, the IBCDC can be implemented more easily and practically, and be easily generalized to the multiple-input-multiple-output systems. View full abstract»

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  • L_{2} -Gain of Systems With Input Delays and Controller Temporary Failure: Zero-Order Hold Model

    Page(s): 699 - 706
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief studies the stability and L2-gain problem for a class of systems with input delays subject to the temporary failure of the controller. The input delay is interval time-varying. When the controller fails, the zero-order hold is adopted. An unstable system may occur due to the large interval delay bound caused by controller temporary failure. The brief addresses how long and how frequent the failure can be and still maintain the system exponentially stable and weighted L2-gain. A novel piecewise Lyapunov functional, which includes the large-delay-integral terms, is applied. Under the restrictions of controller failure frequency and failure length rate, sufficient conditions guaranteeing exponential stability and weighted L2-gain of the system are developed. Finally, the proposed criterion is applied to the networked control systems to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Cruise Control: Utilizing Upcoming Traffic Signal Information for Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Trip Time

    Page(s): 707 - 714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief proposes the use of upcoming traffic signal information within the vehicle's adaptive cruise control system to reduce idle time at stop lights and fuel consumption. To achieve this goal an optimization-based control algorithm is formulated that uses short range radar and traffic signal information predictively to schedule an optimum velocity trajectory for the vehicle. The control objectives are: timely arrival at green light with minimal use of braking, maintaining safe distance between vehicles, and cruising at or near set speed. Three example simulation case studies are presented to demonstrate the potential impact on fuel economy, emission levels, and trip time. View full abstract»

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