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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4  Part 1 • Date April 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - 1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Special Issue on Plenary and Invited Papers From ICOPS 2010

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 961 - 962
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  • Nanoscale Transfer of Energy and Matter in Plasma–Surface Interactions

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 963 - 970
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    The main issues related to control of energy and matter in hierarchical low-temperature plasma-solid systems used in nanoscale synthesis and processing are critically examined. A conceptual approach to identify the most effective carriers and transport mechanisms of energy and matter at the nano- and subnanometer scales in plasma-aided nanofabrication is proposed. This approach is highly relevant to the envisaged energy- and matter-efficient plasma-based production of the next-generation advanced nanomaterials for applications in the energy, environment, food, water, health, and security technologies critically needed for a sustainable future. View full abstract»

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  • Progress on Gyrotrons for ITER and Future Thermonuclear Fusion Reactors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 971 - 979
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The prototype of the Japan 170-GHz ITER gyrotron holds the energy world record of 2.88 GJ (0.8 MW, 3600 s and 1 MW, 800 s) and the efficiency record of 57%, whereas the Russian 170-GHz ITER prototype tube achieved 0.8 MW with a pulse duration of 800 s at 55% efficiency and 1 MW at 280 s and 53%. The record parameters of the European megawatt-class 140-GHz gyrotron for the stellarator Wendelstein W7-X are as follows: 0.92-MW output power at 1800-s pulse duration, nearly 45% efficiency, and 97.5% Gaussian mode purity. These gyrotrons employ a cylindrical cavity, a quasi-optical output coupler, a synthetic diamond window, and a single-stage depressed collector (SDC) for energy recovery. In order to reduce the costs of the ITER 24-MW 170-GHz ECH&CD system, 2-MW millimeter-wave power per gyrotron tube is desirable. Cylindrical gyrotron cavities are not suitable for the 2-MW power regime because of high ohmic wall losses and mode competition problems. However, in coaxial cavities, the existence of the longitudinally corrugated inner conductor reduces the problem of mode competition, thus allowing one to use even higher order modes with lower ohmic attenuation than in cylindrical cavities. Synthetic diamond windows with a transmission capability of 2-MW CW are feasible. A 2-MW CW 170-GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron for ECH&CD in ITER is under development in cooperation with European research institutions (EGYC, collaboration among the CRPP, Switzerland, the KIT, Germany, the HELLAS, Greece, the CNR, Italy, and the ENEA, Italy). At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the short-pulse (1-ms) preprototype tube delivered 2.2 MW at 30% efficiency (without SDC) with 96% Gaussian output mode purity. Design studies for a 4-MW 170-GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron with two synthetic diamond output windows and two 2-MW millimeter-wave output beams for future fusion reactors are currently being performed at KIT. The availability of sources with fast frequency tunability would- - permit the use of simple fixed nonsteerable mirror antennas for local current drive experiments and plasma stabilization. IAP Nizhny Novgorod develops in collaboration with IPP Garching and KIT an industrial multifrequency 1-MW gyrotron with approximately 50% efficiency (SDC). A four-frequency tube (105, 117, 127, and 140 GHz) delivered 0.8 MW at 105 GHz and 0.95 MW at 140 GHz in 10-s pulses. After the installation of a broadband diamond window, this gyrotron will be operated also at the two intermediate frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Recirculating Planar Magnetrons for High-Power High-Frequency Radiation Generation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 980 - 987
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present designs and simulations of a new class of magnetron, the recirculating planar magnetron. This magnetron has numerous advantages as a high-power microwave generator, including larger cathode and anode area, fast start-up, and compact microwave extraction geometry. The following two geometries are demonstrated by electromagnetic particle-in-cell codes: 1) axial magnetic field with radial electric field and 2) radial magnetic field with axial electric field. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Self-Consistent Truly Multiphysics Algorithm Based Upon the Courant-Insensitive Space–Time Conservation-Element Solution-Element Method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 988 - 994
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    This paper reports on the theoretical aspects and current development status of a self-consistent truly multiphysics algorithm. The algorithm is based upon the Courant-insensitive space-time conservation-element solution-element methodology. Previous attempts for electromagnetic solutions have applicability only in constant material domains with PEC boundary conditions. This paper reports on the extension of this algorithm for the solution of the generalized Maxwell equations, including linear-dispersive materials. The numerical solution is shown to be extremely accurate on highly nonuniform meshes and reduces to the classical Yee FDTD error properties in the uniform Cartesian grid limit. Validation problems and comparison with the ubiquitous baseline FDTD algorithm will be presented in 1-D (2-D space-time). Results show that the second-order CESE method has an accuracy equivalent to fourth-sixth order FDTD for equal grids with highly discontinuous coefficients (e.g., permittivity). View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in E \times B Discharges

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 995 - 1006
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A low-pressure E ×B plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and the electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron cross-field transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of the SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon-velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasi-neutral plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Inertial Confinement Fusion Using the OMEGA Laser System

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1007 - 1014
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    The OMEGA laser system is being used to investigate several approaches to inertial confinement fusion: the traditional central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, fast ignition (FI), and shock ignition (SI). To achieve ignition, CHS requires the highly uniform compression of a solid deuterium-tritium (DT)-layered target on a low adiabat (defined as the ratio of the pressure to the Fermi-degenerate pressure) and with an implosion velocity Vimp ≥ 3.5 × 107 cm/s. A laser pulse shape with triple pickets is used to produce this low adiabat by optimally timing multiple shocks launched by the pickets and the main laser. Cryogenic targets that imploded optimally with such pulses have demonstrated near-design compression with an areal density ρR ~ 290 mg/cm2 at Vimp = 3.1 × 107 cm/s. These are, by far, the highest DT areal densities demonstrated in the laboratory. SI experiments, where a shock is launched by a picket at the end of the laser pulse into the compressing capsule, have been performed on low-adiabat warm plastic targets. Both yield and areal density improve significantly when a spike is used at the end of the laser pulse, indicating that the energy from the shock is coupled into the compressing target. Integrated FI experiments have begun on the OMEGA/OMEGA EP laser system. View full abstract»

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  • Campus PlasmaMed—From Basic Research to Clinical Proof

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1015 - 1025
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Plasma medicine is emerging worldwide, and some promising applications seem to be near the horizon. Direct therapeutic plasma application as the central field of plasma medicine will bring physical plasmas directly on or in a human (or animal) body. Campus PlasmaMed is a research association supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), concentrated in the northeast of Germany and founded to explore promising and safe applications of atmospheric-pressure plasmas in medical therapy based on systematic and interdisciplinary basic research on the interactions of plasma components with living systems. Whereas a broad spectrum of plasma sources dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported during recent years, mainly two basic principles of plasma sources are used in the Campus PlasmaMed: atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and dielectric barrier discharges. A comprehensive assessment of potential risk factors, such as gas temperature, power transfer from plasma to the target, (V)UV radiation emission, or the generation of toxic gases and its release into the adjacencies, which could be dangerous for patients and therapists, has to be done as a basic precondition before any biomedical experiments can be started or a potential therapeutic application can be taken into consideration. Despite the fact that the initial plasma-source characterization and optimization are in the main responsibility of plasma physicists and engineers, potential users from the biomedical field should be integrated as soon as possible to include special needs and constraints for specific applications during early steps of development. This multidisciplinary research cooperation among plasma scientists and engineers on the one side and life scientists and clinicians on the other is one of the main characteristics of the Campus PlasmaMed. Such interdisciplinary cooperation is more than ever required for the characterization of biological effects of plasma source- , which has to be realized by a multistep program, starting with the investigations of plasma-liquid interactions and including a broad spectrum of in vitro tests with cells, as well as cell and tissue cultures up to isolated tissues or organs to be proved finally with animal experiments and clinical trials. Because there are no standardized criteria so far according to which atmospheric-pressure plasma sources can be assessed as to their suitability for medical applications, interdisciplinary results from plasma medical research have to be transferred into rules and standards to guarantee successful and safe practical application, including economic exploitation of plasma-medical research results. View full abstract»

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  • Operation of the LiFi Light Emitting Plasma in Resonant Cavity

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1026 - 1033
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The LiFi lamp utilizes a microwave technology which directly delivers high-frequency power to a light-emitting plasma without the need for electrodes. A dielectric waveguide generates electromagnetic field modes within a resonator which efficiently couple the power to the high-temperature high-density plasma. View full abstract»

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  • Limitations of Regularization Methods for the Reconstruction of Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1034 - 1037
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    The extraction of electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) from Langmuir probe data is a discrete ill-posed problem. This problem rises due to the integral relationship between electron current and the probe voltage known as the Druyvesteyn relation. There have been a number of methods for the solution of this ill-posed problem ranging from data smoothing to a priori solution conditioning. Such methods include truncated singular value decomposition, truncated generalized singular value decomposition, and various regularization techniques. When these methods are extended to solve for similar integral relationships between electron current and electron distributions, complications arise due to their slightly different integral characteristics. For example, the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) presents a similar ill-posed integral relationship. However, the EVDF integral presents an additional complication of rank deficiency that can` make accurate solutions of the inverse problem extremely challenging. In this paper, the ill-posed and rank deficiency problems of EEDF and EVDF reconstructions, respectively, are compared to highlight these challenges. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1038
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    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1039
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    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1040
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C4
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IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
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