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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 1049 - 1050
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    The 15 papers in this special issue present recent advances in UWB antenna design and miniaturization. The special issue is a joint effort between the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation and this Transactions. View full abstract»

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  • Modified Compact Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for 4–50-GHz UWB Application

    Page(s): 1051 - 1057
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    A novel way capable of improving low-frequency performance of Vivaldi antennas is presented in this paper. Traditional Vivaldi antennas are modified via introducing the loading structure, i.e., circular-shape-load or slot-load, to match the termination. This modified antenna has been demonstrated to have the impedance bandwidth of over 25:1. It also exhibits symmetric radiation patterns in both the E- and H-plane in addition to the gain varying from 3 to 12 dBi in the measurement bandwidth of 4-50 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Printed Binomial-Curved Slot Antennas for Various Wideband Applications

    Page(s): 1058 - 1065
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    This paper presents a new design of wide slot antenna for various wideband applications. The proposed printed antenna consists of a slot and a turning stub, both formed by a binomial curve function; thus, various bandwidths (BWs) can be obtained based on the structure with different binomial curves. Some key parameters affecting the antenna performance have been analyzed and discussed in detail as an antenna design guideline. To validate the theoretical design, six prototypes of various binomial-curved slot antennas were designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between the simulated results and the measured ones is observed. The results demonstrate that the proposed type of antenna can obtain a BW range from 9.8% to 99.7% for VSWR ≤ 2 by selecting various binomial-curved slots, which may provide a convenience for various wideband antenna designs. Moreover, the proposed type of antenna owns a simple structure and a stable gain of about 3-5.5 dBi, which is very suitable for wideband wireless system applications. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Stacked Patch Antenna With Horizontally Meandered Strip for Universal UHF RFID Applications

    Page(s): 1066 - 1073
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    In this paper, a horizontally meandered strip (HMS) feed technique is proposed to achieve good impedance matching and symmetrical broadside radiation patterns for a single-fed broadband circularly polarized stacked patch antenna, which is suitable for universal ultrahigh frequency (UHF) RF identification (RFID) applications. The antenna is composed of two corner truncated patches and an HMS, all of which are printed on the upper side of the FR4 substrates. One end of the HMS is connected to the main patch by a probe, while the other end is connected to an SMA connector. Simulation results are compared with the measurements, and a good agreement is obtained. The measurements show that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth (VSWR <; 1.5) of about 25.8% (758-983 MHz), a 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of about 13.5% (838-959 MHz), and a gain level of about 8.6 dBic or larger within the 3-dB AR bandwidth. Therefore, the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for universal UHF RFID readers operating at the UHF band of 840-955 MHz. In addition, a parametric study and a design guideline of the proposed antenna are presented to provide the engineers with information for designing, modifying, and optimizing such an antenna. At last, the proposed antenna is validated in RFID system applications. View full abstract»

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  • UWB Band-Notched Monopole Antenna Design Using Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structures

    Page(s): 1074 - 1081
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    A new approach is proposed to reject certain bands within the passband of an ultra-wideband planar monopole antenna. The proposed approach that utilizes a mushroom-type electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structure is proven to be an effective way for band-notched designs. The approach has many advantages, such as notch-frequency tunability, notch-band width controllable capacity, efficient dual-notch design, and stable radiation patterns. Several design examples using conventional mushroom-type EBG and edge-located vias mushroom-type EBG are presented. The examples exhibit good bandstop characteristics to reject the wireless local-area network interference bands (5.2- and 5.8-GHz bands). Besides, the causes that lead to the discrepancies between the simulations and measurements are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An Ultra-Wideband Dielectric Rod Antenna Fed by a Planar Circular Slot

    Page(s): 1082 - 1089
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    A novel ultra-wideband (UWB) dielectric rod antenna fed by a planar structure is presented. The planar structure consists of a circular slot antenna supplied by a dipole. This planar antenna excites the HE11 mode of an attached circular dielectric rod. Due to this combination, a broadband and low-dispersive overall antenna performance is achieved. Furthermore, an additional reflector at the backside of the antenna increases the directivity. With this configuration, a return loss better than 10 dB from 3.5 to 11.8 GHz is achieved with a nearly constant gain and a mean gain of 8.7 dBi. Beside the standard characterization, the system performance of the antenna is evaluated by means of the fidelity factor calculated from time-domain measurements and applying a UWB impulse generator. View full abstract»

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  • A Hyperband Antenna to Launch and Focus Fast High-Voltage Pulses Onto Biological Targets

    Page(s): 1090 - 1101
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    This paper briefly reviews the design of a prolate-spheroidal impulse-radiating hyperband antenna system to launch and focus fast (100 ps) high-voltage ( >; 100 kV) pulses onto biological targets. Design and experiments on a graded five-layer dielectric lens, designed to match the pulses into the target medium, are outlined. The design and numerical simulations of a switch system to launch high-voltage spherical TEM pulses are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Antenna Mounting for Ultra-Wideband On-Body Communications and Channel Characterization

    Page(s): 1102 - 1108
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    The electromagnetic coupling of antennas with the human body is a well-known, but often neglected, problem in body area network (BAN) communications. The resulting distortion of the antenna's free-space characteristics may, in turn, demand more complex terminals to cope with the different conditions encountered as antennas are mounted on different parts of the body and/or varying separations from the skin. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a mounting method to provide a more stable response and to reduce the antenna's coupling to the body for ultra-wideband (UWB) BAN applications. The proposed mounting method is evaluated on two UWB BAN antennas, characterizing the antennas coupling with the body by analyzing variations in the antennas reflection coefficient between 4-9 GHz, when mounted at different distances from the skin and at different locations on the body. The modified mounting method was found to increase the correlation coefficient between the antenna's reflection coefficient when in free space and mounted using 5 mm of spacer, for the two antennas, from 0.22 and 0.13, to 0.66 and 0.90. The free-space characteristics of the modified antennas are also tested, showing a reduction of up to 4.7 dB of radiated power into the body. View full abstract»

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  • A Whole-Chip ESD-Protected 0.14-pJ/p-mV 3.1–10.6-GHz Impulse-Radio UWB Transmitter in 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS

    Page(s): 1109 - 1116
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    This paper presents the design of a low-power single-full-band (3.1-10.6 GHz) noncarrier impulse-radio ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter (TX) implemented in a commercial 0.18-μm CMOS technology. This UWB TX features fifth-order Gaussian derivative pulse shaping, integrated binary phase-shift keying modulation and 2.5-kV whole-chip electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. Measurement shows full function with a very small die size of 0.25 mm2, extremely low power consumption of 0.14 pJ/p-mV, and an ultrashort pulsewidth of 394 ps. This ESD-protected UWB TX has the potential to support wireless streaming for gigabit/second applications. View full abstract»

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  • A 2-Gb/s 130-nm CMOS RF-Correlation-Based IR-UWB Transceiver Front-End

    Page(s): 1117 - 1130
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    This paper presents a carrierless RF-correlation-based impulse radio ultra-wideband transceiver (TRX) front-end in a 130-nm CMOS process. Timing synchronization and coherent demodulation are implemented directly in the RF domain, targeting applications such as short-range energy-efficient wireless communication at gigabit/second data rates. The 6-10-GHz band is exploited to achieve higher data rate. Binary phase-shift keying modulated impulse is generated by edge combining the delayed clock signal at a lower frequency of 2 GHz to avoid a more power-hungry phase-locked loop at higher frequency (e.g., 8 GHz). An on-chip pulse shaper inside the pulse generator is designed to provide filtering for an edge-combined signal to comply with the Federal Communications Commission spectrum emission mask. In order to achieve 25-ps delay accuracy and 500-ps delay range for the proposed two-step RF synchronization, a template-based digital delay generation scheme is proposed, which delays the locally generated trigger pulse instead of the wideband pulse itself. Occupying 6.4 mm2 of chip area, the TRX achieves a maximum data rate of 2 Gb/s and a receiver (RX) sensitivity of -64 dBm with a bit error rate of 10-5, while requiring only 51.5 pJ/pulse in the transmitter mode and 72.9 pJ/pulse in the RX mode. View full abstract»

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  • A Short-Range Low Data-Rate Regenerative FM-UWB Receiver

    Page(s): 1131 - 1140
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    A regenerative frequency-modulated ultra-wideband (FM-UWB) receiver for low data rate (<; 100 kbits/s) and short-distance ( <;10 m) reception in the 4-5-GHz band, consisting of a 35-dB gain preamplifier, envelope detector/demodulator, IF amplifier, and 50-Ω test buffer is described. The tunable (3.8-5.1 GHz) receiver front-end operates on a 50-MHz sub-band that is selected, amplified, and transformed from FM to amplitude modulated by a regenerative preamplifier. Energy efficiency of the regenerative FM-UWB receiver compared to previously published FM-UWB implementations is improved by a factor of 8, to 22 nJ/bit. Measured receiver sensitivity is -84 dBm at 100-kbits/s data rate (10-3 bit-error rate). Implemented in 65-nm bulk CMOS, the 0.3 mm2 test chip consumes 2.2 mW (excluding test buffer) from a 1-V supply. View full abstract»

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  • A Discrete-Components Impulse-Radio Ultrawide-Band (IR-UWB) Transmitter

    Page(s): 1141 - 1146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (743 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe an impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmitter made with off-the-shelf discrete components. It was initially designed to be used in a UWB testbed for measurement and algorithm validation purposes. There already exist several versions of an IR-UWB transmitter, but many of them are made with custom designed integrated chips. For this reason, it is very difficult for anyone other than their designers to test and measure with the same material. We describe all the information the readers would need to build their own IR-UWB transmitter. View full abstract»

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  • 0.15-nJ/b 3–5-GHz IR-UWB System With Spectrum Tunable Transmitter and Merged-Correlator Noncoherent Receiver

    Page(s): 1147 - 1156
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    Carrierless impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radios have attracted significant research interest due to their low system complexity and power consumption. Unfortunately, IR-UWB systems suffer from the difficulty in controlling the transmitted spectral mask because of process, voltage, and temperature variations. In this paper, a monolithic 3-5-GHz IR-UWB transceiver is presented that integrates both amplitude and spectrum tunability, thereby providing adaptable spectral characteristics for different data rate transmission. The noncoherent receiver employs a simplified low-power merged correlator, eliminating the need for a conventional sample-and-hold circuit. After self-correlation, the demodulated data is digitally synchronized with the baseband clock. The 4 mm2 0.13 μm CMOS transmitter and receiver consume 2.2 and 13.2 mW, respectively at the data rate of 100 Mb/s. The measured peak-to-peak transmitted pulse amplitudes are 240, 170, and 115 mV, with a tunable frequency range of 3.2-4.1 GHz. The receiver exhibits a maximum gain of 70 dB, noise figure of 8.6 dB, and the input 1-dB compression point of -28 dBm . With off-chip antennas, the transceiver achieves a bit error rate of 10-3 at a sensitivity of -50 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Module Integrated Antenna With Circular Polarization for Mobile UHF RFID Reader

    Page(s): 1157 - 1165
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    A module integrated antenna with circular polarization for a mobile UHF radio frequency identification reader is presented. In the proposed design, a reader module using a hybrid assemble technique is directly integrated inside the antenna. In order to compensate the degraded radiation efficiency of the reader antenna due to the module integration, a quadruple inverted-f antenna (QIFA), a type of four-port antenna like QIFA, is used. For the compact four-port antenna, we analyze the optimum matching method considering both the reflection coefficient at each port and the mutual coupling among ports simultaneously to improve the performance of the proposed module integrated antenna. Experimental results show that the proposed module integrated antenna of size 80 × 80 × 11.2 mm3 with the shielded module is well matched, and has the peak gain of 3.3 dBic and the axial ratio under 2.5 dB. View full abstract»

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  • 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Identification Reader on 90-nm CMOS and LTCC

    Page(s): 1166 - 1173
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    A reader module at 60 GHz for high data-rate short-range backscattering-based communications is presented. The reader consists of a CMOS-based oscillator, amplifiers, and a mixer on a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. The filter, power splitter, and antennas are directly patterned on the LTCC. All millimeter-wave components are contained within the module and the only interfaces to the module are the IF and bias lines. Transmit power of the module is +11.6-dBm effective isotropic radiated power with an IF bandwidth of 400 MHz. The LTCC module measures 13×24 mm2 and has a dc power consumption of 130 mW. Reception of a 20-MHz square wave from a tag 5 cm apart from the reader is demonstrated; the suggested millimeter-wave identification concept enables a 102- 103-fold data-rate increase in comparison to the present near-field communication technique, with similar size, range, and power consumption of the reader. View full abstract»

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  • Method to Estimate Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Peak Power

    Page(s): 1174 - 1186
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    This paper provides a method for estimating peak power for impulse-radio ultra-wideband signals. By analyzing the required measurement procedure, a set of equations is derived, which are verified with simulated and measured results. The IEEE 802.15.4a standard is used as an example. The idiosyncracy of IEEE 802.15.4a is the usage of bursts of pulses. Hence, we in this paper propose a method to correctly analyze it. The deviation from the established calculation is shown together with the advantages of using this new method, which is valid for both frequency- and time-domain analysis. The latter turns out to be the preferred way of working. Using the proposed method enables usage of up to 16-24 dB more pulse amplitude, depending on the equipment available and burst width used. View full abstract»

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  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 1187
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  • Special Issue on mm-Wave Circuits and Systems

    Page(s): 1188
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  • IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org