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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 9 • Date May1, 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1217 - 1218
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  • Filter Optimization for Self-Homodyne Coherent WDM Systems Using Interleaved Polarization Division Multiplexing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1219 - 1226
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examine the impact of filtering on self-homodyne coherent WDM systems using the interleaved polarization division-multiplexing scheme. To investigate the performance limit and to provide more insight into previously obtained experimental results, we perform numerical simulations in which different filter shapes and filter bandwidths are used. It is shown that with proper prefiltering of the data and filtering of the pilot tone in the receiver, performance can approach that of an intradyne system. This would make it possible to implement coherent systems with high spectral efficiency without any digital signal processing in the receiver. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Packet Scheduling in WDM Optical Switches With Output Buffer and Limited Wavelength Conversion

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1227 - 1238
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    All-optical packet switching is a promising candidate for future high-speed switching. However, due to the absence of optical random access memory, the traditional Virtual Output Queue (VOQ) based input-queued switches are difficult to implement in the optical domain. In this paper we consider output-buffered optical packet switches. We focus on packet scheduling in an output-buffered optical packet switch with limited-range wavelength conversion, aiming at maximizing throughput and minimizing average queuing delay simultaneously. We show that this problem can be converted to a minimum cost maximum network flow problem. To cope with the high complexity of general network flow algorithms, we present an algorithm that can efficiently find an optimal schedule in O(min{NW,BW}) time, where N is the switch size, W is the number of wavelength channels per fiber and B is the length of the longest FDL at the output of the switch. The complexity of the new algorithm asymptotically matches the lower bound of the scheduling problem. We also conduct extensive simulations to test the performance of the proposed scheduling algorithm under different traffic models. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Interrogation of a Linearly Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Based on Chirped Pulse Compression With Improved Resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1239 - 1247
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach to interrogating in real time a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) sensor based on spectral-shaping and wavelength-to-time (SS-WTT) mapping with improved interrogation resolution and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of a mode-locked laser source, an optical interferometer incorporating an LCFBG, and a dispersive element. The optical interferometer has a spectral response with an increasing free spectral range (FSR). The incorporation of the LCFBG in the interferometer would encode the sensing information in the spectral response as a change in the FSR. After SS-WTT mapping, a linearly chirped microwave waveform is obtained. The correlation of the linearly chirped microwave waveform with a chirped reference waveform would provide a sharp correlation peak with its position indicating the wavelength shift of the LCFBG. A theoretical analysis is carried out, which is validated by a numerical simulation and an experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed system can provide an interrogation resolution as high as 0.25 με at a speed of 48.6 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Distributed Provisioning in 10–40–100-Gb/s Multirate Wavelength Switched Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1248 - 1257
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In wavelength-switched optical networks (WSONs), quality of transmission (QoT) has to be guaranteed during lightpath provisioning. In multibit-rate WSONs, this task is complicated by the coexistence of optical connections operating at different bit-rates and modulation formats. The major issue consists in accounting for the severe impairments due to cross-phase modulation (XPM) induced by 10 Gb/s lightpaths on neighbor 40 or 100 Gb/s lightpaths. In this paper, QoT modeling is first reviewed for 10, 40, and 100 Gb/s transmission according to the adopted modulation format and detection type. In addition, a Gaussian approximation to compute the bit error rate of differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and QPSK signals is proposed, as well as closed formulas to compute the nonlinear phase noise variance due to XPM. Also, discussions about the XPM cumulation over spans in a WSON and how XPM can be considered in a dynamic network are provided. Then, four lightpath provisioning schemes are proposed to effectively account for QoT and, in particular, for XPM. The schemes differently exploit: 1) augmented spectral separation among lightpaths at different bit rates; 2) XPM worst-case scenario; and 3) current and novel generalized multiprotocol label switching extensions. The performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated through simulations in several multibit-rate scenarios. Results show that the proposed schemes provide effective network resource utilization while guaranteeing the adequate QoT to lightpaths at any bit rate. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Blind Polarization Demultiplexing Algorithm Based on Correlation Analysis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1258 - 1264
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel correlation-based blind polarization demultiplexing technique for coherent optical communication systems. The basic procedure involves the blind estimation of various channel parameters through correlation analysis, and resolving ambiguities using pilot symbols. In a 56 Gb/s/polarizaton multiplexing transmission system employing quadrature phase-shift keying, for both symbol-rate sampling and double symbol-rate sampling, the proposed algorithm achieves the same performance as that of the receiver with known channel parameters and significantly outperforms the constant modulus algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Coupling Between Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Mode and Dielectric Waveguide Mode

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1265 - 1273
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the hybrid coupling between long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) waveguide mode and dielectric waveguide mode has been studied theoretically and experimentally in detail by considering its dependence on the structure parameters and wavelength. It is demonstrated that extremely high coupling efficiency (>;99%) has been achieved for TM polarization, while no coupling could happen for TE polarization between these two kinds of waveguides. Based on this hybrid coupler, a polarization splitter with pure TM-mode output from one arm and TE-mode output from the other arm with high TE/TM extinction ratio has been realized. Additionally, this kind of coupling between different waveguides is very significant for providing an effective approach to connect the LRSPP-based devices with the conventional dielectric devices. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Survivable Mapping in IP Over WDM Network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1274 - 1284
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the survivable mapping is critical in IP-over-wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) network to guarantee the restorability of IP layer, provisioning survivability in network with dynamic traffic is essential. However, survivable mapping problem for dynamic traffic shows more complexity than that for static traffic: 1) How to guarantee a survivable mapping since the lightpath is established and released dynamically; 2) how to make a balance between the cost of maintaining the survivable mapping and network utilization efficiency; 3) what kind of algorithm could be employed as an efficient online algorithm with acceptable computing complexity and scalability. In this paper, two schemes, dynamic routing and logical topology remapping, are proposed to keep a survivable mapping from logical topology to physical topology in dynamic traffic scenario. In addition, two different cutset-searching methods are presented in order to support the proposed online survivable mapping algorithm. At the end, a series of experiments employing regular networks and some special topologies with different connectivity have been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency and scalability of our approach, in terms of the blocking probability, resource utilization, critical link holding time, and the restoration rate for random single failures. Generally, our results show that this new approach offers great degree of survivability for IP layer, but with acceptable resource cost and complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Microring-Based Unitraveling Carrier Photodiodes for High Bandwidth-Efficiency Product Photodetection in Optical Communication

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1285 - 1292
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel structure of unitraveling carrier photodiodes (UTC-PDs) with high-speed, high-efficiency, and wavelength selective characteristics is presented. Including the essential features of resonant cavity enhanced photodiodes and waveguide photodiodes, we propose microring-based UTC-PDs (MR-UTC-PDs) which can achieve excellent high-speed and high-quantum efficiency characteristics simultaneously. The photoresponse of MR-UTC-PDs is based on a drift-diffusion model. Photoresponse characteristics of MR-UTC-PDs, which depend on device parameters and coupling conditions, are investigated and it is shown that the overcoupled structures are suitable for high-speed photodetection. The important features of the device, such as efficiency enhancement and wavelength selectivity are discussed and the trade-off between 3 dB bandwidth and efficiency is solved for nanoscaled absorption layer. Additionally, the bandwidth-efficiency product in the order of several hundreds gigahertz can be obtained even with low photoabsorption layers. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling Self-Similar Optical Pulse Compression in Nonlinear Fiber Bragg Grating Using Coupled-Mode Equations

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1293 - 1305
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    Nearly pedestal-free optical pulse compression using self-similar chirped optical solitons near the photonic bandgap (PBG) structure of nonlinear fiber Bragg gratings (NFBGs) with exponentially decreasing dispersion is investigated using the generalized nonlinear coupled-mode equations (NLCMEs). The full dispersion characteristics and the effect of PBG are included. We find that the ratio of the frequency detune of the pulse's center frequency from the Bragg frequency of the NFBG to coupling coefficient of the NFBG is an important design parameter of the NFBG optical pulse compressor. We carried out a comprehensive study on the effect of the ratio of frequency detune to coupling coefficient, grating length, initial chirp, initial dispersion, and initial pulsewidth on the self-similar optical pulse compression. We also studied the compression of both the hyperbolic secant and Gaussian-shaped pulses and the effect of variation in the initial pulsewidth on the optical pulse compression. View full abstract»

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  • Passive Waveguide Device Consisting of Cascaded Asymmetric X-Junction Couplers for High-Contrast Recognition of Optical BPSK Labels

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1306 - 1313
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fast all-optical processing is expected for packet routing in high-speed photonic networks. In photonic label networks, recognition of optical labels is one of the key functions. We propose a scalable passive waveguide device to recognize binary phase shift keying (BPSK) labels. The label recognition device consists of cascaded asymmetric X-junction couplers. The proposed basic device recognizes four labels consisting of parallel four pulses. Since an output is obtained at only one output port out of four ports with high contrast ratio, the device can be scaled up for labels of a larger number of bits. The devices for four, eight and sixteen labels are theoretically analyzed. To confirm the operation in the devices, the label recognition of four- and eight-bit labels is numerically simulated by finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). Expanded circuits based on the four-bit basic device to increase the number of recognizable labels are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Multipass Hollow Core-PCF Microcell Using a Tapered Micromirror

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1314 - 1318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate the insertion of a micromirror into the core of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The micromirror is formed from a single mode fiber that has been tapered to fit into the hollow core and fixed in place using a fusion splicer. A large range of reflectivities higher than 4% was also achieved by silver-coating the silica tapered-fiber end-face using thermal evaporation. The current micromirror provides two key advantages over using a full-sized fiber splice to create a reflective interface. First, the tapered fiber tip can be coated to increase the reflectivity without degradation due to heating during the splicing process. Second, increased efficiency of input and output coupling is possible because of improved mode-field overlap with the fundamental mode of the HC-PCF. We show potential applications of micromirrors for the formation of microcavities in hollow-core fibers and for gas saturated absorption spectroscopy. View full abstract»

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  • A Passive All-Optical Device for 2R Regeneration Based on the Cascade of Two High-Speed Saturable Absorbers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1319 - 1325
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss the design and realization of a passive all-optical device for 2R regeneration based on a dual-stage of high-speed microcavity saturable absorbers, one for noise reduction of digital zeros (SA-0), and the other for noise reduction of digital ones (SA-1). The numerical and experimental results showed that by using a simple combination of SA-0 and SA-1 devices, one can obtain an intensity transfer function with a large extinction ratio improvement of low power levels and a strongly nonlinear response reducing the noise of high power levels. The amplitude and phase characterization of a 40-GHz signal transmitted by this device, obtained by frequency-resolved optical gating measurements, reveals the intensity-dependant pulse-compression effect and the low chirp introduced by this device. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Inter-Channel Nonlinearities on the Planning of 25–100 Gb/s Elastic Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1326 - 1334
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we examine how typical transmission systems can be made tunable in datarate, up to 100 Gb/s, through modulation-format versatility. We investigate through extensive numerical simulations the available reach versus datarate, taking in particular into account the nonlinear interaction between channels in this mixed-format context. We show how these versatile transmission systems can be used to design a so-called elastic optical network in which the datarate of a wavelength is adapted to both the traffic that needs to be transported and the amount of physical impairments that need to be overcome. We examine the benefits of such elastic optical networks in the case of a European backbone network, showing that elastic architectures outperform fixed-rate networks by up to 21% in terms of required number of opto-electronic interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a High Performance Fiber Laser Hydrophone

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1335 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The operating principle and theory of a fiber laser bender hydrophone is presented. We report experimental results for a micro-engineered silicon fiber laser hydrophone. The hydrophone has a flat pressure responsivity of 107 dB re Hz/Pa over a bandwidth exceeding 5 kHz, corresponding to ocean noise limited acoustic sensitivity. The first structural resonance of the hydrophone is 9 kHz in water and the acceleration rejection is in excess of 0 dB re ms-2/Pa up to 5 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Hardware Demonstration of Extremely Compact Optical True Time Delay Device for Wideband Electronically Steered Antennas

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1343 - 1353
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optical true time delay device is demonstrated that is capable of supporting 112 antennas with 81 different delays (>; 6 bits) in a volume 16" × 5" × 4" including the box with electronics. It uses a free-space design based on the White cell, and alignment is made simple, fast, and robust by the use of slow-tool diamond turning of many optics on a single substrate. Pointing accuracy of the 12 objective mirrors is better than 10 μrad, and surface roughness is ≈ 45 nm RMS. Delays vary from 0 to 25 ns in 312.5 ps increments. Short delays are implemented using delay rods of high refractive index, and long delays using folded mirror trains. Total insertion loss from fiber to detector was 7.82 dB for the no-delay path, and 10.22 dB for the longest lens train. A three-state tip-style MEMS micromirror array is used to select among the delays, with tilt angles ±1.4° plus flat, and switching time <; 100 μs for the entire array. An InP wideband optical combiner photodetector array converts the optical signal to RF with 20 GHz bandwidth. The unit survived temperature cycling 0 to 50 C and random vibration on three axes (9.84 g RMS) with no degradation of signal. View full abstract»

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  • Elastic Bandwidth Allocation in Flexible OFDM-Based Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1354 - 1366
    Cited by:  Papers (109)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has recently been proposed as a modulation technique for optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments. We consider the planning problem of an OFDM optical network, where we are given a traffic matrix that includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM subcarriers and choosing an appropriate modulation level, taking into account the transmission distance. We introduce the Routing, Modulation Level and Spectrum Allocation (RMLSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM networks, prove that is also NP-complete and present various algorithms to solve it. We start by presenting an optimal ILP RMLSA algorithm that minimizes the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a decomposition method that breaks RMLSA into its two substituent subproblems, namely 1) routing and modulation level and 2) spectrum allocation (RML+SA), and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve the planning problem by sequentially serving all the connections in the traffic matrix. In the sequential algorithm, we investigate two policies for defining the order in which connections are considered. We also use a simulated annealing meta-heuristic to obtain even better orderings. We examine the performance of the proposed algorithms through simulation experiments and evaluate the spectrum utilization benefits that can be obtained by utilizing OFDM elastic bandwidth allocation, when compared to a traditional WDM network. View full abstract»

    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Highly Sensitive Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1367 - 1374
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fiber optic sensors have applications in the measurement of a wide range of physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and refractive index. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, made of high temperature dielectric materials and hence can be deployed in harsh environments where conventional electronics would fail. Photonic crystal (PC) fiber tip sensors are highly sensitive to changes in the refractive index and temperature while remaining compact and robust. In comparison to conventional fiber sensors such as fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) or long period fiber gratings (LPFG), they are attractive in several aspects. PC fiber tip sensors have better sensitivity to refractive index and temperature than FBG sensors and are have much smaller sensing volumes than FBGs and LPFGs. Their small size allows them to combine high sensitivity and structural robustness. The most attractive feature may be that PC fiber tip sensors also return a spectrally rich signal with independently shifting resonances that can be used to extract multiple physical properties of the measurand and distinguish between them. In this paper, we show that the PC fiber tip sensor is highly sensitive to the refractive index and temperature of the environment and that both parameters can be simultaneously determined using multiple wavelengths. View full abstract»

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  • Probing the Limits of PON Monitoring Using Periodic Coding Technology

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1375 - 1382
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (907 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We probe the limits, both experimentally and analytically, of passive optical network (PON) monitoring using periodic coding technology. The experimental demonstration focuses on a 16 customer PON with a 20 km feeder fiber followed by either a single cluster or a tiered hierarchy. A directly modulated laser modulated at 1 GHz was used to generate the monitoring probe signals. The measured data from the experimental setup was fed to a reduced complexity maximum likelihood sequence estimation (RC-MLSE) algorithm to detect and localize the customers. Three different PON deployments were tested. We demonstrate improved monitoring robustness when using a variable threshold for networks with a tiered geographic distribution. While only a 16 customer PON was tested, our experimental setup had 18 dB margin in the total loss budget corresponding to splitting losses for 64 customers. We investigate analytically the total permissible loss budget of the monitoring system operating in the 1650 nm waveband as a function of receiver specifications. We examine the effect of resolution in the analog-to-digital conversion on the correlation peaks that form sufficient statistics for the RC-MLSE algorithm. Resolution affects both the RC-MLSE algorithm and the use of signal averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We find that the monitoring system is able to monitor current PON standards with inexpensive, commercially available electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Absolute Delay Variation Guarantees in Passive Optical Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1383 - 1393
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of providing absolute delay variation guarantees in passive optical networks and their optical coding enhanced counterparts. We analyze the components of frame delay variation in these settings and propose a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm that provides the optical line terminal with mechanisms to ensure that frame delay variation never breaches a predefined value. Furthermore, we provide simulation results and analyses to show that the proposed algorithm does not breach delay variation bounds. We also provide a lower bound analysis for providing absolute delay variation guarantees for both scenarios and show the duality between absolute delay and delay variation guarantees. View full abstract»

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  • Code Space Enlargement for Hybrid Fiber Radio and Baseband OCDMA PONs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1394 - 1400
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid analog and digital passive optical network based on optical code division multiple access is presented, and a code generation method is proposed to increase the number of codes for existing code families with fixed and ideal in-phase cross correlations. When code families with cyclic properties are used by this code generation method, compact encoders based on arrayed waveguide gratings can be used. The corresponding performance for this hybrid network is also analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Cascaded Multiple Infinite Impulse Response Optical Delay Line Signal Processor Without Coherent Interference

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1401 - 1406
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A technique that enables two or more infinite impulse response optical delay lines to be connected in series without the coherent interference problem is presented. It is based on inserting an optical frequency shifter into the infinite impulse response optical delay line structure. Signal processors based on the cascaded optical delay line structure have a higher frequency response performance than the single optical delay line structure. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate a dual series frequency shifting amplified recirculating delay line can realise a high-resolution, high skirt selectivity, high stopband rejection level bandpass filter response, and a narrow-passband, flat-top bandpass filter response using a non-commensurate delay line approach. View full abstract»

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  • Design Analysis and Experimental Verification of Cross-Order AWG Triplexer Based on Silica-on-Silicon

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1407 - 1413
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A compact arrayed waveguide grating triplexer with silica waveguides on silicon is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Different cross-order designs, which utilize different diffraction orders to cover a large spectral range from 1310 to 1550 nm, are analyzed in detail. B-Ge codoped upper cladding is used to facilitate the gap filling between the waveguides to reduce the loss and the polarization sensitivity. The measured spectra confirmed the operation principle of the cross-order arrayed waveguide grating design, with channel wavelengths and passbands consistent with simulations. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs