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Communications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • IEEE Communications Magazine - Front cover

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2 - 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ComSoc technical committees and emerging technologies [The President's Page]

    Page(s): 6 - 7
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • WCET news briefs [Certification Corner]

    Page(s): 8
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Conference calendar

    Page(s): 10 - 11
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  • Early T-carrier history

    Page(s): 12 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the 1950s AT&T faced the challenge of providing for the growth of traffic in the local telephone plant at lower costs than by simply continuing to expand the number of voice cable pairs between switching offices. Engineers identified pulse code modulation, PCM, as offering a robust solution to the problem and launched a system development effort in 1956. Some difficult technical problems were identified; the solutions were found and incorporated into a new system design. The product was T-Carrier, which was introduced into service in 1962. This new application of PCM was highly successful and the technology was licensed to the independent telephone industry. The race toward an all-digital network of digital transmission and switching was off and running. View full abstract»

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  • New products

    Page(s): 18
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Society members named to fellow grade [Society News]

    Page(s): 20 - 23
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent progress in machine-to-machine communications [Guest editorial]

    Page(s): 24 - 26
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • GRS: The green, reliability, and security of emerging machine to machine communications

    Page(s): 28 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (913 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Machine-to-machine communications is characterized by involving a large number of intelligent machines sharing information and making collaborative decisions without direct human intervention. Due to its potential to support a large number of ubiquitous characteristics and achieving better cost efficiency, M2M communications has quickly become a market-changing force for a wide variety of real-time monitoring applications, such as remote e-healthcare, smart homes, environmental monitoring, and industrial automation. However, the flourishing of M2M communications still hinges on fully understanding and managing the existing challenges: energy efficiency (green), reliability, and security (GRS). Without guaranteed GRS, M2M communications cannot be widely accepted as a promising communication paradigm. In this article, we explore the emerging M2M communications in terms of the potential GRS issues, and aim to promote an energy-efficient, reliable, and secure M2M communications environment. Specifically, we first formalize M2M communications architecture to incorporate three domains - the M2M, network, and application domains - and accordingly define GRS requirements in a systematic manner. We then introduce a number of GRS enabling techniques by exploring activity scheduling, redundancy utilization, and cooperative security mechanisms. These techniques hold promise in propelling the development and deployment of M2M communications applications. View full abstract»

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  • M2M: From mobile to embedded internet

    Page(s): 36 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Is M2M hype or the future of our information society? What does it take to turn the M2M vision into reality? In this article we discuss the business motivations and technology challenges for machine-to-machine communications. We highlight key M2M application requirements and major technology gaps. We analyze the future directions of air interface technology improvements and network architectures evolution to enable the mass deployment of M2M services. In particular, we consider the salient features of M2M traffic that may not be supported efficiently by present standards, and provide an overview of potential enhancements. Finally, we discuss standards development for M2M. View full abstract»

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  • Home M2M networks: Architectures, standards, and QoS improvement

    Page(s): 44 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (817 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is envisioned that home networks will shift from current machine-to-human communications to the machine-to-machine paradigm with the rapid penetration of embedded devices in home surroundings. In this article, we first identify the fundamental challenges in home M2M networks. Then we present the architecture of home M2M networks decomposed into three subareas depending on the radio service ranges and potential applications. Finally, we focus on QoS management in home M2M networks, considering the increasing number of multimedia devices and growing visual requirements in a home area. Three standards for multimedia sharing and their QoS architectures are outlined. Cross-layer joint admission and rate control design is reported for QoS-aware multimedia sharing. This proposed strategy is aware of the QoS requirements and resilience of multimedia services. Illustrative results indicate that the joint design is able to intelligently allocate radio bandwidth based on QoS demands in resource-constrained home M2M networks. View full abstract»

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  • Machine-to-machine communications for home energy management system in smart grid

    Page(s): 53 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications have emerged as a cutting edge technology for next-generation communications, and are undergoing rapid development and inspiring numerous applications. This article presents an investigation of the application of M2M communications in the smart grid. First, an overview of M2M communications is given. The enabling technologies and open research issues of M2M communications are also discussed. Then we address the network design issue of M2M communications for a home energy management system (HEMS) in the smart grid. The network architecture for HEMS to collect status and power consumption demand from home appliances is introduced. Then the optimal HEMS traffic concentration is presented and formulated as the optimal cluster formation. A dynamic programming algorithm is applied to obtain the optimal solution. The numerical results show that the proposed optimal traffic concentration can minimize the cost of HEMS. View full abstract»

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  • Toward intelligent machine-to-machine communications in smart grid

    Page(s): 60 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advanced metering infrastructure of the smart grid presents the biggest growth potential in the machine-to-machine market today. Spurred by recent advances in M2M technologies, SG smart meters are expected not to require human intervention in characterizing power requirements and energy distribution. However, there are many challenges in the design of the SG communications network whereby the electrical appliances and smart meters are able to exchange information pertaining to varying power requirements. Furthermore, different types of M2M gateways are required at different points (e.g., at home, in the building, at the neighborhood, and so forth) of the SG communication network. This article surveys a number of existing communication technologies that can be adopted for M2M communication in SG. Among these, the most reliable technology to facilitate M2M communication in the SG home area network is pointed out, and its shortcoming is also noted. Furthermore, a possible solution to deal with this shortcoming to improve SG communications scalability is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Toward ubiquitous massive accesses in 3GPP machine-to-machine communications

    Page(s): 66 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To enable full mechanical automation where each smart device can play multiple roles among sensor, decision maker, and action executor, it is essential to construct scrupulous connections among all devices. Machine-to-machine communications thus emerge to achieve ubiquitous communications among all devices. With the merit of providing higher-layer connections, scenarios of 3GPP have been regarded as the promising solution facilitating M2M communications, which is being standardized as an emphatic application to be supported by LTE-Advanced. However, distinct features in M2M communications create diverse challenges from those in human-to-human communications. To deeply understand M2M communications in 3GPP, in this article, we provide an overview of the network architecture and features of M2M communications in 3GPP, and identify potential issues on the air interface, including physical layer transmissions, the random access procedure, and radio resources allocation supporting the most critical QoS provisioning. An effective solution is further proposed to provide QoS guarantees to facilitate M2M applications with inviolable hard timing constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Recent advances in IETF standards [Guest editorial]

    Page(s): 76 - 77
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The coming of age of MPLS

    Page(s): 78 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large operators have embraced multiprotocol label switching, deploying it in their backbone networks to enable a number of services and applications such as virtual private networks to just name one. Since the inception of the respective IETF working group, MPLS has accumulated a number of features and has been extended to be applicable in new contexts such as optical networks in the form of generalized MPLS. Currently, MPLS is being further extended to finally mature into a technology from which to build a full-fledged packet transport network that fulfills a large number of traditional transport network requirements. Having celebrated the early teens of MPLS in 2009, the IETF might well find itself celebrating MPLS's coming of age with the completion of the MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP). This article is a short tutorial on what MPLS-TP is, how it came about, and what it promises to deliver in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Stream control transmission protocol: Past, current, and future standardization activities

    Page(s): 82 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a general-purpose transport layer protocol providing a service similar to TCP - plus a set of advanced features to utilize the enhanced capabilities of modern IP networks and to support increased application requirements. Nowadays, there are SCTP implementations for all major operating systems. While SCTP was standardized as an RFC several years ago, there is still significant ongoing work within the IETF to discuss and standardize further features in the form of protocol extensions. In this article, we first introduce the SCTP base protocol and already standardized extensions. After that, we focus on the ongoing SCTP standardization progress in the IETF and give an overview of activities and challenges in the areas of security and concurrent multipath transport. View full abstract»

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  • An introduction to IP flow information export (IPFIX)

    Page(s): 89 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The IP Flow Information Export protocol (IPFIX) is an IETF Proposed Standard for the export of information about network flows in IP networks. It is the logical successor to Cisco Net- Flow version 9, upon which it is based. The key innovations of IPFIX are the flexible definition of a network flow and the runtime description of record formats through templates based on a well defined, extensible information model. These allow IPFIX to export flow information from present as well as future networks, and make it applicable to network management beyond the network and transport layers. In this article, we describe the protocol, from its motivation and history through its design and implementation, and explore its deployment within a network monitoring research project. View full abstract»

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  • Internet geolocation and location-based services

    Page(s): 102 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the edge of the Internet becomes increasingly mobile, location-based Internet applications have taken on a much more prominent role. At the same time, though, the underlying geolocation systems that support these applications were designed with specific circumstances in mind, rather than being general to the whole Internet. The IETF GEOPRIV architecture provides a unified geolocation system for the Internet, allowing applications to benefit from current geolocation design patterns as well as some new security and privacy features. View full abstract»

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  • Topics in integrated circuits for communications [Guest editorial]

    Page(s): 110 - 111
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Greendroid: Exploring the next evolution in smartphone application processors

    Page(s): 112 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile application processors are soon to replace desktop processors as the focus of innovation in microprocessor technology. Already, these processors have largely caught up to their more power hungry cousins, supporting out-oforder execution and multicore processing. In the near future, the exponentially worsening problem of dark silicon is going to be the primary force that dictates the evolution of these designs. In recent work, we have argued that the natural evolution of mobile application processors is to use this dark silicon to create hundreds of automatically generated energy-saving cores, called conservation cores, which can reduce energy consumption by an order of magnitude. This article describes GreenDroid, a research prototype that demonstrates the use of such cores to save energy broadly across the hotspots in the Android mobile phone software stack. View full abstract»

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  • Single-element and phased-array transceiver chipsets for 60-ghz Gb/s communications

    Page(s): 120 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article summarizes the development of mature and highly integrated SiGe BiCMOS ICs for gigabit-per-second communications according to the requirements of the IEEE 802.15.3c and 802.11.ad-draft standards. A single-element transceiver chipset for point-to-point communications is described with emphasis on a feature-rich yet compact 60-GHz receiver. Next, a 16-element phased-array transceiver chipset for non-line-of-sight communications is described, with emphasis on a new power-efficient phased-array transmitter. Examples of gigabit-per-second line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight link experiments are provided, and system-level implementation trade-offs are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Equalization techniques for nonlinear analog circuits

    Page(s): 132 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1585 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Technology advancement entails an analog design scenario in which sophisticated signal processing algorithms are deployed in mixed-mode and radio frequency circuits to compensate for deterministic and random deficiencies of process technologies. This article reviews one such approach of applying a common communication technique, equalization, to correct for nonlinear distortions in analog circuits, which is analogized as non-ideal communication channels. The efficacy of this approach is showcased by a few latest advances in data conversion and RF transmission integrated circuits, where unprecedented energy efficiency, circuit linearity, and post-fabrication adaptability have been attained with low-cost digital processing. View full abstract»

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  • Worse-than-Rayleigh fading: Experimental results and theoretical models

    Page(s): 140 - 146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article is motivated by the recent recognition that channel fading for new wireless applications is not always well described by traditional models used for mobile communication systems. In particular, fading data collected for vehicleto- vehicle and wireless sensor network applications has motivated new models for conditions in which channel fading statistics can be worse than Rayleigh. We review the use of statistical channel models, describe our example applications, and provide both measured and modeling results for these severe fading conditions. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications systems (PCS), ISDN, and more.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Sean Moore
Centripetal Networks