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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 8 • Date April15, 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • Journal of Lightwave Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1067 - 1068
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  • Multiple-Tap, Tunable Microwave Photonic Interference Mitigation Filter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1069 - 1076
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new interference mitigation microwave photonic filter structure that can realize a narrow, high-resolution notch with low amplitude and group-delay ripple in the passband, which is tunable, and which is free of coherent interference limitations, is presented. It is based on a multiple double-pass modulation technique that introduces a new concept for superposing the resultant notches in a predetermined manner so as to obtain notch narrowing at the desired frequency while simultaneously flattening of the response in the passband region. The notch frequency can also be tuned. Experimental results demonstrate robust, coherence-free, multitap microwave notch filter operation with narrow notch together with a wide and flat passband, and which is also tunable. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Fabrication of Novel Broadband Long-Period Fiber Gratings Using Synthesis Techniques

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1077 - 1084
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present results of novel broadband long-period gratings (LPGs) that were fabricated axially symmetric in single-mode fiber with a carbon-dioxide laser. The discrete layer-peeling (DLP) technique and a genetic algorithm (GA) were used to design the LPGs. Numerical simulations were used to indicate the performance and absolute error of reconstructing a complex spectral profile for a particular synthesis technique. We found that the DLP technique has the highest performance and executes in the least amount of time. However, a GA could not efficiently synthesize an LPG, but produced a refractive index change profile that can be implemented using a common LPG fabrication system. It is shown that the experimental results obtained with the GA are superior to that obtained with the DLP technique. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of 50 Stable Frequency-Locked Optical Carriers for Tb/s Multicarrier Optical Transmission Using a Recirculating Frequency Shifter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1085 - 1091
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1862 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report the generation of fifty 12.5-GHz-spaced optical carriers with high power flatness and stability by using a single-side band (SSB) modulator-based recirculating frequency shifter (RFS). The peak-to-peak power difference and the RMS power difference of the generated carriers are 2.5 and 0.3 dB, respectively. We also experimentally investigate the impact of implementation imperfections on the flatness of the generated carriers. The important factors that contribute to the flatness of the generated carriers are found to be the amplitude balance of two inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) drive signals for the SSB modulator, the time misalignment between the I and Q signals, the accuracy of the /2 phase bias of the SSB modulator and the stability of the polarization alignment in the RFS. By carefully controlling all the factors mentioned earlier, we obtain stable operation of 50 frequency-locked carriers; showing that the SSB modulator-based RFS is a promising technique for future terabit per second multicarrier transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion of 80-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK Signal and 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK Signal in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1092 - 1097
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simultaneous all-optical wavelength conversion of an 80-Gb/s return-to-zero differential quadrature phase shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) data signal and a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero ON--OFF keying (RZ-OOK) data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a polarization-diversity loop configuration are demonstrated. The wavelength conversion is fully transparent to polarization, data rate, modulation format, and modulation level. The conversion efficiency for the signals was -21 dB, which includes 9.2-dB passive losses in the whole Ti:PPLN subsystem. Error-free performance for both wavelength-converted signals was achieved for polarization-scrambled input data signals without additional penalty caused by the polarization scrambling. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrally Efficient Quadrature Duobinary Coherent Systems With Symbol-Rate Digital Signal Processing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1098 - 1104
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enhanced digital coherent receiver including a novel blind equalization approach and maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) is proposed for dual-polarization quadrature duobinary (DP-QDB) systems. In virtue of the compact spectrum of DP-QDB signals approaching Nyquist limit, the equalization is implemented at symbol rate, which relaxes the demand on the sampling speed of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The proposed symbol-rate receiver is verified by 43 Gb/s experiments in the presence of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion. This paper also investigates the tolerances to narrowband optical filtering, ADC sampling phase, duobinary-generating filter bandwidth, laser linewidth, and carrier frequency offset. Detailed modulation format comparisons are made among DP-QDB, DP-quadrature-phase-shift keying (QPSK), DP-8 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and DP-16QAM. It is shown that DP-QDB with MLSD well trades off major requirements on advanced modulation formats. View full abstract»

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  • Multiband 60-GHz Wireless Over Fiber Access System With High Dispersion Tolerance Using Frequency Tripling Technique

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1105 - 1111
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new optical millimeter-wave generation scheme to triple the beating frequency based on subcarrier multiplexing in combination with single sideband technique is proposed, capable of high tolerance of fiber chromatic dispersion. The proposed scheme can be applied to two types of multiband 60-GHz wireless over fiber access systems: one with widely separated bands including millimeter-wave, microwave and baseband and the other one with multiple 60-GHz sub-bands. Experimental verification of the proposed system with widely separated bands is presented with the generation and error-free transmission of 2.1-Gb/s data on the 63-GHz mm-wave and 21-GHz microwave carriers over 50-km single-mode fiber (SMF-28) without dispersion compensation. The power penalties caused by 50-km fiber transmission for both signals are both less than 1.0 dB at BER of 10-9 Meanwhile, simultaneous generation and transmission of multiple services at 60-GHz sub-bands are also introduced. The experimental results demonstrate the successful delivery of the 1-Gbps data carried by 60-GHz millimeter-wave both over 50-km SMF-28 and wireless distance of 6-m without any dispersion compensation. The optical receiver sensitivity of the transmission with two sub-bands degrades by 2 dB compared with the single band 60-GHz signal, and the power penalty from 50-km SMF-28 transmission is 0.8 dB at BER of 10-9. From the theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations of the two multiband systems, it is concluded that the proposed millimeter-wave generation scheme indeed increase the transmission distance for the system with 60-GHz signal, which normally having SMF transmission distance of few tens of kilometers, by utilizing optical and electrical components with low-bandwidth requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Sub-Volt Silicon-Organic Electro-optic Modulator With 500 MHz Bandwidth

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1112 - 1117
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lowering the operating voltage of electro-optic modulators is desirable for a variety of applications, most notably in analog photonics and digital data communication. In particular for digital systems such as CPUs, it is desirable to develop modulators that are both temperature-insensitive and compatible with typically sub-2 V CMOS electronics; however, drive voltages in silicon-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) currently exceed 1.8 V. Here, we show an MZI modulator based on an electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide, with a halfwave voltage of only 0.69 V (corresponding to a 0.62 V(·)cm modulation figure of merit), and a bandwidth of 500 MHz. We also show that there are paths to significantly improve both the bandwidth and drive voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing the FEC Overhead in a 100 GbE PDM-QPSK Digital Coherent Transmission System

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1118 - 1126
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The finite electrical bandwidth of digital coherent transceivers together with limited wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channel spacing constrains the maximum forward error correction (FEC) overhead that can be advantageously applied to fiber optic transmission systems. We investigate through simulations of a 100 GbE system employing coherent polarization division multiplexed quaternary phase shift keying, the impact of these bandwidth constraints on the optimal code rate thereby minimizing the required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at the receiver. The optimum FEC overhead is found to increase linearly with available bandwidth and the required OSNR is found to reduce for lower order transponder filters. Fabrication of transmitters with a broader spectral response than their receiver counterpart is found to be advantageous. The optimum electrical bandwidth is found to be approximately half the WDM channel spacing for nonreturn to zero (NRZ) transmission and slightly less for return to zero (RZ). There is shown to be no performance advantage in using RZ over NRZ modulation formats when the optimum FEC overhead and filter bandwidth is employed in each case. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that transpacific transmission is attainable with a margin that increases as the spectral efficiency is relaxed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Polarization-Insensitive Optical Fiber Probe Based on Effective Optical Parameters

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1127 - 1135
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (981 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When using an optical fiber probe to measure the properties of anisotropic optical materials, some form of polarization controller is required to compensate for the inherent birefringence and diattenuation properties of the fiber. The experimental settings of the optical components within the polarization controller are generally determined on a trial-and-error basis; resulting in a lengthy experimentation process. Accordingly, in the present study, a method is proposed for calculating in advance the precise controller settings required to guarantee the formation of a free-space condition. In the proposed approach, the effective optical parameters of the optical fiber are determined using an analytical method, and the optimal settings of the polarization controller are then determined using a genetic algorithm. It is shown that the proposed approach enables a free-space condition to be achieved for the common polarization controller. The practical applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated by remotely and absolutely measuring the linear birefringence and linear diattenuation properties of a quarter-wave plate and a polarizer, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of a Digital CMOS Driver Codesigned and Integrated With a Broadband Silicon Photonic Switch

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1136 - 1142
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A custom 90-nm bulk digital CMOS switch driver is codesigned and integrated with a silicon photonic switch. A photonic device model is created within the electronic design environment, facilitating driver optimization and performance evaluation prior to fabrication. The fabricated drivers implemented in two variations produce transition times as low as 50 ps and generate open eye diagrams using supply voltages ranging from 0.8 to 5 V. The driver is hybrid integrated with a broadband low-power silicon photonic 2 × 2 switch, based on a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The switch has demonstrated operation over 100 nm of spectral bandwidth with less than -17-dB crosstalk, greater than 25 °C tolerance to temperature variations, and compatibility with 1-V driving signals. The integration demonstrates the interoperability of the switch and driver, which together achieve transition times below 4 ns and average power consumption of 2 mW. Finally, throughput bandwidth of 160 Gb/s is demonstrated for all switch configurations via eye diagrams and bit error rate curves. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Evaluation of IR-UWB in Short-Range Fiber Communication Using Linear Combination of Monocycles

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1143 - 1151
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the performance evaluation of impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) over fiber using a simple pulse design technique with a high fractional bandwidth. The technique, based on the linear combination of the first-order Gaussian derivatives with different pulse-shaping factors, shows full compliance with Federal Communications Commission mask requirements even in the most severely power-restricted GPS band. We validated our approach with experiments employing an intensity-modulation direct-detection scheme. The experimental setup uses a directly modulated DFB laser at 1302.56 nm and a multimode fiber-coupled photodetector with 24 μm diameter photosensitive area. The transmission link consists of 25 km single-mode fiber or 4.4 km multimode fiber. Error-free transmission at 2 Gb/s is achieved over both fiber links. The result shows the proposed pulse-generation technique to be simple and cost-effective compared to higher order Gaussian derivative schemes. This can be implemented successfully to distribute UWB signals over optical links for access and in-building networks. View full abstract»

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  • Homodyne Coherent Optical Receiver Using an Optical Injection Phase-Lock Loop

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1152 - 1164
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the operating principle, practical implementation, and experimental evaluation of a synchronous homodyne coherent optical receiver based on an optical phase-locking scheme that combines optical injection locking of the semiconductor laser local oscillator (LO) with low-speed electronic feedback to give both a large locking bandwidth and a wide tracking range. We demonstrate phase-error variance as low as 0.002 rad2 in 10-GHz bandwidth for locking to a continuous-wave (CW) signal for a combined signal and LO linewidth of 1.5 MHz (full-width at half-maximum), and robust phase locking to a 10-Gb/s binary amplitude-shift-keyed (ASK) signal, enabling synchronous back-to-back demodulation of the signal with low bit error ratio (BER <; 10- 10) and improved performance compared to direct detection at low optical SNR (OSNR). By locking to a low-power CW pilot carrier in the polarization orthogonal to the data signal, demodulation of binary phase-shift-keyed (BPSK) data has been achieved, with the required OSNR at BER = 10-3 reduced by 3 dB compared to demodulation of ASK data under the same conditions. The OSNR penalty after transmission of the ASK and BPSK signals over 40 km of standard single-mode fiber was 1-2 dB at BER = 10-3, indicating that the chromatic dispersion sensitivity of the coherent receiver is similar to that for direct detection, and verifying that the scheme for locking to the orthogonal pilot is applicable to transmission systems, provided that optical polarization tracking is employed. In addition, we demonstrate frequency-selective operation of the coherent receiver, demultiplexing and demodulating one of a pair of equal power, 10 Gb/s, ASK channels separated by 17.5 GHz, with OSNR penalty at BER = 10- 3 of 1.5 dB compared to single-channel operation. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the Effects of Chirped RZ Signals in Reducing the Transmission Impairments in R-SOA-Based Bidirectional PONs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1165 - 1171
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed and concentrated reflections represent the two main limitations in reflective-semiconductor optical amplifier (R-SOA)-based passive optical networks (PONs). In this paper, we experimentally discuss how the use of chirped signals in centralized light seeding bidirectional PON can increase the resilience of the system against those two types of reflections. An experimental comparison of the performance of a highly chirped return to zero (RZ) modulation format and the nonreturn to zero is given. Error-free operation is achieved down to 10 dB of signal to crosstalk ratio in presence of distributed reflection, when the upstream signal is highly chirped RZ signal. The same chirped modulation leads to a tolerance of more than -25 dB network return loss due to concentrated reflections. Finally, we assess also the system feasibility of a R-SOA-based full-duplex PON where both the upstream and the downstream are modulated signals. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of Raman-Assisted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier Gain

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1172 - 1181
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We studied the gain of Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers (RA-FOPAs) both theoretically and experimentally. We investigated the relationship between the overall gain and different combinations of Raman and parametric pump powers using contour maps. We derived a normalized phase-matched model to determine the general behavior the peak gains of RA-FOPAs operating in the small signal region. The contour maps of the combined gain enhancement can be used to optimize both indirect and direct Raman gain of the signal/idler in RA-FOPAs. We showed that, in a given fiber, it is possible to optimize the Raman and parametric pump powers in RA-FOPAs for high gain and high efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Long-Haul Analog Photonics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1182 - 1205
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A paper on long-haul analog photonics is presented using theory and experimental results. Various analog fiber-optic modulation formats are reviewed, including intensity modulation with direct detection, phase modulation with interferometric demodulation, and suppressed-carried techniques. Modulation linearization methods are reviewed. The limitations of and requirements for photodiode detectors are described. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated 2.8 \mu m Laser Source in Al _{2} O _{3} :Er ^{3+} Slot Waveguide on SOI

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1206 - 1212
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We numerically investigate the potential of Al2O3:Er3+ active slot waveguides for realizing small-form factor lasers on silicon on insulator at 2.8 μm. Based on recent technological improvements in the reliable and low-cost fabrication of alumina doped with high Er3 + concentration and exploiting the extremely high field intensity achievable in optimized active slot waveguides, we point out the possibility of realizing silicon-compatible emitters at 2.8 μ m, optically pumped at 1480 nm with a few milliwatts threshold pump power. A strong potential impact can be envisaged for chemical sensing, biosensing and lab-on-a-chip applications. View full abstract»

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  • 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1213
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2011 EDS J.J. Ebers Award call for nominations

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1214
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Semiconductors and ICs

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Photonics for environmental sensing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1216
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (116 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Journal of Lightwave Technology Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C3
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs