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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 4 • Date April 2011

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • [Staff list]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial Advances in Cognitive Radio Networking and Communications (II)

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 673 - 675
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  • Simple Channel Sensing Order in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 676 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), effective and efficient channel exploitation is imperative for unlicensed secondary users to seize available network resources and improve resource utilization. In this paper, we propose a simple channel sensing order for secondary users in multi-channel CRNs without a priori knowledge of primary user activities. By sensing the channels according to the descending order of their achievable rates with optimal stopping, we show that the proposed channel exploitation approach is efficient yet effective in elevating throughput and resource utilization. Simulation results show that our proposed channel exploitation approach outperforms its counterparts by up to 18% in a single-secondary user pair scenario. In addition, we investigate the probability of packet transmission collision in a multi-secondary user pair scenario, and show that the probability of collision decreases as the number of channels increases and/or the number of secondary user pairs decreases. It is observed that the total throughput and resource utilization increase with the number of secondary user pairs due to increased transmission opportunities and multi-user diversity. Our results also demonstrate that resource utilization can be further improved via the proposed channel exploitation approach when the number of secondary user pairs approaches the number of channels. View full abstract»

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  • Control Channel Establishment in Cognitive Radio Networks using Channel Hopping

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 689 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (535 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In decentralized cognitive radio (CR) networks, enabling the radios to establish a control channel (i.e., "rendezvous" to establish a link) is a challenging problem. The use of a dedicated common control channel simplifies the rendezvous process but may not be feasible in many opportunistic spectrum sharing scenarios due to the dynamically changing availability of all the channels, including the control channel. To address this problem, researchers have proposed the use of channel hopping protocols for enabling rendezvous in CR networks. Most, if not all, of the existing channel hopping schemes only provide ad hoc approaches for generating channel hopping sequences and evaluating their properties. In this paper, we present a systematic approach, based on quorum systems, for designing and analyzing channel hopping protocols for the purpose of control channel establishment. The proposed approach, called Quorum-based Channel Hopping (QCH) system, can be used for implementing rendezvous protocols in CR networks that are robust against link breakage caused by the appearance of incumbent user signals. We describe two synchronous QCH systems under the assumption of global clock synchronization, and two asynchronous channel hopping systems that do not require global clock synchronization. Our analytical and simulation results show that the proposed channel hopping schemes outperform existing schemes under various network conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Opportunistic Multiple Access for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 704 - 715
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, opportunistic multiple access to the under-utilized channel resources is investigated. Exploiting source burstiness, secondary cognitive nodes utilizes primary nodes' periods of silence to access the channel and transmit their packets. Cognitive relays could also make use of these silence periods to offer spatial diversity without incurring bandwidth efficiency losses. First, we consider the cognitive cooperation protocol and propose two different relay assignment schemes. Comparison between the proposed schemes is carried out through a maximum stable throughput analysis of the network. Then, secondary nodes access to the remaining idle channel resources is investigated. Queueing theoretical analysis and numerical results reveal that despite the fact that relays occupy part of the idle resources to provide cooperation, secondary nodes surprisingly achieve higher throughput in the presence of relays. The rationale is that relays help primary nodes empty their queues at faster rates, therefore, secondary nodes observe increased access opportunities to the channel. View full abstract»

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  • Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing Schemes for CDMA-Based Uplink MAC in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 716 - 730
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (867 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a wireless cognitive radio network in which a set of secondary users (SUs) opportunistically utilize the wireless spectrum licensed to the primary users (PUs) to transmit packets to the secondary base station (SBS). It is challenging to maximize the spectrum utilization while limiting the interference imposed to PUs due to SUs. To achieve the optimal tradeoff between the spectrum utilization and the interference caused by SUs, we propose the adaptive spectrum sharing schemes for code division multiple access (CDMA) based cognitive medium access control (MAC) in the uplink communications over the cognitive radio networks. Our proposed schemes address the joint problems of channel sensing, data transmission, and power and rate allocations. Under our proposed schemes, the SUs can adaptively select between the intrusive spectrum sharing and the non-intrusive spectrum sharing operations to transmit data to SBS based on the channel utilization, traffic load, and interference constraints. Our proposed schemes enable the SUs to efficiently utilize the available frequency spectrum which is licensed to the PUs while stringently limiting the interference to the PUs. Also conducted are extensive simulations to validate and evaluate our proposed schemes, which show the superiority of our proposed schemes as compared with the other schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Algorithms for Learning and Cognitive Medium Access with Logarithmic Regret

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 731 - 745
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of distributed learning and channel access is considered in a cognitive network with multiple secondary users. The availability statistics of the channels are initially unknown to the secondary users and are estimated using sensing decisions. There is no explicit information exchange or prior agreement among the secondary users and sensing and access decisions are undertaken by them in a completely distributed manner. We propose policies for distributed learning and access which achieve order-optimal cognitive system throughput (number of successful secondary transmissions) under self play, i.e., when implemented at all the secondary users. Equivalently, our policies minimize the sum regret in distributed learning and access, which is the loss in secondary throughput due to learning and distributed access. For the scenario when the number of secondary users is known to the policy, we prove that the total regret is logarithmic in the number of transmission slots. This policy achieves order-optimal regret based on a logarithmic lower bound for regret under any uniformly-good learning and access policy. We then consider the case when the number of secondary users is fixed but unknown, and is estimated at each user through feedback. We propose a policy whose sum regret grows only slightly faster than logarithmic in the number of transmission slots. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Cognitive Access of Markovian Channels under Tight Collision Constraints

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 746 - 756
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of cognitive access of channels of primary users by a secondary user is considered. The transmissions of primary users are modeled as independent continuous-time Markovian on-off processes. A secondary cognitive user employs a slotted transmission format, and it senses one of the possible channels before transmission. The objective of the cognitive user is to maximize its throughput subject to collision constraints imposed by the primary users. The optimal access strategy is in general a solution of a constrained partially observable Markov decision process, which involves a constrained optimization in an infinite dimensional functional space. It is shown in this paper that, when the collision constraints are tight, the optimal access strategy can be implemented by a simple memoryless access policy with periodic channel sensing. Analytical expressions are given for the thresholds on collision probabilities for which memoryless access performs optimally. Extensions to multiple secondary users are also presented. Numerical and theoretical results are presented to validate and extend the analysis for different practical scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Load-Balancing Spectrum Decision for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 757 - 769
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present an analytical framework to design system parameters for load-balancing multiuser spectrum decision schemes in cognitive radio (CR) networks. Unlike the non-load-balancing methods that multiple secondary users may contend for the same channel, the considered load-balancing schemes can distribute the traffic loads of secondary users to multiple channels. Based on the preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing theory, a spectrum decision analytical model is proposed to evaluate the effects of multiple interruptions from the primary user during each link connection, the sensing errors (i.e., missed detection and false alarm) of the secondary users, and the heterogeneous channel capacity. With the objective of minimizing the overall system time of the secondary users, we derive the optimal number of candidate channels and the optimal channel selection probability for the sensing-based and the probability-based spectrum decision schemes, respectively. We find that the probability-based scheme can yield a shorter overall system time compared to the sensing-based scheme when the traffic loads of the secondary users is light, whereas the sensing-based scheme performs better in the condition of heavy traffic loads. If the secondary users can intelligently adopt the best spectrum decision scheme according to sensing time and traffic conditions, the overall system time can be improved by 50% compared to the existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic Medium Access for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 770 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1194 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In ad hoc cognitive radio (CR) networks, medium access control (MAC) design has been raised as a major challenge due to its highly dynamic nature and strong user diversity, particularly in situations where a dedicated control channel is not reserved among the distributed CR nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel Stochastic Medium Access (SMA) scheme that takes interference constraints into account to improve spectrum sharing efficiency. Specifically, the proposed SMA scheme is developed to serve in a CR network without dedicated control channels, such that the probability of successful channel accesses can be maximized. The formulated optimization problem is then solved by using a dynamic Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo scheme. Moreover, the paper introduces a suite of mechanisms for implementation of the proposed SMA scheme, including segmentation of long packets and contention resolution, which is working on top of power controlled Request-to-Send (RTS) and Clear-to-Send (CTS) exchanges in a multichannel environment. An analytical model is developed on the proposed SMA scheme using an absorbing Markov chain model to evaluate throughput of the secondary user network. Extensive simulation is conducted to study the impact of some important factors on the proposed SMA scheme, such as channel conditions and secondary traffic loads. View full abstract»

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  • Multicast Communications in Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 784 - 793
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study a multicast communication problem in a multi-hop ad hoc network where each node is equipped with a cognitive radio (CR). The goal is to minimize the required network-wide resource to support a set of multicast sessions, with a given bit rate requirement for each multicast session. The unique characteristics and complexity associated with CR distinguish this problem from existing multicast problems for ad hoc networks. In this paper, we formulate this problem via a cross-layer approach by taking consideration of scheduling and routing jointly. Although the problem formulation is in the form of a mixed-integer linear program, we develop a polynomial-time algorithm that offers highly competitive solutions. By comparing the solution values with a lower bound, we show that the proposed algorithm can provide a solution that is close to the optimum. View full abstract»

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  • CRP: A Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 794 - 804
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology enables the opportunistic use of the vacant licensed frequency bands, thereby improving the spectrum utilization. However, the CR operation must not interfere with the transmissions of the licensed or primary users (PUs), and this is generally achieved by incurring a trade-off in the CR network performance. In order to evaluate this trade-off, a distributed CR routing protocol for ad hoc networks (CRP) is proposed that makes the following contributions: (i) explicit protection for PU receivers that are generally not detected during spectrum sensing, (ii) allowing multiple classes of routes based on service differentiation in CR networks, and (iii) scalable, joint route-spectrum selection. A key novelty of CRP is the mapping of spectrum selection metrics, and local PU interference observations to a packet forwarding delay over the control channel. This allows the route formation undertaken over a control channel to capture the environmental and spectrum information for all the intermediate nodes, thereby reducing the computational overhead at the destination. Results reveal the importance of formulating the routing problem from the viewpoint of safeguarding the PU communication, which is a unique feature in CR networks. View full abstract»

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  • On the Connectivity and Multihop Delay of Ad Hoc Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 805 - 818
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the multihop delay of ad hoc cognitive radio networks, where the transmission delay of each hop consists of the propagation delay and the waiting time for the availability of the communication channel (i.e. the occurrence of a spectrum opportunity at this hop). Using theories and techniques from continuum percolation and ergodicity, we establish the scaling law of the minimum multihop delay with respect to the source-destination distance in cognitive radio networks. When the propagation delay is negligible, we show the starkly different scaling behavior of the minimum multihop delay in instantaneously connected networks as compared to networks that are only intermittently connected due to scarcity of spectrum opportunities. Specifically, if the network is instantaneously connected, the minimum multihop delay is asymptotically independent of the distance; if the network is only intermittently connected, the minimum multihop delay scales linearly with the distance. When the propagation delay is nonnegligible but small, we show that although the scaling order is always linear, the scaling rate for an instantaneously connected network can be orders of magnitude smaller than the one for an intermittently connected network. View full abstract»

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  • QoS Provisioning for Heterogeneous Services in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 819 - 830
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a spectrum allocation framework that jointly considers the Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning for heterogeneous secondary Real-Time (RT) and Non-Real Time (NRT) users, the spectrum sensing, spectrum access decision, channel allocation, and call admission control in distributed cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). Giving priority to the RT users with QoS requirements in terms of the dropping and blocking probabilities, a number of the identified available channels are allocated to the optimum number of the RT users that can be admitted into the network, while the remaining identified available channels are allocated adaptively to the optimum number of the NRT users considering the spectrum sensing and utilization indispensability. Extensive analytical and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QoS-based spectrum resource allocation framework. View full abstract»

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  • A Hybrid Approach for Radio Resource Management in Heterogeneous Cognitive Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 831 - 842
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributing Radio Resource Management (RRM) in heterogeneous wireless networks is an important research and development axis that aims at reducing network complexity. In this context, RRM decision making can be delegated to mobiles by incorporating cognitive capabilities into mobile handsets, resulting in the reduction of signalling and processing burden. This may however result in inefficiencies (such as those known as the "tragedy of commons") that are inherent to equilibria in non-cooperative games. Due to the concern for efficiency, centralized network architectures and protocols keep being considered and being compared to decentralized ones. From the point of view of the network architecture, this implies the co-existence of network-centric and terminal-centric RRM schemes. Instead of taking part within the debate among the supporters of each solution, we propose in this paper hybrid schemes where the wireless users are assisted in their decisions by the network that broadcasts aggregated load information. At some system's states, the network manager may impose his decisions on the network users. In other states the mobiles may take autonomous actions in reaction to information sent by the network. In order to improve the performance of the non-cooperative scenario, we investigate the properties of an alternative solution concept named Stackelberg game, in which the network tries to control the users' behavior by broadcasting appropriate information, expected to maximize its utility, while individual users maximize their own utility. We derive analytically the utilities related to the Quality of Service (QoS) perceived by mobile users and develop a Bayesian framework to obtain the equilibria. Numerical results illustrate the advantages of using our hybrid game framework in an association problem in a network composed of HSDPA and 3G LTE system that serve streaming and elastic flows. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum Trading in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Contract-Theoretic Modeling Approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 843 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio is a promising paradigm to achieve efficient utilization of spectrum resource by allowing the unlicensed users (i.e., secondary users, SUs) to access the licensed spectrum. Market-driven spectrum trading is an efficient way to achieve dynamic spectrum accessing/sharing. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum trading with single primary spectrum owner (or primary user, PO) selling his idle spectrum to multiple SUs. We model the trading process as a monopoly market, in which the PO acts as monopolist who sets the qualities and prices for the spectrum he sells, and the SUs act as consumers who choose the spectrum with appropriate quality and price for purchasing. We design a monopolist-dominated quality-price contract, which is offered by the PO and contains a set of quality-price combinations each intended for a consumer type. A contract is feasible if it is incentive compatible (IC) and individually rational (IR) for each SU to purchase the spectrum with the quality-price intended for his type. We propose the necessary and sufficient conditions for the contract to be feasible. We further derive the optimal contract, which is feasible and maximizes the utility of the PO, for both discrete-consumer-type model and continuous-consumer-type model. Moreover, we analyze the social surplus, i.e., the aggregate utility of both PO and SUs, and we find that, depending on the distribution of consumer types, the social surplus under the optimal contract may be less than or close to the maximum social surplus. View full abstract»

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  • On a Truthful Mechanism for Expiring Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 856 - 865
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study how truthfulness can be enforced as a dominant strategy when a number of secondary cognitive radios participate in an online expiring spectrum sharing auction, held by the primary to lease its spectrum holes. The types of secondary cognitive radios, announced to the primary, are composed of valuation and arrival-departure periods. We show how, by the suitable choice of channel allocation and pricing schemes, the collusion incentive among secondary cognitive radios can be reduced. The performance of the deployed dynamic auction is compared with that of the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) offline auction as a benchmark. View full abstract»

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  • Purging the Back-Room Dealing: Secure Spectrum Auction Leveraging Paillier Cryptosystem

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 866 - 876
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (879 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microeconomics-inspired spectrum auctions can dramatically improve the spectrum utilization for wireless networks to satisfy the ever increasing service demands. However, the back-room dealing (i.e., the frauds of the insincere auctioneer and the bid-rigging between the greedy bidders and the auctioneer) poses significant security challenges, and fails all existing secure auction designs to allocate spectrum bands when considering the frequency reuse in wireless networks. In this paper, we propose THEMIS, a secure spectrum auction leveraging the Paillier cryptosystem to prevent the frauds of the insincere auctioneer as well as the bid-rigging between the bidders and the auctioneer. THEMIS incorporates cryptographic technique into spectrum auction to address the challenges of back-room dealing. It computes and reveals the results of spectrum auction while the actual bidding values of bidders are kept confidential. THEMIS also provides a novel procedure for implementing secure spectrum auction under interference constraints. It has been shown that THEMIS can effectively purge the back-room dealing with limited communication and computational complexity, and achieve similar performance compared with existing insecure spectrum auction designs in terms of spectrum utilization, revenue of the auctioneer, and bidders' satisfaction. View full abstract»

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  • An anti-jamming stochastic game for cognitive radio networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 877 - 889
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Various spectrum management schemes have been proposed in recent years to improve the spectrum utilization in cognitive radio networks. However, few of them have considered the existence of cognitive attackers who can adapt their attacking strategy to the time-varying spectrum environment and the secondary users' strategy. In this paper, we investigate the security mechanism when secondary users are facing the jamming attack, and propose a stochastic game framework for anti-jamming defense. At each stage of the game, secondary users observe the spectrum availability, the channel quality, and the attackers' strategy from the status of jammed channels. According to this observation, they will decide how many channels they should reserve for transmitting control and data messages and how to switch between the different channels. Using the minimax-Q learning, secondary users can gradually learn the optimal policy, which maximizes the expected sum of discounted payoffs defined as the spectrum-efficient throughput. The proposed stationary policy in the anti-jamming game is shown to achieve much better performance than the policy obtained from myopic learning, which only maximizes each stage's payoff, and a random defense strategy, since it successfully accommodates the environment dynamics and the strategic behavior of the cognitive attackers. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Coordinated Denial-of-Service Attacks in IEEE 802.22 Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 890 - 902
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (847 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The cognitive radio enabled IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network (WRAN) is designed to opportunistically utilize the unused or under-utilized TV bands. However, due to the open nature of cognitive radio networks and lack of proactive security protocols, the IEEE 802.22 networks are vulnerable to various denial-of-service (DoS) threats. In this paper, we study coordinated DoS attacks on IEEE 802.22 networks from the malicious users' perspective. We consider both one-stage and a multi-stage cases of the problem. In the one-stage scenario, we formulate a cooperative game among the malicious nodes and derive the optimal decision strategy for the them. In the multi-stage case, we propose a discrete-time Markov chain model for the dynamic behavior of both malicious nodes and the 802.22 secondary networks. Simulation and numerical results demonstrate that in the one-stage case, the coordinated attack achieves 10-15% improvement compared to the non-cooperative attack from the perspective of malicious nodes, and, in the multi-stage case, there exists an optimal number of malicious nodes that maximize the net payoff under the steady state. View full abstract»

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  • Spoofing or Jamming: Performance Analysis of a Tactical Cognitive Radio Adversary

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 903 - 911
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The tradeoff between spoofing and jamming a cognitive radio network by an intelligent adversary is analyzed in this paper. Due to the vulnerabilities of spectrum sensing noted in recent studies, a cognitive radio can be attacked during the sensing interval by an adversary who puts spoofing signals in unused bands. Further, once secondary users access unused bands, the adversary can use traditional jamming to interfere with them during transmission. For an energy-constrained intelligent adversary, a two step procedure is formulated to distribute the energy between spoofing and jamming, such that the average sum throughput of the secondary users is minimized. That is, we optimally spoof in the sensing duration and then optimally jam in the transmission slot. In a cluster-based cognitive radio network, when the number of spectral vacancies required by secondary users increases, the optimal attack for the intelligent adversary will shift from jamming only, to a combination of spoofing and jamming, to spoofing only. View full abstract»

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  • Call for Papers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 912
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Staff list]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT