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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Special issue on 3-D Media and Displays - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 529 - 530
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  • In-Depth Understanding: Teaching Search Engines to Interpret Meaning [Point of View]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 531 - 535
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  • Special Issue on 3-D Media and Displays [Scanning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 536 - 539
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  • State of the Art in Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 540 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Underlying principles of stereoscopic direct-view displays, binocular head-mounted displays, and autostereoscopic direct-view displays are explained and some early work as well as the state of the art in those technologies are reviewed. Stereoscopic displays require eyewear and can be categorized based on the multiplexing scheme as: 1) color multiplexed (old technology but there are some recent developments; low-quality due to color reproduction and crosstalk issues; simple and does not require additional electronics hardware); 2) polarization multiplexed (requires polarized light output and polarization-based passive eyewear; high-resolution and high-quality displays available); and 3) time multiplexed (requires faster display hardware and active glasses synchronized with the display; high-resolution commercial products available). Binocular head-mounted displays can readily provide 3-D, virtual images, immersive experience, and more possibilities for interactive displays. However, the bulk of the optics, matching of the left and right ocular images and obtaining a large field of view make the designs quite challenging. Some of the recent developments using unconventional optical relays allow for thin form factors and open up new possibilities. Autostereoscopic displays are very attractive as they do not require any eyewear. There are many possibilities in this category including: two-view (the simplest implementations are with a parallax barrier or a lenticular screen), multiview, head tracked (requires active optics to redirect the rays to a moving viewer), and super multiview (potentially can solve the accommodation-convergence mismatch problem). Earlier 3-D booms did not last long mainly due to the unavailability of enabling technologies and the content. Current developments in the hardware technologies provide a renewed interest in 3-D displays both from the consumers and the display manufacturers, which is evidenced by the recent commercial products and new r esearch results in this field. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Optical Sensing and Visualization Using Integral Imaging

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 556 - 575
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional (3-D) optical image sensing and visualization technologies have been researched extensively for different applications in fields as diverse as entertainment, medical sciences, robotics, manufacturing, and defense. In many instances, the capabilities of 3-D imaging and display systems have revolutionized the progress of these disciplines, enabling new detection/display abilities that would not have been otherwise possible. As one of the promising methods in the area of 3-D sensing and display, integral imaging offers passive and relatively inexpensive way to capture 3-D information and to visualize it optically or computationally. The integral imaging technique belongs to the broader class of multiview imaging techniques and is based on a century old principle which has only been resurrected in the past decade owing to advancement of optoelectronic image sensors as well as the exponential increase in computing power. In this paper, historic and physical foundations of integral imaging are overviewed; different optical pickup and display schemes are discussed and system parameters and performance metrics are described. In addition, computational methods for reconstruction and range estimation are presented and several applications including 3-D underwater imaging, near infra red passive sensing, imaging in photon-starved environments, and 3-D optical microscopy are discussed among others. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Holographic Three-Dimensional Video Displays

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 576 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Holography aims to record and regenerate volume filling light fields to reproduce ghost-like 3-D images that are optically indistinguishable from their physical 3-D originals. Digital holographic video displays are pixelated devices on which digital holograms can be written at video rates. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are used for such purposes in practice; even though it is desirable to have SLMs that can modulate both the phase and amplitude of the incident light at each pixel, usually amplitude-only or phase-only SLMs are available. Many laboratories have reported working prototypes using different designs. Size and resolution of the SLMs are quite demanding for satisfactory 3-D reconstructions. Space-bandwidth product (SBP) seems like a good metric for quality analysis. Even though moderate SBP is satisfactory for a stationary observer with no lateral or rotational motion, the required SBP quickly increases when such motion is allowed. Multi-SLM designs, especially over curved surfaces, relieve high bandwidth requirements, and therefore, are strong candidates for futuristic holographic video displays. Holograms are quite robust to noise and quantization. It is demonstrated that either laser or light-emitting diode (LED) illumination is feasible. Current research momentum is increasing with many exciting and encouraging results. View full abstract»

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  • Production Rules for Stereo Acquisition

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 590 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper gives an overview on the framework of production rules that are required for the acquisition of adequate stereo content. It is well known that if stereo is not produced properly, consequences for the human 3-D perception might be eye strain and visual fatigue. Therefore, to avoid discomfort, stereographers use a production grammar that reflects extensive knowledge and experience in the fields of 3-D perception, stereo geometry, video technology, and content creation. Some of these rules are of heuristic nature, and others are motivated by perceptual, geometric, or technical aspects. The application of these rules at the set usually results in time-consuming manual work for rigging and adjusting stereo cameras before shooting. Against this background the paper reviews relevant aspects of 3-D perception, the fundamentals of stereo geometry, and the main rules of stereo production. Finally, it describes the functionality of camera assistance systems that have recently been proposed for stereo acquisition and production in order to ease the work of stereographers at the set and, with it, to save time and to make stereo productions more efficient. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Video Postproduction and Processing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 607 - 625
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art in 3-D video postproduction and processing as well as an outlook to remaining challenges and opportunities. First, fundamentals of stereography are outlined that set the rules for proper 3-D content creation. Manipulation of the depth composition of a given stereo pair via view synthesis is identified as the key functionality in this context. Basic algorithms are described to adapt and correct fundamental stereo properties such as geometric distortions, color alignment, and stereo geometry. Then, depth image-based rendering is explained as the widely applied solution for view synthesis in 3-D content creation today. Recent improvements of depth estimation already provide very good results. However, in most cases, still interactive workflows dominate. Warping-based methods may become an alternative for some applications in the future, which do not rely on dense and accurate depth estimation. Finally, 2-D to 3-D conversion is covered, which is an important special area for reuse of existing legacy 2-D content in 3-D. Here various advanced algorithms are combined in interactive workflows. View full abstract»

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  • Overview of the Stereo and Multiview Video Coding Extensions of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Standard

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 626 - 642
    Cited by:  Papers (117)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Significant improvements in video compression capability have been demonstrated with the introduction of the H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) standard. Since developing this standard, the Joint Video Team of the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) has also standardized an extension of that technology that is referred to as multiview video coding (MVC). MVC provides a compact representation for multiple views of a video scene, such as multiple synchronized video cameras. Stereo-paired video for 3-D viewing is an important special case of MVC. The standard enables inter-view prediction to improve compression capability, as well as supporting ordinary temporal and spatial prediction. It also supports backward compatibility with existing legacy systems by structuring the MVC bitstream to include a compatible “base view.” Each other view is encoded at the same picture resolution as the base view. In recognition of its high-quality encoding capability and support for backward compatibility, the stereo high profile of the MVC extension was selected by the Blu-Ray Disc Association as the coding format for 3-D video with high-definition resolution. This paper provides an overview of the algorithmic design used for extending H.264/MPEG-4 AVC towards MVC. The basic approach of MVC for enabling inter-view prediction and view scalability in the context of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC is reviewed. Related supplemental enhancement information (SEI) metadata is also described. Various “frame compatible” approaches for support of stereo-view video as an alternative to MVC are also discussed. A summary of the coding performance achieved by MVC for both stereo- and multiview video is also provided. Future directions and challenges related to 3-D video are also briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D Video Representation Using Depth Maps

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 643 - 656
    Cited by:  Papers (70)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current 3-D video (3DV) technology is based on stereo systems. These systems use stereo video coding for pictures delivered by two input cameras. Typically, such stereo systems only reproduce these two camera views at the receiver and stereoscopic displays for multiple viewers require wearing special 3-D glasses. On the other hand, emerging autostereoscopic multiview displays emit a large numbers of views to enable 3-D viewing for multiple users without requiring 3-D glasses. For representing a large number of views, a multiview extension of stereo video coding is used, typically requiring a bit rate that is proportional to the number of views. However, since the quality improvement of multiview displays will be governed by an increase of emitted views, a format is needed that allows the generation of arbitrary numbers of views with the transmission bit rate being constant. Such a format is the combination of video signals and associated depth maps. The depth maps provide disparities associated with every sample of the video signal that can be used to render arbitrary numbers of additional views via view synthesis. This paper describes efficient coding methods for video and depth data. For the generation of views, synthesis methods are presented, which mitigate errors from depth estimation and coding. View full abstract»

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  • Multichannel Audio Coding Based on Analysis by Synthesis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 657 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spatial hearing enables translation of an auditory scene into a perceived 3-D image by interpreting the acoustic cues related to the sounding objects, their locations, and the physical characteristics of the space. Spatial audio production requires multichannel audio signals in order to convey this information and increase the realism of a real or virtual environment for applications such as the home entertainment, virtual reality, and remote collaboration. As demand to spatial audio continues to expand, efficient coding of multichannel audio content becomes more and more important. This paper provides an overview of some well-known multichannel audio coding techniques and presents a new coding framework for improving the objective fidelity of the decoded signals. A closed-loop encoding system based on analysis-by-synthesis (AbS) principle applied on the MPEG surround (MPS) architecture is described. Comparison results are presented, which show that significant improvements can be achieved with a closed-loop system instead of the conventional open-loop system. View full abstract»

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  • Transport and Storage Systems for 3-D Video Using MPEG-2 Systems, RTP, and ISO File Format

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 671 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional video based on stereo and multiview video representations is currently being introduced to the home through various channels, including broadcast such as via cable, terrestrial and satellite transmission, streaming and download through the Internet, as well as on storage media such as Blu-ray discs. In order to deliver 3-D content to the consumer, different media system technologies have been standardized or are currently under development. The most important standards are MPEG-2 systems, which is used for digital broadcast and storage on Blu-ray discs, real-time transport protocol (RTP), which is used for real-time transmissions over the Internet, and the ISO base media file format, which can be used for progressive download in video-on-demand applications. In this paper, we give an overview of these three system layer approaches, where the main focus is on the multiview video coding (MVC) extension of H.264/AVC and the application of the system approaches to the delivery and storage of MVC. View full abstract»

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  • Infrastructures for Home Delivery, Interfacing, Captioning, and Viewing of 3-D Content

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 684 - 693
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses considerations for coding and transport of stereoscopic 3-D video, options for dual-channel encoding as well as frame-compatible delivery. A description of the use of digital interfaces for stereoscopic 3-D delivery from set-top boxes (STBs) to displays is included along with an overview of 3-D eyewear issues. Complexities such as rendering captions without introducing depth conflicts and future directions are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible Transport of 3-D Video Over Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 694 - 707
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional (3-D) video is the next natural step in the evolution of digital media technologies. Recent 3-D autostereoscopic displays can display multiview video with up to 200 views. While it is possible to broadcast 3-D stereo video (two views) over digital TV platforms today, streaming over Internet Protocol (IP) provides a more flexible approach for distribution of stereo and free-view 3-D media to home and mobile with different connection bandwidths and different 3-D displays. Here, flexible transport refers to rate-scalable, resolution-scalable, and view-scalable transport over different channels including digital video broadcasting (DVB) and/or IP. In this paper, we first briefly review the state of the art in 3-D video formats, coding methods for different transport options and video formats, IP streaming protocols, and streaming architectures. We then take a look at beyond the state of the art in 3-D video transport research, including asymmetric stereoscopic video streaming, adaptive and peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming of multiview video, view-selective streaming and future directions in broadcast of 3-D media over IP and jointly over DVB and IP. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Media for Mobile Devices

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 708 - 741
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4032 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper aims at providing an overview of the core technologies enabling the delivery of 3-D Media to next-generation mobile devices. To succeed in the design of the corresponding system, a profound knowledge about the human visual system and the visual cues that form the perception of depth, combined with understanding of the user requirements for designing user experience for mobile 3-D media, are required. These aspects are addressed first and related with the critical parts of the generic system within a novel user-centered research framework. Next-generation mobile devices are characterized through their portable 3-D displays, as those are considered critical for enabling a genuine 3-D experience on mobiles. Quality of 3-D content is emphasized as the most important factor for the adoption of the new technology. Quality is characterized through the most typical, 3-D-specific visual artifacts on portable 3-D displays and through subjective tests addressing the acceptance and satisfaction of different 3-D video representation, coding, and transmission methods. An emphasis is put on 3-D video broadcast over digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) in order to illustrate the importance of the joint source-channel optimization of 3-D video for its efficient compression and robust transmission over error-prone channels. The comparative results obtained identify the best coding and transmission approaches and enlighten the interaction between video quality and depth perception along with the influence of the context of media use. Finally, the paper speculates on the role and place of 3-D multimedia mobile devices in the future internet continuum involving the users in cocreation and refining of rich 3-D media content. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Daniel E. Noble [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 742 - 744
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    The IEEE selected Daniel E. Noble as the recipient of the 1978 Edison Medal for leadership and innovation in "meeting important public needs, especially in developing mobile communications and solid-state electronics." View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 745 - 746
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  • 2011 IEEE membership form

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 747 - 748
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  • Are you keeping up with technology or falling behind [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C4
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