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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - 1122
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Timing Mismatch Compensation in Time-Interleaved ADCs Based on Multichannel Lagrange Polynomial Interpolation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1123 - 1131
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the timing mismatch compensation problem in the implementation of a time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) is investigated. The investigation leads to a novel multichannel Lagrange polynomial interpolation timing-mismatch compensation algorithm (MLPI-TMCA). A multichannel Lagrange compensation filter (MLCF) in the form of a finite-impulse response (FIR) filter is also developed for real-time implementation. The design of the compensation system is done in three steps. First, the coefficients of the MLCF are computed based on the mismatch parameters of the TIADC. Second, an Nth order FIR filtering process is performed for each sub-ADC. Third, a multiplexer is used to combine the output of each compensation filter in an orderly manner into the final compensated output signal. The computational complexity of this timing mismatch compensation system is of order N. Computer simulation results showed that MLPI-TMCA is computationally efficient and not sensitive to timing mismatch fluctuations. The actual implementation of a four-channel 320-MHz 12-bit TIADC showed that the MLPI-TMCA is able to efficiently compensate the timing mismatch in a real-time manner and produced about 30-dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) enhancement when the input signal frequency is 70 MHz, whereas the multirate filter banks compensation method produced about 19 dB of SFDR enhancement under the same condition. Thus, the MLPI-TMCA and its multichannel filter implementation provides a good solution for TIADC real-time timing mismatch compensation and may be employed in TIADC chip design due to its implementation advantages. View full abstract»

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  • A Precision Dose Control Circuit for Maskless E-Beam Lithography With Massively Parallel Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1132 - 1140
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    This paper describes a highly accurate dose control circuit (DCC) for the emission of a desired number of electrons from vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a massively parallel maskless e-beam lithography system. The parasitic components within the VACNF device cause a premature termination of the electron emission, resulting in underexposure of the photoresist. In this paper, we compensate for the effects of the parasitic components and noise while reducing the area of the chip and achieving a precise count of emitted electrons from the VACNFs to obtain the optimum dose for the e-beam lithography. View full abstract»

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  • Instantaneous Binaural Target PSD Estimation for Hearing Aid Noise Reduction in Complex Acoustic Environments

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1141 - 1154
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Some hearing aid models such as the in-the-ear or in-the-canal model are small, and due to size constraints, only a single microphone per hearing aid can be fitted. As a result, only the single-channel noise reduction schemes can be integrated in them. However, in the near future, binaural hearing aids will be available. These hearing aids will allow hearing devices on each side of the head to receive information from the microphones located on both devices via a wireless link. This additional information allows the use of joint statistics and/or spatial information, which allows the use of better denoising methods. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a binaural target power spectral density (PSD) estimator for binaural hearing aids under the presence of a background interfering talker (or a lateral transient noise). This paper then presents an example of how the proposed target PSD estimator and another recently developed binaural diffuse noise PSD estimator can be integrated to produce a binaural noise reduction scheme that can operate in real-life complex acoustic environments that are composed of time-varying diffuse noise, multiple directional nonstationary talkers (or noises), and reverberant conditions. Such a binaural noise reduction system allows the substantial reduction of different combinations of diverse background noises and the increase in speech intelligibility while guaranteeing the preservation of the interaural cues of both the target speech and the directional background noises. A comparison with several advanced denoising algorithms is made in this paper by using several objective measures and real-life hearing aid signals, showing the good performance of the example binaural noise reduction scheme that uses the proposed PSD estimator. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation for the Dynamics Effect on Nanoscale Broadband Viscoelasticity Measurements Using Adaptive Filtering Approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1155 - 1162
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A large measurement frequency range (i.e., broadband) is desirable in mechanical property measurements; the measurement frequency range, however, is generally limited by the instrument dynamics effect. Such a limit arises due to the convolution of the instrument dynamics with the mechanical response of the material, particularly when the excitation force applied consists of multiple frequencies in the high-frequency range. The contribution of this paper is the utilization of the adaptive filtering approach to compensate for the instrument dynamics effect on nanoscale broadband viscoelasticity measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). Specifically, the effect of the AFM dynamics convoluted into the measurement data is converted to an additive disturbance through a homomorphic transform, and the measured AFM dynamics response is utilized to generate the reference signal to the adaptive filter. The convergence of the adaptive filter is discussed, and the bound of the adaptive filter coefficient is quantified. The efficacy of the proposed approach is illustrated by implementing it to compensate for the dynamics effect on the broadband viscoelasticity measurement of a polydimethylsiloxane sample using AFM. View full abstract»

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  • A Mathematical Model and Error Analysis of Coriolis Mass Flowmeters

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1163 - 1174
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Manufacturers empirically made Coriolis mass flowmeters (CMFs) for more than 25 years, prior to formulation of a comprehensive, fundamental theory. In this paper, we analytically develop a general model of CMFs that supports the designs of the flowmeters and are referenced for their improvement, as well as their production method. We first make a model that fully explains CMFs with twin U-shaped flow tubes. Then, we discuss its general application to CMFs that use different arrangements of flow tubes, e.g., a single tube or straight tubes. We further explain, by using the developed model, errors in the measurement caused by external vibration, errors by temperature and process pressure, and their error correction. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and Error Compensation of a Rogowski Coil in the Presence of Harmonics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1175 - 1181
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study dealing with a commercial Rogowski coil current transducer (RCCT) in the presence of harmonic distortion. The RCCT was observed under two conditions: 1) sinusoidal excitation with frequencies from 50 to 750 Hz and 2) nonsinusoidal excitation using fundamental frequency and one harmonic, with adjustable amplitude and phase shift. The experimental results show only a weak dependence of the harmonic current ratio error and phase displacement on the amplitude and phase shift of the excitation harmonic. The phase displacement is also independent of the conductor position within the Rogowski coil window. An error compensation method, based on the frequency response, was implemented and tested with a distorted waveform. The compensation method allows one to obtain an improvement of the RCCT accuracy class from 1% and 1°, in the case of a sinusoidal signal at mains frequency, to 0.05% and 0.05°, both for the fundamental and the distorted signal harmonics. View full abstract»

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  • Budeanu's Reactive Power and Related Concepts Revisited

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1182 - 1186
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the concepts of reactive power and reactive current in a nonsinusoidal periodic situation. It is shown that there exists a close relationship between the definitions proposed by Budeanu, Tenti, and Kusters and Moore. A new result is derived associated with the well-known Budeanu reactive power concept. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Power Technique for SRAM-Based On-Chip Arbitrary-Waveform Generator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1187 - 1196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-power technique for a static random-access memory (SRAM)-based on-chip arbitrary-waveform generator (AWG) is proposed for two types of analog-signal-processing applications: multiresolution spectrum sensing and matched filter. The SRAM has an embedded address generator to limit the operation in a sequential-access mode of the AWG. Then, the power consumption of the AWG is analyzed according to the operation modes in multiresolution and multiwaveform spectrum-sensing functions. The low-power technique reduces power by 18% of the SRAM and the address generator and by about 2.2% of the entire AWG at a 1.8-V supply voltage. The AWG is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology and demonstrates a chirp signal and a Daubechies wavelet with a 45-dBc spurious-free dynamic range and a cross-correlation factor of 0.96-0.988 with ideal signals. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Estimation of Gaseous Strength Using Transient Data

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1197 - 1205
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    Information about the strength of gas sources in buildings has a number of applications in the area of building automation and control, including temperature and ventilation control, fire detection, and security systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating the strength of a gas source in an enclosure when some of the parameters of the gas transport process are unknown. Traditionally, these problems are either solved by the maximum-likelihood method, which is accurate but computationally intensive, or by recursive least squares (also Kalman) filtering, which is simpler but less accurate. In this paper, we suggest a different statistical estimation procedure based on the concept of method of moments. We outline techniques that make this procedure computationally efficient and amenable for recursive implementation. We provide a comparative analysis of our proposed method based on experimental results, as well as Monte Carlo simulations. When used with the building control systems, these algorithms can estimate the gaseous strength in a room both quickly and accurately and can potentially provide improved indoor air quality in an efficient manner. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Brightness Measurement and Exposure Control in Real-Time Video Recording

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1206 - 1216
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    The auto exposure control (AEC) system in a video camera selects the suitable aperture size, gain setting, and exposure time such that the exposure best fits the scene brightness. Although a few approaches to AEC have been proposed, most of them lack smart mechanisms to quickly estimate the right exposure when users suddenly change the scene. The problem becomes more serious when some regions in the captured video frame are overexposed or underexposed. In this paper, we propose a robust AEC approach to real-time video recording. The proposed system consists of a well-designed control flow as well as some heuristic rules to scene brightness measurement and exposure adjustment. To get a more accurate estimation on scene brightness, the system adaptively selects suitable sensor operational modes. The proposed auto exposure also includes mechanisms to detect occasional moving objects and the flicker of the fluorescent light. Experimental results proved that the proposed AEC system has good performance under various conditions, and it helps to improve the recorded video quality. View full abstract»

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  • Audio Signature-Based Condition Monitoring of Internal Combustion Engine Using FFT and Correlation Approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1217 - 1226
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work proposes a novel prototype-based engine fault classification scheme employing the audio signature of engines. In this scheme, Fourier transform and correlation methods have been used. Notably, automated audio classification has immense significance in the present times, used in both audio-based content retrieval and audio indexing in multimedia industry. Likewise, it is also becoming increasingly important in automobile industries. It has been observed that real world automobile engine audio data are contaminated with substantial noise and out fliers. Hence, it is challenging to categorize different fault types in different engines. Accordingly, the present paper discusses a methodology where a set of algorithms checks the state of an unknown engine as either healthy or faulty. Fault categorizing algorithm is based on its cross- and autocorrelation coefficient values. Appropriately, in this study, the engine amplitude-frequency values of fast Fourier transform are calculated and subdivided into bands to calculate the correlation coefficient matrix. The correlation coefficient matrix for the unknown engine is then calculated and matched with this “prototype” engine matrix to categorize it into a single or multiple fault(s). It is worth mentioning here that although a rank-based maximum close scheme is adopted for finding the unknown engine's fault, the work can be extended to any other parametric and neural network-based classification scheme. Keeping this background in mind, the present paper discusses the proposed methodology to find a prototype engine, unknown engine classification, implementation on real audio signal for single cylinder engine data, and its results. View full abstract»

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  • A New Sensory System for Modeling and Tracking Humans Within Industrial Work Cells

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1227 - 1236
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1117 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new sensory system for the 2-D detection, tracking, and prediction of human motions. Using the data acquired through the sensory system, a model of a human based on a superquadric modeling technique is obtained. The sensory system requires a minimum computational burden for its measurements and almost no reengineering efforts for the integration with existing systems. The sensory system comprises a floor mat for the repeated measurement of the footprints of a human either standing or walking. An intelligent firmware for inferring the required information and identification of the human orientation and for rendering a real-time human model based on primitive data received from the mat is discussed. Furthermore, the integration of the floor mat in a multisensory system for obtaining a 3-D human model is discussed. Several results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensory system. View full abstract»

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  • Pneumatic Sensor: A Complete Coverage Improvement Approach for Robotic Cleaners

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1237 - 1256
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2845 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robotic cleaners are market-proven service robots. The most challenging issue of producing a robotic cleaner is to maximize its coverage performance. The complete coverage performance depends on the obstacle detection sensors as well as on the navigation systems. Conventional contact, infrared, and ultrasonic sensors perform either collision-based or collision-free perceptions with obstacles, and these sensors represent a poor coverage performance when the robotic cleaner moves beside the obstacle or wall. Therefore, this paper proposes a soft-contact-based pneumatic sensor with four closed chambers to continuously contact objects with a certain level of force when the robotic cleaner touches the obstacle or wall so that the complete coverage performance could be improved. Practically, a robotic cleaner navigation system is developed using the field programmable gate array. The finite state machine is further used to model the control strategy of the navigation systems according to the sensor data and elapsed time. Finally, several experiments were evaluated based on the path of navigation and the percentage of coverage with elapsed time to verify our approaches, and the improved complete coverage performance is verified by comparing the performance of iRobot Create using the same test environments and conditions. View full abstract»

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  • The Simulation Method of the Galvanic Coupling Intrabody Communication With Different Signal Transmission Paths

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1257 - 1266
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The simulation method plays an important role in the investigation of the intrabody communication (IBC). Due to the problems of the transfer function and the corresponding parameters, only the simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC along the arm has been achieved at present. In this paper, a method for the mathematical simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been introduced. First, a new transfer function of the galvanic coupling IBC was derived with the consideration of the internal resistances of the IBC devices. Second, the determination of the corresponding parameters used in the transfer function was discussed in detail. Finally, both the measurements and the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC along the different signal transmission paths were carried out. Our investigation shows that the mathematical simulation results coincide with the measurement results over the frequency range from 100 kHz to 5 MHz, which indicates that the proposed method offers the significant advantages in the theoretical analysis and the application of the galvanic coupling IBC. View full abstract»

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  • Linearizing Oscillometric Blood-Pressure Measurements: (Non)Sense?

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1267 - 1275
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a simplified method to compute the systolic and diastolic blood pressures from measured oscillometric blood-pressure waveforms. Therefore, the oscillometric waveform is analyzed in the frequency domain, which reveals that the measured blood-pressure signals are heavily disturbed by nonlinear contributions. The proposed approach will linearize the measured oscillometric waveform in order to obtain a more accurate and transparent estimation of the systolic and diastolic pressure based on a robust preprocessing technique. This new approach will be compared with the Korotkoff method and a commercially available noninvasive blood-pressure meter. This allows verification if the linearized approach contains as much information as the Korotkoff method in order to calculate a correct systolic and diastolic blood pressure. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Impedance Measuring Circuits Based on Phase-Sensitive Demodulation Technique

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1276 - 1282
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Impedance measuring circuits play a crucial role in an electrical impedance tomography system, in which capacitance and resistance need to be measured accurately at a high speed. Several impedance measuring circuits based on phase-sensitive demodulation (PSD) have been designed, tested, and presented in this paper. The measurement error is analyzed, and the mismatch of the measured capacitance and resistance is considered to be the main cause of the measurement error. A new impedance measuring circuit with dual-frequency PSD has been designed to solve this problem. It has been proven by experiment that this circuit can be used to measure both capacitance and resistance with an uncertainty of less than 0.5%. View full abstract»

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  • ADC Static Nonlinearity Estimation Using Linearity Property of Sinewave

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1283 - 1290
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prohibitive test time, nonuniformity of excitation, and signal nonlinearity are major concerns associated with employing dc, sine, and triangular/ramp signals, respectively, while determining static nonlinearity of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with high resolution (i.e., ten or more bits). Attempts to overcome these issues have been examined with some degree of success. This paper describes a novel method of estimating the “true” static nonlinearity of an ADC using a low-frequency sine signal (for example, less than 10 Hz) by employing the histogram-based approach. It is based on the well-known fact that the variation of a sine signal is “reasonably linear” when the angle is small, for example, in the range of ±5° to ±71°. In the proposed method, the ADC under test has to be “fed” with this “linear” portion of the sinewave. The presence of any harmonics and offset in input excitation makes this linear part of the sine signal marginally different compared with that of an ideal ramp signal of equal amplitude. However, since it is a sinusoid, this difference can be accurately determined and later compensated from the measured ADC output. Thus, the corrected ADC output will correspond to the true ADC static nonlinearity. The implementation of the proposed method is discussed along with experimental results for two 8-b ADCs and one 10-b ADC which are then compared with the static characteristics estimated by the conventional DC method. View full abstract»

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  • A Critical Assessment of the Closed-Loop Bulk Current Injection Immunity Test Performed in Compliance With ISO 11452-4

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1291 - 1297
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The closed-loop bulk current injection (BCI) method employed to measure the immunity to electromagnetic interference of an electronic equipment in compliance with the ISO 11452-4 standard is critically assessed on the basis of an experimental characterization of its test setup. It is highlighted that, above 100 MHz, the injected bulk current estimated by the calibration procedure described in the standard is significantly different from the actual bulk current injected into the connector of the equipment under test (EUT) during BCI tests. Such a discrepancy gives rise to unreliable BCI immunity test results highlighting susceptibility issues that are not related with the actual susceptibility of the EUT. View full abstract»

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  • Using Scaled Models for Wind Turbine EM Scattering Characterization: Techniques and Experiments

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1298 - 1306
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Characterizing the Radar Cross Section (RCS) wind turbine structures is the first step to mitigate the impact of wind farms on radar operations. An efficient technique based on scaled wind turbine models in both laboratory and computer environment is studied. The scaled 3-D computer model is used in different electromagnetic solvers to predict the RCS properties, given radar parameters. The scaled laboratory model is placed in a controlled laboratory environment, and accurate RCS measurements of the scaled models are used to emulate wind turbine radar signatures. Comparisons between approximate numeric model prediction and measurement results are presented, and a method for predicting full-size wind turbine scattering properties based on scaled models is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Bayesian Approach to Diameter Estimation in the Diameter Control System of Silicon Single Crystal Growth

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1307 - 1315
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the diameter control system of silicon single crystal growth, the variation of the diameter of the aperture (i.e., a halo with high brightness, which appears at the junction of a solid crystal and a liquid solution) is consistent with the change in the diameter of the growing crystal. Therefore, the diameter of the aperture can be used as a control variable for adjusting the casting speed and temperature so that the grown silicon single crystal approximates to a perfect cylinder. It is obvious that the measured diameter of the current aperture plays an important role in the diameter control system of silicon single crystal growth. In fact, the obtained aperture image from a charge-coupled device camera is a halo of ellipses instead of circles. To estimate the diameter (or radius) of the elliptical aperture, we propose a Bayesian approach, in which a Bayesian model is derived to define a posterior distribution for the unknown parameters. This distribution is too complicated for analytical extraction of moments to sample directly. An efficient computational algorithm based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo method is derived to estimate the posterior distribution and draw samples from the distribution. Comparing with the classical Hough transform-based algorithm and the direct least-squares fitting method, the proposed algorithm has higher estimation accuracy. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm's effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Noise System Allows Measurements According to Both Standard Methods

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1316 - 1327
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A system that completely characterizes the noise temperature of a linear two-port over the 100-MHz-2.9-GHz band is presented. The system is based on a “long” transmission line and frequency variation. It allows measurements through the classical y -factor method or the more recent “cold” method. When applying the y-factor method, the system uses a broadband mismatched noise source and an autocalibration feature. To check the accuracy, a passive device is measured with its noise parameters computed from the S-parameters. The results produced by both methods are compared together and with respect to the values derived from the S-parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Calibrating Broadband Highly Mismatched Noise Sources

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1328 - 1333
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two methods are presented for calibrating broadband highly mismatched noise sources. The first is a reformulation and an extension of the procedure used for very accurately calibrating matched noise sources. It uses isolators and works whatever the source reflection factor. With the second method, the excess noise ratio of the noise source is numerically optimized until the measured reverse noise wave of an attenuator is equal to the theoretical value derived from its S-parameters. It can be applied to sources with reflection factors of about 0.45 to 0.90. Both methods appear to give very consistent results. View full abstract»

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  • A New Multifunctional Tactile Sensor for Detection of Material Hardness

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1334 - 1339
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new multifunctional tactile sensor for detection of material hardness. The proposed sensor is the semielliptic structure imitating the human finger and consists of several piezoelectric ceramic transducers arranged on the surface part and a parallel plate condenser on the upper side. Capacitance values are simultaneously measured by the front electrodes of piezoelectric ceramic transducers and the parallel plate condenser. They depend on material hardness, and their values exhibit different characteristics versus the hardness. Therefore, higher detection ability is provided from two types of capacitance values. In the experiment, three kinds of materials - aluminum, acrylic resin, and silicone rubbers with four grades of hardness - were prepared. The detection of hardness was demonstrated by two types of capacitance measurements: the front electrodes and the parallel plate condenser. The results indicated that the proposed tactile sensor was useful for detection of material hardness although there are some problems that must be clearly addressed. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
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alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
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