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Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date March 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 46
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 189 - 190
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  • Approaches for Compression of Super-Resolution WSR-88D Data

    Page(s): 191 - 195
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Weather radar products from the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) are used by the government and private sectors. Very high resolution radar data are increasingly being utilized in real time. However, the bandwidth needed to transmit these data (termed level-II super-resolution data) from the radar to the destination site is a limiting issue. General-purpose compression programs are not tuned to the properties of weather radar data. As the NWS continues to upgrade the capabilities of radar network, the amount of data will continue to increase. As a result, compression is of vital interest to keep down maintenance, storage, and transmission costs. A method for lossless compression of these data on a radial-by-radial basis focusing on the delta (difference) between range bins of super-resolution radar data is presented and is called super-resolution delta compression (SRDC). There are several specialized aspects of SRDC that are based on the properties of weather radar data. SRDC was tested on level-II reflectivity product data from several S-band Doppler weather radars in the NWS network and was compared with two general-purpose compression programs and a different weather-radar-specific compression approach. The results show that the newly developed SRDC yield is approximately 17% better than the next best approach and approximately 47% better than only preprocessed radials. View full abstract»

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  • Rice Crop Monitoring in South China With RADARSAT-2 Quad-Polarization SAR Data

    Page(s): 196 - 200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents preliminary results of an attempt to monitor rice crop growth using RADARSAT-2 quad polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Three RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization SAR images are collected from transplanting to rice crop harvesting. Ground truth data, such as rice height and biomass, are measured during RADARSAT-2 data acquisition in Hainan Province, South China. The correlation between backscattering coefficient and rice growth parameters is analyzed, and then, a rice field mapping method with quad polarization SAR image is developed. Experiments show that an HV or VH image backscattering coefficient exhibits the best correlation with rice age after transplantation. Furthermore, the HV or VH image is also more suitable for retrieving rice growth parameters, such as rice height and dry biomass, for FQ4 RADARSAT-2 SAR data. The ratio image of HH/VV possesses high separability required to distinguish rice crop from banana, forest, and river. Results indicate that RADARSAT-2 quad polarization SAR data presented enormous potential for monitoring rice crop growth. View full abstract»

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  • Through-Wall Shape Reconstruction and Wall Parameters Estimation Using Differential Evolution

    Page(s): 201 - 205
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, the ability of differential evolution (DE) stochastic searching algorithm in front shape reconstruction of 2-D conducting targets hidden behind a homogeneous building wall is shown using simulated backscattered fields, calculated at different frequency and observation points. The target shapes are approximated by the cubic B-spline curves and the targets' equivalent surface currents are computed numerically using method of moments impedance matrix. Simulations show that DE algorithm can successfully reconstruct the wall parameters (i.e., permittivity, conductivity, and thickness) together with target front shape and location for moderate values of signal to clutter and signal to noise power ratios. View full abstract»

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  • Diurnal Cycle Induced Amplification of Sea Surface Temperature Intraseasonal Oscillations Over the Bay of Bengal in Summer Monsoon Season

    Page(s): 206 - 210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In spite of strong mean summer monsoon winds, the magnitudes of diurnal and intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are as strong as the respective magnitudes in the western Pacific. Using continuous observations during the peak summer monsoon of 1998 at BoB buoy (DS4) located at (89° E, 19° N), we show that the strong near-surface diurnal variation in the BoB during warming phases of the ISO leads to almost double the magnitude of the diurnal SST over the BoB as compared to that during the cooling phases. The simulation experiments with and without the diurnal cycle of surface fluxes indicate that more than one-third of the observed SST ISO amplitude could arise from the rectification of the diurnal cycle through the influence of late night and early daytime upper-ocean mixing processes during the warming phases. The rapid shoaling of the upper-ocean mixed layer occurs during afternoon while it deepens slowly during late night and early daytime which tends to retain the warm SSTs at the end of the nighttime cooling. The insight derived from these experiments on the influence of the diurnal cycle on ISOs of the SST underlines the need for a proper simulation of the diurnal cycle of the SST in climate models. View full abstract»

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  • An Interpolated Phase Adjustment by Contrast Enhancement Algorithm for SAR

    Page(s): 211 - 215
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phase adjustment by contrast enhancement (PACE) is an autofocus algorithm that is capable of performance that is unattainable by conventional techniques. It is a nonparametric method that requires no constraints on the type of phase error to be measured. The algorithm does not require special data culling techniques or the presence of isolated scatterers. However, the drawback of PACE algorithm is that the number of estimated variables is very large; it leads to a long computational time. The azimuth sampling frequency is commonly much bigger than the bandwidth of phase error in SAR image so that we can estimate part of the phase error variables and then obtain the whole variables by interpolation; this induces the interpolated phase adjustment by contrast enhancement (IPACE) algorithm. The IPACE algorithm can remarkably reduce the computational time while maintaining the accuracy. This letter has derived the detailed processing of IPACE, and the results of the experiments using real SAR data are presented to show the validity of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Extrapolation of Sequence of Geostationary Satellite Images for Weather Nowcasting

    Page(s): 216 - 219
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, a novel scheme for image sequence extrapolation is proposed and demonstrated, particularly for the purpose of near-real-time weather nowcasting during satellite launches. The highlight of this model is its ability to produce a sequence of simulated satellite images extended in time scale, which is very important for forecasting the evolution of a meteorological system. For this, three different models based on spatio-temporal autoregressive technique, discrete Fourier transform, and hybrid approach are developed and tested on an extensive data set of satellite image sequences covering different meteorological conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Denoising of Intrinsic Mode Functions

    Page(s): 220 - 224
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter proposes the use of denoising in conjunction with 2-D empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD) of hyperspectral image bands for higher classification accuracy. Initially, 2D-EMD is performed to hyperspectral image bands for decomposition into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, denoising is applied to the first IMF of each band because this IMF includes local high-spatial-frequency components. Features reconstructed as the sums of lower order IMFs are then used for classification. Support vector machine classification is used as a classification approach in this letter. Experimental results show that the proposed technique can provide a higher classification accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Multilevel Local Pattern Histogram for SAR Image Classification

    Page(s): 225 - 229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we propose a theoretically and computationally simple feature for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image classification, the multilevel local pattern histogram (MLPH). The MLPH describes the size distributions of bright, dark, and homogenous patterns appearing in a moving window at various contrasts; these patterns are the elementary properties of SAR image texture. The MLPH is a very powerful descriptor of SAR images because it captures both local and global structural information. Additionally, it is robust to speckle noise. Experiments on a TerraSAR-X data set demonstrate that MLPH significantly outperforms four other widely used features in SAR image classification. View full abstract»

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  • Recharacterization of the Microwave Sounding Unit Cross-Track Asymmetry During a Spacecraft Tumble

    Page(s): 230 - 232
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In August 2006, a pitch-over maneuver was performed on NOAA-14 in order to characterize the asymmetry in the Microwave Sounding Unit. Approximately seven weeks later, the spacecraft tumbled when a hydrazine thruster leaked. This tumble permitted a second characterization of the asymmetry. The analysis of the data collected during the tumble event revealed that, while three of the four channels had similar response and asymmetry, one channel changed its response either as a result of the tumble or due to another cause in the seven weeks after the pitch-over maneuver. This letter summarizes the results of the maneuver and gives the results from the tumble event. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of the Discrete Spectrum of Relaxations for Electromagnetic Induction Responses Using \ell _{p} -Regularized Least Squares for 0 \leq p \leq 1

    Page(s): 233 - 237
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electromagnetic induction response of a target can be accurately modeled by a sum of real exponentials. However, in practice, it is difficult to obtain the model parameters from measurements. We previously proposed a constrained linear method that can robustly estimate the model parameters when they are nonnegative. In this letter, we present a modified ℓp-regularized least squares algorithm, for 0 ≤ p ≤ 1, that eliminates the nonnegative constraint. An empirical method for choosing the regularization parameter is also studied. Using tests on synthetic data and laboratory measurements, the proposed method is shown to provide robust estimates of the model parameters in practice. View full abstract»

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  • On the Generation of Late ERS Deformation Time Series Through Small Doppler and Baseline Subsets Differential SAR Interferograms

    Page(s): 238 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we investigate the potential of the small baseline subset (SBAS) differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) technique to produce consistent deformation time series by using data sets of SAR images with high Doppler centroid (DC) frequencies. To cope with this issue properly, we exploited an archive of SAR scenes acquired by the European Remote Sensing 2 (ERS-2) sensor after the February 2000 three-gyroscope navigation mode failure. Our approach is oriented toward the long-term investigation of large-scale displacements with low spatial resolution (about 100 × 100 m) by processing sets of SAR images without discarding scenes depending on their DC values. Our analysis involves a set of descending SAR data frames from 1992 to 2007 relevant to the Napoli (Italy) bay area. Comparison with contemporaneous Global Positioning System measurements clearly confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Electromagnetic Imaging of an Artificial Infiltration Process in the Vadose Zone Using Cross-Borehole Radar

    Page(s): 243 - 247
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cross-borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize the shallow subsurface and to monitor hydrogeologic processes. To investigate an infiltration process in the vadose zone, an artificial groundwater infiltration test was conducted in Nagaoka, Japan. Time-lapse cross-borehole GPR data were collected using zero-offset profiling (ZOP) mode. The infiltration process was observed as a variation of GPR traveltimes, which can be transformed into a dielectric constant, and further converted to volumetric water content. A standard ZOP analysis, for which all first arrivals are assumed to be direct waves, results in an underestimation of the dielectric constant because of the existence of critically refracted waves. This letter presents an efficient algorithm using the maximum first-cycle amplitude to approximately determine the traveltime of direct arrival, deriving a dielectric constant model more accurately than the standard ZOP analysis from ZOP data. Tests on synthetic and real field data show that the proposed approach is effective in building accurate water content profile without iterative calculations as in the standard ZOP analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties: Comparison Between MODIS Satellite Retrievals and FALL3D Transport Model

    Page(s): 248 - 252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a multispectral satellite instrument operating from the visible to thermal infrared spectral range. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles. In this letter, quantitative comparison between the volcanic cloud ash mass and optical depth retrieved by MODIS and modeled by FALL3D has been performed. Three MODIS images collected on October 28, 29, and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the modeled volcanic cloud area is systematically wider than the retrieved area, the ash total mass is comparable and varies between 35 and 60 kt and between 20 and 42 kt for FALL3D and MODIS, respectively. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) values are in good agreement and approximately equal to 0.8. When the whole volcanic clouds are considered the ash areas, then the total ash masses, computed by FALL3D model, are significantly greater than the same parameters retrieved from the MODIS data, while the mean AOD values remain in very good agreement and equal to about 0.6. The volcanic cloud direction in its distal part is not coincident for the October 29 and 30, 2002 images due to the difference between the real and the modeled local wind fields. Finally, the MODIS maps show regions of high mass and AOD due to volcanic puffs not modeled by FALL3D. View full abstract»

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  • On the Impact of Lossy Compression on Hyperspectral Image Classification and Unmixing

    Page(s): 253 - 257
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hyperspectral data lossy compression has not yet achieved global acceptance in the remote sensing community, mainly because it is generally perceived that using compressed images may affect the results of posterior processing stages. This possible negative effect, however, has not been accurately characterized so far. In this letter, we quantify the impact of lossy compression on two standard approaches for hyperspectral data exploitation: spectral unmixing, and supervised classification using support vector machines. Our experimental assessment reveals that different stages of the linear spectral unmixing chain exhibit different sensitivities to lossy data compression. We have also observed that, for certain compression techniques, a higher compression ratio may lead to more accurate classification results. Even though these results may seem counterintuitive, this work explains these observations in light of the spatial regularization and/or whitening that most compression techniques perform and further provides recommendations on best practices when applying lossy compression prior to hyperspectral data classification and/or unmixing. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Validation of a Simple System for Through-the-Wall Inverse Scattering

    Page(s): 258 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we propose a system for through-wall imaging based on a bistatic setup and a two-step inversion procedure. Since the adopted configuration is simple and low cost but only delivers a limited amount of data, the data-processing stage is tackled in a stepwise fashion. First, the targets are detected from the estimation of the surface impedance along the wall and then the area behind the identified portion of the wall is imaged by means of a linearized microwave-tomographic algorithm. The overall device is described, and the results of a proof-of-concept experimental validation are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Additive-Wavelet Image Fusion

    Page(s): 263 - 267
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Effective image-fusion methods inject the necessary geometric information and preserve the radiometric information. To preserve the radiometric information, the injected high frequency of a panchromatic (pan) image must follow the frequency of the multispectral (MS) image. In this letter, an improved additive-wavelet (AW) fusion method is presented using the à trous algorithm. The proposed method does not decompose the MS image; thus, it preserves the radiometric information of the MS image and can inject high frequency following the frequency of the MS image using a low-resolution pan image. Experimental results obtained using IKONOS data indicate that the proposed method produces superior-quality images compared with the AW luminance proportional method in a quantitative analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Temperature and Humidity Changes Associated With the September 2009 Dust Storm in Australia

    Page(s): 268 - 272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A historic dust storm affected the eastern portions of Australia between September 22 and 24, 2009, causing significant reductions in air quality and visibility. Using multiple satellite remote sensing data sets and meteorological information, we assess the distribution of dust aerosols and their potential effects on the Earth-atmosphere system. Spaceborne active lidar data showed that dust aerosols were located up to 2 km above the surface. The thickness of the dust plume (0.55-μm aerosol optical thickness >; 1.0) reduced surface visibility to below 2 km. Dew-point depressions of 20 <;sup>;°<;/sup>;C or more occurred after passage of the dust plume, with decreases in surface temperature observed at some locations. Between the surface and 2-km level, temperature data show a cooling of ~10°C in the hours after passage of the cold front along which dust aerosols had converged. However, much of the temperature change that occurred is a result of cold air advection behind the northward traveling plume. Radiative transfer modeling suggests that only up to 1°C per day of this cooling is due to the decrease in solar radiation reaching the surface layer. Radiative transfer modeling also indicates a net warming of up to 2°C per day within and above the dust layer, possibly offsetting some cooling aloft due to the cold front passage. Modeling results indicate that expected aerosol radiative effects to temperature are small compared to synoptic influences and are unlikely to be sampled in observations under this scenario since the magnitudes of these effects are quite small. View full abstract»

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  • Consistent Clustering of Radar Reflectivities Using Strong Point Analysis: A Prelude to Storm Tracking

    Page(s): 273 - 277
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (717 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An image segmentation algorithm using an alternating erosion/dilation technique called strong point analysis (SPA) is introduced for general-purpose feature detection. The ability to associate and group pixels with the salient features of an image allows computers to consider images not as an array of values but as a collection of objects. This enables other algorithms to perform advanced tasks, such as tracking an object in a time series of images. The qualitative needs for proper tracking of storm cells in radar images are discussed. To test SPA for those qualities, radar reflectivity images from three S-band weather radars were used. The algorithm is demonstrated to identify features fairly consistently over a time series of images, as well as exhibiting well-behaved changes to its output with respect to changes to the algorithm's input parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern-Based Accuracy Assessment of an Urban Footprint Classification Using TerraSAR-X Data

    Page(s): 278 - 282
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Assessing the accuracy of land-cover classifications is a major challenge in remote sensing. This is mostly due to the absence of geometrically and thematically highly resolved, reliable, area wide, and up-to-date reference data. This study focuses on a multifaceted accuracy assessment of an urban footprint classification derived from a single-polarized TerraSAR-X image in stripmap mode for the city of Padang in Indonesia. For this purpose, a pixel-based approach was used to identify the urbanized and nonurbanized areas. As reference, a geometrically and thematically highly resolved, accurate, and detailed 3-D city model is available. Based on this data, the classification result is assessed by basic methodologies-square measures and error matrix. Beyond that, the accuracy of the urban footprint classification is analyzed in dependence of the physical structure of the complex urban landscape-defined by built-up density and building volumes. Results reveal that the accuracy of classification results varies in dependence of the structural characteristics of the particular urban environment. Furthermore, the study shows what is thematically mapped by an urban footprint classification. View full abstract»

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  • Retrieving Ice Concentration From SMOS

    Page(s): 283 - 287
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Ice project explored the potential of retrieving sea-ice information from the SMOS satellite, a polar-orbiting L-band radiometer successfully launched in November 2009. Toward this end, radiance measurements were collected over the Northern Baltic during the Pol-Ice campaign. We test a simple ice-concentration retrieval algorithm on these data and compare the results with ARTIST Sea Ice (ASI) maps derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System. All operational ice-concentration algorithms are based on the same principle which, for the campaign data, reduces to a linear scaling of the radiances because, effectively, only one channel was available. Because of biases introduced by the different footprint sizes of the two radiometers (airborne and satellite), the linear flight path, and pilot selection of preferred surface type, Pol-Ice and ASI concentrations were compared using three different levels of averaging. In the first case, the individual measurements from the airborne radiometer were compared with interpolated ASI values; in the second, they were averaged over the pixels in the ASI maps; and in the third, they were averaged by binning the ASI values in 1% intervals. The correlations were 0.59, 0.67, and 0.76, respectively. Because of the unique operating principle of SMOS, each ground point will be viewed at multiple effective angles within a short time span. It is proposed to exploit this extra information by interpolating to a single effective viewing angle. View full abstract»

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  • A Foreground/Background Separation Framework for Interpreting Polarimetric SAR Images

    Page(s): 288 - 292
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we present a novel foreground/background separation (FBS) framework for interpreting polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images. The FBS framework takes the spatial relations between pixels into consideration and incorporates the advantages of pairwise dissimilarity-based grouping schemes. The FBS method can separate specific targets and objects from the background, which is essential in an interpretation system. Multiple FBS operations can be integrated to interpret PolSAR images, flexibly fusing various inherent features of PolSAR data. Several PolSAR data sets are used to verify the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Standard Deviation of Spatially Averaged Surface Cross Section Data From the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    Page(s): 293 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the spatial variability of the normalized radar cross section of the surface (NRCS or σ0) derived from measurements of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) for the period from 1998 to 2009. The purpose of this letter is to understand the way in which the sample standard deviation (SSD) of the σ0 data changes as a function of spatial resolution, incidence angle, and surface type (land/ocean). The results have implications regarding the accuracy by which the path-integrated attenuation (PIA) from precipitation can be inferred by the use of surface-scattering properties. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters (GRSL) is a monthly publication for short papers (maximum length 5 pages) addressing new ideas and formative concepts in remote sensing as well as important new and timely results and concepts.

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Alejandro C. Frery
Universidade Federal de Alagoas