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Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date February 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • [Staff list]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c2
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  • An Efficient ZJ-Based Decoding Algorithm for Space-Time Trellis Codes in Slow Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 337 - 342
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient decoding algorithm for space-time trellis codes in slow Rayleigh fading channels. The proposed scheme is based on a stack algorithm with two key ideas: (i) a variable stack size depending upon the signal-to-noise ratio to avoid the exhaustive search of paths and (ii) a normalized metric, which is defined as each cumulative path metric divided by its own length in the stack, to provide an appropriate comparison of the paths with different lengths. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves near-ML performance with significant reduction in complexity, compared with the conventional Viterbi algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Unifying Analysis and Design of Rate-Compatible Concatenated Codes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 343 - 351
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An improved concatenated code structure, which generalizes parallel and serially concatenated convolutional codes is presented and investigated. The structure is ideal for designing low-complexity rate-compatible code families with good performance in both the waterfall and error floor regions. As an additional feature, the structure provides a unified analysis and design framework, which includes both parallel and serially concatenated codes as particular cases. We derive design criteria for the generalized class of concatenated convolutional codes based on union bounds for the error probability and extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts for the decoding threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Capacity Approaching Low-Rate LDGM Codes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 352 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study the ability of low-rate Serially-Concatenated Low Density Generator Matrix (SCLDGM) codes to approach theoretical limits. Although two layer SCLDGM codes approach capacity for medium rates (0.25 <; R <; 0.9), they do not perform adequately for lower rates. In this case, substantial performance improvements are obtained using three layers. View full abstract»

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  • On Girth Conditioning for Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 357 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are gaining interest for high data rate applications in both terrestrial and spatial communications. They can be designed and studied through a bipartite graph whose characteristics affect the performance. This paper proposes a low-complexity method to improve the performance of LDPC codes by selectively removing some cycles from the associated bipartite graph. The method is based on a modified version of the breadth first search (BFS) algorithm that we call modified BFS (MBFS), which is applied to find cycles, and a greedy procedure to eliminate them. Throughout the paper we will give a detailed description of the algorithm proposed and analytically study its complexity. Simulation results show that this girth conditioning method applied to some classes of codes, whose structure allows further optimization, can lead to a significative complexity reduction and a performance improvements with respect to other methods. View full abstract»

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  • Per Sub-Block Equalization of Very Long OFDM Blocks in Mobile Communications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 363 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication systems mobility results in time-variations of the channel, which yield intercarrier interference (ICI), especially when large OFDM blocks are employed in order to achieve a high spectral efficiency. In this letter we focus on systems with very long OFDM blocks, where many of the existing ICI mitigation techniques can not be applied due to complexity constraints. To mitigate ICI we propose a pre-equalizer, operating on sub-blocks of the received OFDM block, whose aim is to force all sub-blocks to have almost the same equivalent channel. In other words, the pre-equalizer combats only time variations of the channel. Next, after OFDM demodulation, the classical equalizer compensates frequency selectivity of the target channel. Performance of the proposed scheme, together with a suitable channel estimate implemented on a per sub-block basis, is evaluated for a digital video broadcasting scenario, according to the DVB-T2 standard, where the OFDM block size may be 32k, and its possible extension to hand-held devices in a next-generation DVB-H. View full abstract»

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  • Noncoherently Non-Catastrophic Trellis Coded Modulation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 369 - 375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a noncoherently non-catastrophic trellis-coded modulation scheme, in which the transmitter includes a differential encoder, a rotator, an inverse signal mapper, a convolutional encoder and a signal mapper. We present examples of the proposed scheme including MPSK (M-ary phase shift keying), QAM (quadrature-amplitude modulation), and TAPSK (twisted amplitude and phase shift keying). For trellis-coded QAM, a differential encoder with which the complexity of the proposed scheme can be reduced is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that for noncoherent decoding, the proposed trellis-coded QAM has much better error performance than conventional trellis-coded QAM, and the proposed trellis-coded 16APSK outperforms trellis-coded 16QAM for short observation length. View full abstract»

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  • Exact and Asymptotic Outage Probability Analysis for Decode-and-Forward Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 376 - 381
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider decode-and-forward cooperative networks and we derive analytical expressions as well as tractable asymptotic approximations for the outage probability of a network node. Our analysis sheds more light on the interplay between the channel conditions, the network size and the adopted transmission scheme, and provides a useful tool for the design of cooperative networks. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative Concatenated Coding for Improved Distance Spectrum and Diversity in Wireless Systems

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 382 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A generalized multiuser cooperative concatenated coding framework is theoretically developed for not only cooperative diversity but also enhanced distance spectra. Novel schemes are proposed featuring flexible cooperation group, variable-size messages, and other practical concerns. In particular, users failing to detect their partners messages are allowed to cooperate without incurring error propagation. View full abstract»

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  • Binary Grassmannian Weightbooks for MIMO Beamforming Systems

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 388 - 394
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Binary weightbooks for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) beamforming systems using quantized feedback are designed based on the Grassmannian beamforming criterion. It is shown that the Grassmannian criterion for binary weightbook design is to maximize the minimum Hamming distance of the corresponding block code. Thus, block codes that have large minimum Hamming distance can be used for binary weightbook design for MIMO beamforming systems using quantized feedback. The optimum binary weightbooks when the number of transmit antennas has value from two to six are tabulated. View full abstract»

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  • New Exact Closed-Form PDF of the Sum of Nakagami-m Random Variables with Applications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 395 - 401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An exact closed-form expression is developed for the probability density function (PDF) of the sum of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Nakagami-m random variables. By utilizing the newly developed PDF and the associated developments, new exact expressions of the bit error probability are presented for predetection equal gain combining diversity. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of Two-Way Amplify and Forward Relaying with Adaptive Modulation over Multiple Relay Network

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 402 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we propose two-way amplify-and-forward relaying in conjunction with adaptive modulation in order to improve spectral efficiency of relayed communication systems while monitoring the required error performance. We also consider a multiple relay network where only the best relay node is utilized so that the diversity order increases while maintaining a low complexity of implementation as the number of relays increases. Based on the best relay selection criterion, we offer an upper bound on the signal-to-noise ratio to keep the performance analysis tractable. Our numerical examples show that the proposed system offers a considerable gain in spectral efficiency while satisfying the error rate requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of Product Codes and Related Structures with Iterated Decoding

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 407 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several modifications of product codes have been suggested as standards for optical networks. We show that the performance exhibits a threshold that can be estimated from a result about random graphs. For moderate input bit error probabilities, the output error rates for codes of finite length can be found by easy simulations. The analysis indicates that the performance curve can be extrapolated until the error floor is reached. The analysis allows us to calculate the error floors and avoid time-consuming simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative Algorithms for Decoding a Class of Two-Step Majority-Logic Decodable Cyclic Codes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 416 - 427
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Codes constructed based on finite geometries form a large class of cyclic codes with large minimum distances which can be decoded with simple majority-logic decoding in one or multiple steps. In 2001, Kou, Lin and Fossorier showed that the one-step majority-logic decodable finite geometry codes form a class of cyclic LDPC codes whose Tanner graphs are free of cycles of length 4. These cyclic finite geometry LDPC codes perform very well over the AWGN channel using iterative decoding based on belief propagation (IDBP) and have very low error-floors. However, the standard IDBP is not effective for decoding other cyclic finite geometry codes because their Tanner graphs contain too many short cycles of length 4 which severely degrade the decoding performance. This paper investigates iterative decoding of two-step majority-logic decodable finite geometry codes. Three effective algorithms for decoding these codes are proposed. These algorithms are devised based on the orthogonal structure of the parity-check matrices of the codes to avoid or reduce the degrading effect of the short cycles of length 4. These decoding algorithms provide significant coding gains over the standard IDBP using either the sum-product or the min-sum algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Iterative Techniques for Soft Decision Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 428 - 436
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two new iterative soft decision decoding methods for Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are proposed. These methods are based on bit level belief propagation (BP) decoding. In order to make BP decoding effective for RS codes, we use an extended binary parity check matrix with a lower density and reduced number of 4-cycles compared to the original binary parity check matrix of the code. In the first proposed method, we take advantage of the cyclic structure of RS codes. Based on this property, we can apply the belief propagation algorithm on any cyclically shifted version of the received symbols with the same binary parity check matrix. For each shifted version of received symbols, the distribution of reliability values will change and deterministic errors can be avoided. This method results in considerable performance improvement of RS codes compared to hard decision decoding. The performance is also superior to some popular soft decision decoding methods. The second method is based on information correction in BP decoding. It means that we determine least reliable bits and by changing their channel information, the convergence of the decoder is improved. Compared to the first method, this method needs less BP iterations (less complexity) but its performance is not as good. View full abstract»

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  • Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation with Mismatched Decoding Metrics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 437 - 447
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) has become the de facto coding standard for communication systems. Recently, BICM has been cast as a mismatched decoding scheme due to the assumption of independent bit metrics. In addition to this inherent mismatch, practical demodulators may produce mismatched decoding metrics because of implementation constraints, such as clipping and metric approximation to reduce computational complexity. In this paper, we investigate BICM with such metrics. In line with recent works on this topic, we adopt the generalized mutual information (GMI) as the pertinent performance measure. First, we show that level-dependent scaling of logarithmic bit metrics can improve the BICM GMI. Second, we propose a uniform metric scaling which can lead to an improved performance of mismatched sum-product symbol-by-symbol decoding, even if the GMI is not changed. Third, we investigate general metric-mismatch correction methods and analyze their effects in terms of the GMI. By means of three application examples, we illustrate that metric-mismatch correction, including metric scaling, can significantly increase BICM rates. View full abstract»

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  • S+N Energy Selection Combining for MPSK and 16-QAM Signaling in Nakagami-m and Rician Fading Channels

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 448 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A signal-plus-noise (S+N) energy selection diversity combining (S+N-ESC) scheme for M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) in Rayleigh fading channels is mathematically analyzed. Also, the S+N-ESC scheme for MPSK and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signaling in Nakagami-m and Rician fading channels is studied by computer simulations. The S+N-ESC selects the branch with the maximum S+N energy for detection. The advantage of the S+N-ESC scheme is that it requires no explicit channel estimation for diversity branch selection. We show that the symbol error probability (SEP) of the S+N-ESC is the same as that of classical selection combining (SC) for MPSK signaling in independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. Also, we show that the SEP of a weighted S+N-ESC scheme is the same as that of classical SC for MPSK signaling in independent and nonidentically distributed (i.n.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. It is shown by computer simulations that the S+N-ESC scheme provides a smaller SEP than classical SC for MPSK signaling in nondispersive fading channels such as Nakagami-m fading channels with Nakagami parameter m >; 1 and Rician fading channels with Rician parameter K >; 0. On the other hand, the S+N-ESC scheme is shown by computer simulations to have a larger SEP than classical SC for 16-QAM signaling in Nakagami-m and Rician fading channels. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting Sparse User Activity in Multiuser Detection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 454 - 465
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The number of active users in code-division multiple access (CDMA) systems is often much lower than the spreading gain. The present paper exploits fruitfully this a priori information to improve performance of multiuser detectors. A low-activity factor manifests itself in a sparse symbol vector with entries drawn from a finite alphabet that is augmented by the zero symbol to capture user inactivity. The non-equiprobable symbols of the augmented alphabet motivate a sparsity-exploiting maximum a posteriori probability (S-MAP) criterion, which is shown to yield a cost comprising the ℓ2 least-squares error penalized by the p-th norm of the wanted symbol vector (p = 0, 1, 2). Related optimization problems appear in variable selection (shrinkage) schemes developed for linear regression, as well as in the emerging field of compressive sampling (CS). The contribution of this work to such sparse CDMA systems is a gamut of sparsity-exploiting multiuser detectors trading off performance for complexity requirements. From the vantage point of CS and the least-absolute shrinkage selection operator (Lasso) spectrum of applications, the contribution amounts to sparsity-exploiting algorithms when the entries of the wanted signal vector adhere to finite-alphabet constraints. View full abstract»

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  • MIMO-OFDM Pilot Placement Algorithms for Wideband Indoor Communications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 466 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To facilitate coherent detection of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed transmissions, pilot symbols can be transmitted in some of the subcarriers. Their placement to minimise the mean squared error in channel estimation is considered. Such problems have been widely addressed previously for channels subject to wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering processes. While the stationarity assumption is usually realistic, indoor wideband channels, for example, are subject to significantly correlated scattering processes. Furthermore, practical multiple antenna transmitters/receivers are bound to exhibit spatial correlations. This work considers pilot placement optimisation in a multiple antenna setting subject to arbitrary correlations in the delay and spatial domains. Noting that the naive approach incurs a prohibitive complexity, low complexity greedy solutions are developed. It is further proven that the conventional equi-spaced placement becomes optimal at high SNR even with correlations, when the correlation matrices are of full rank. A measurement campaign is conducted to estimate real-world channel statistics in an indoor wideband environment, and observe the applicability of developed algorithms. It is confirmed that practical channels are correlated to the extent of exhibiting rank deficiencies, and that the proposed placement algorithms result in improved channel estimation performance. View full abstract»

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  • Graph-Based Analysis and Optimization of Contention Resolution Diversity Slotted ALOHA

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 477 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Contention resolution diversity slotted ALOHA (CRDSA) is a simple but effective improvement of slotted ALOHA. CRDSA relies on MAC bursts repetition and on interference cancellation (IC), achieving a peak throughput T ≅ 0.55, whereas for slotted ALOHA T ≅ 0.37. In this paper we show that the IC process of CRDSA can be conveniently described by a bipartite graph, establishing a bridge between the IC process and the iterative erasure decoding of graph-based codes. Exploiting this analogy, we show how a high throughput can be achieved by selecting variable burst repetition rates according to given probability distributions, leading to irregular graphs. A framework for the probability distribution optimization is provided. Based on that, we propose a novel scheme, named irregular repetition slotted ALOHA, that can achieve a throughput T ≅ 0.97 for large frames and near to T ≅ 0.8 in practical implementations, resulting in a gain of ~ 45% w.r.t. CRDSA. An analysis of the normalized efficiency is introduced, allowing performance comparisons under the constraint of equal average transmission power. Simulation results, including an IC mechanism described in the paper, substantiate the validity of the analysis and confirm the high efficiency of the proposed approach down to a signal-to-noise ratio as a low as Eb/N0=2 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless Network Code Design and Performance Analysis Using Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 488 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network coding and cooperative communication have received considerable attention from the research community recently in order to mitigate the adverse effects of fading in wireless transmissions and at the same time to achieve high throughput and better spectral efficiency. In this work, we design and analyze deterministic and random network coding schemes for a cooperative communication setup with multiple sources and destinations. We show that our schemes outperform conventional cooperation in terms of the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT). Specifically, it can offer the maximum diversity order at the expense of a slightly reduced multiplexing rate. We derive the necessary and sufficient conditions to achieve the maximum diversity order. We show that when the parity-check matrix for a systematic maximum distance separable (MDS) code is used as the network coding matrix, the maximum diversity is achieved. We present two ways to generate full-diversity network coding matrices: namely using the Cauchy matrices and the Vandermonde matrices. We also analyze a selection relaying scheme and prove that a multiplicative diversity order is possible with enough number of relay selection rounds. View full abstract»

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  • Multicast Throughput Order of Network Coding in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 497 - 506
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a network with n nodes distributed uniformly in a unit square. We show that, under the protocol model, when ns = Ω (log(n)1+α) out of the n nodes, each act as source of independent information for a multicast group consisting of m randomly chosen destinations, the per-session capacity in the presence of network coding (NC) has a tight bound of Θ(√n/ns√mlog(n)) when m = O(n/log(n)) and Θ(1/ns) when m = Ω(n/log(n)). In the case of the physical model, we consider ns = n and show that the per-session capacity under the physical model has a tight bound of Θ(1/√mn) when m = O(n/(log(n))3), and Θ(1/n) when m = Ω(n/log(n)). Prior work has shown that these same order bounds are achievable utilizing only traditional store-and-forward methods. Consequently, our work implies that the network coding gain is bounded by a constant for all values of m. For the physical model we have an exception to the above conclusion when m is bounded by O(n/(log(n))3) and Ω(n/log(n)). In this range, the network coding gain is bounded by O((log(n))1/2). View full abstract»

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  • Application of Network Coding in Rateless Transmission over Wireless Relay Networks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 507 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel transmission scheme which incorporates network coding into rateless transmission over relay networks is proposed. This technique allows partial information about the upcoming message block to be transmitted during the current block transmission, hence reducing the required number of transmissions and improving the spectral efficiency. Different techniques for applying network coding to several fading models are discussed, and their relationships to an erasure channel model is explained. An optimisation of the network coding weight is given, and we show that by choosing the weight that minimizes the duration of the current block transmission and sending sufficient information about subsequent block, we can improve the overall performance. View full abstract»

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  • Protection Against Link Errors and Failures Using Network Coding

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 518 - 528
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a network-coding based scheme to protect multiple bidirectional unicast connections against adversarial errors and failures in a network. The network consists of a set of bidirectional primary path connections that carry the uncoded traffic. The end nodes of the bidirectional connections are connected by a set of shared protection paths that provide the redundancy required for protection. Such protection strategies are employed in the domain of optical networks for recovery from failures. In this work we consider the problem of simultaneous protection against adversarial errors and failures. Suppose that ne paths are corrupted by the omniscient adversary. Under our proposed protocol, the errors can be corrected at all the end nodes with 4ne protection paths. More generally, if there are ne adversarial errors and nf failures, 4ne + 2nf protection paths are sufficient. The number of protection paths only depends on the number of errors and failures being protected against and is independent of the number of unicast connections. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Communications focuses on all telecommunications including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television by electromagnetic propagation.

 

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Robert Schober
University of British Columbia