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Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date Feb.15, 2011

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Photonics Technology Letters publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 195 - 196
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  • Rapidly Wavelength-Swept Laser at 780 nm

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 197 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present herein the first high-power rapidly wavelength-swept laser in the 780-nm band. A commercial diode laser was modified to increase its sweep frequency up to 30 kHz thus allowing its use for real-time biomedical imaging. The tuning range of the laser starts at 761 nm and goes up to 798 nm. The maximum output power of the laser after coupling it into a single-mode fiber is 54 mW and its coherence length is 11 mm. The potential of this laser for biomedical imaging was demonstrated in a spectrally encoded setup. View full abstract»

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  • Formation of Infrared Regions of Transparency in One-Dimensional Silicon Photonic Crystals

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 200 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The optical properties of three-component one-dimensional photonic crystal (1-D PC) structures were investigated by modeling them as two-component PCs with an additional regular t-layer, using the gap map approach and the transfer matrix method. Numerical results demonstrate that the introduction of the t-layer affects the properties of the high-order photonic band gaps, replacing them with transmission bands and creating regions of transparency over certain wavelength ranges. For the first time, a map of the transmission bands for a three-component 1-D PC was generated. This map constitutes a unique design tool for infrared optical filters for silicon-based photonic integrated circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Swept Fiber Ring Laser Based on Optical Parametric Process With Single-Longitudinal-Mode Operation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 203 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A stable and wavelength-tunable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) oscillation with sweeping rate of 1.17 kHz based on a fiber-optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to perform sweeping SLM operations, three types of filters, a fiber Fabry-Pérot tunable filter (FFP-TF), a subring cavity, and an autotracking filter which is formed by an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF), are incorporated inside the cavity. The output of the laser can be swept continuously from 1530 to 1543 nm and 1569 to 1584 nm with the average output power exceeding 3 dBm. The short-term linewidth of the laser output measured by self-homodyne method is about 66.6 kHz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 60 dB at 1538 nm. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS-Compatible Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide for Subwavelength Light Confinement and On-Chip Integration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 206 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For development of complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible plasmonic waveguides, a microstrip-based hybrid surface plasmonic waveguide is proposed and the characteristics of its guided subwavelength hybrid modes are investigated by the finite-element method. The multiple dielectric layers with a high refractive index contrast provide subwavelength confinement of light. The guided mode is like a combination of a surface plasmon polariton mode and a dielectric slab mode. The field intensity of the guided hybrid mode is confined more in the core layer. Thus, the propagation loss is significantly reduced. The proposed hybrid surface plasmonic waveguide can be exploited for on-chip integration of Si-based electronic circuits and planar lightwave circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic Integrator-Based Optical Memory Unit

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 209 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A concept for an ultrahigh-speed loadable and erasable optical memory unit using a photonic temporal integrator is proposed and demonstrated. As a proof-of-concept experiment, a 1-bit fiber Bragg grating-based optical memory element is implemented, demonstrating an unprecedented switching time of ~1.4 ps with a total memory lifetime approaching 800 ps. View full abstract»

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  • A Simple Controlled All-Optical on/off Switch Using Gain Modulation in Single Mode FP-LD

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 212 - 214
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel and simple controlled all-optical on/off switch using the gain modulation in a single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode (SMFP-LD) is demonstrated. The working principle of the proposed on/off switch is explained and the experimental results with 10 Gb/s data signal are presented. The 10 Gb/s data signal is switched on and off with a 350 MHz control signal. The extinction ratio of 15.6 dB is observed at the output port with a 2 dB power difference between the control signal and input signal. We measured the rising and falling time of the switch output as 48 and 59 ps, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Read-Out of Cantilever Bending With a Grated Waveguide Optical Cavity

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 215 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present results related to the fabrication of a novel and potentially highly sensitive mechano-optical sensor for hydrogen gas, based on microcantilevers, provided with a selectively gas-absorbing palladium layer, suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide (GWG). Integrated microcantilever-GWG devices have been fabricated successfully using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. Several technical problems encountered during the preparation of such integrated devices (i.e., grating production, surface roughness, facet quality) will be discussed, and solutions to address these issues will be given as well. We also present preliminary experimental results, showing the sensing of cantilever nano-displacements, and so the feasibility of proposed read-out principle. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of a Room-Temperature InP-Based Photodetector Operating Beyond 3 \mu m

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 218 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An InP-based p-i-n photodiode with optical response out to 3.4 μm was designed and grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). One hundred pairs of 7-nm In0.34Ga0.66As/5-nm GaAs0.25Sb0.75 quantum wells strain compensated to InP were used as the absorption region. The device showed a dark current density of 9.6 mA/cm2 under -0.5-V reverse bias, a responsivity of 0.03 A/W, and a detectivity of 2.0 × 108 cm·Hz1/2·W-1 at 3 μm at 290 K. View full abstract»

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  • All-Fiber Self-Mixing Interferometer Based on DFB Laser and Phase Modulating Technique

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 221 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    All-fiber self-mixing interferometer (SMI) based on distributed-feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers and phase modulating technique is introduced to measure the displacement of a vibrational target. Self-mixing interference occurs in a DFB laser by reflecting the light from a mirror-like or a rough target in front of the laser, and the phase is modulated by a fiber electrooptic modulator (EOM) in the external cavity. The sinusoidal phase modulating and demodulating technique is used to analyze the interference signal. The experimental results indicate that the movement of the target can be reconstructed by this method. Combining the optical fiber with self-mixing interference technique, the flexible structure and high-accuracy self-mixing interferometer can be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Inline Resonant Photonic Crystal Fabry–Pérot Cavities for TM-Polarized Light

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 224 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate experimentally compact inline direct-coupled photonic crystal Fabry-Pérot cavities for transverse-magnetic-polarized light. The cavity design is integrated into 40-μm-long substrate-type photonic crystal waveguides in a honeycomb lattice geometry. The Fabry-Pérot cavities with lengths of a few micrometers are bounded by a number of reflection air-hole mirrors. The quality (Q )-factors are extracted from Lorentzian fitting and analyzed by finite-difference time-domain simulations. View full abstract»

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  • High Stability Er-Doped Superfluorescent Fiber Source Improved by Incorporating Bandpass Filter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 227 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Faraday rotator mirror incorporating a Gaussian bandpass filter was used as the reflected end of an Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source to improve its mean wavelength thermal stability. Several different filters were modeled in this fiber source system, and the optimal central wavelength was chosen to be 1558 nm with the bandwidth of 15 nm. With a Faraday rotator mirror incorporating such a filter in an Er-doped fiber source, the mean wavelength variation was measured to be 8 ppm from -40°C to 60°C . The bandwidth reached 16 nm. The pump power was 70 mW at 974.2 nm and the output power reached 18 mW with 6-m Er-doped fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Demonstration of Mixed-Polarization to Linearize Electro-Absorption Modulators in Radio-Over-Fiber Links

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 230 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We experimentally investigate optical mixed polarization for the linearization of an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) in radio-over-fiber links. A linear polarizer is used before and after a polarization-dependent EAM. Thus, both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarized lights are simultaneously modulated by different amounts. By carefully optimizing two polarization angles, the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) is suppressed. The linearization leads to suppression of the IMD3 by more than 16 dB and improvement of spurious-free dynamic range by 8.1 and 9.5 dB for back-to-back and after 20 km of fiber transmission, respectively, compared to the nonlinearization case. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity of High-Speed Lightwave System Receivers Using InAlAs Avalanche Photodiodes

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 233 - 235
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Calculations based on a rigorous analytical model are carried out to compare the sensitivity of optical receivers that use InP and In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The model includes the effects of intersymbol interference, tunneling current, avalanche noise and its correlation with the stochastic avalanche duration, dead space, and transimpedance amplifier noise. For a 10-Gb/s system with a bit-error rate of 10-12, the optimum receiver sensitivity predicted for In0.52Al0.48As and InP APDs is -28.6 and -28.1 dBm, respectively, corresponding to a reduction of 11% in optical signal power for receivers using In0.52Al0.48As APDs. Thus, considering overall receiver sensitivity, the improvement offered by In0.52Al0.48As APDs over InP is modest. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of All-Optical nand Gate Using Single-Mode Fabry–Pérot Laser Diode

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 236 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel, simple, and universal all-optical NAND gate using single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode (SMFP-LD) is demonstrated. The basic operating principle of the proposed NAND gate is the modulation of the dominant lasing mode of SMFP-LD by the injection of external beams. The dominant lasing mode gain is suppressed only when both input beams are high. As SMFP-LD is used to demonstrate the logic function, no additional beam is required as needed in the multimode Fabry-Pérot laser diode (MMFP-LD) schemes. The operating principle is explained and the experimental results are presented at 10 Gb/s input data. The logic function is realized with a clear eye opening and an extinction ratio of 14.6 dB with a rising and falling time of 38.3 and 67.1 ps, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • 8 \times 448-Gb/s WDM Transmission of 56-GBd PDM 16-QAM OTDM Signals Over 250-km Ultralarge Effective Area Fiber

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 239 - 241
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An 8 × 448-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation wavelength-division multiplexing signal with 4-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency is generated using optical time-division multiplexing and real-time field-programmable gate array-based generation of four-level in-phase and quadrature modulator driving signals. Transmission performance over 250-km ultralarge effective area fiber with erbium-doped fiber amplifier-only amplification is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Noise Characterization of Midwave Infrared InAs/GaSb Superlattice pin Photodiode

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 242 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on noise characterization of a midwave infrared (MWIR) InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) single detector. The SL structure was made of eight InAs monolayers (MLs) and eight GaSb MLs, with a total thickness of 2 μm (440 SL periods). This structure exhibits a cut-off wavelength of 4.8 μm at 77 K. Extracted from current-voltage characteristics, zero-bias resistance area product R0 A above 5×105 Ω · cm2 at 80 K was measured. Noise measurements were also performed under dark conditions. The measurements reveal the absence of 1/f noise above 30 Hz. Moreover, the detector under test remains Schottky noise-limited up to a bias voltage of -200 mV typically, which confirms the quality of the MWIR SL pin photodiode. View full abstract»

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  • Bidirectional 60-GHz RoF System With Multi-Gb/s M -QAM OFDM Single-Sideband Modulation Based on Injection-Locked Lasers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 245 - 247
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have experimentally demonstrated a 60-GHz bidirectional radio-over-fiber system with single-sideband (SSB) modulation of orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signals for the downlink and wavelength reuse for the uplink. A two-carrier-injected distributed-feedback laser is used to realize the OFDM signals' SSB modulation in the central office for the downlink. In the uplink, the weakly modulated one of the two downlink carriers is filtered out for wavelength reuse. Transmission of 4.3-Gb/s 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) or 3.2-Gb/s 64-QAM OFDM signals on the 60-GHz carrier for the downlink and the 2.5-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signal for the uplink are both successfully demonstrated over 56-km standard single-mode fiber without chromatic dispersion compensation. View full abstract»

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  • ANN-Based Optical Performance Monitoring of QPSK Signals Using Parameters Derived From Balanced-Detected Asynchronous Diagrams

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 248 - 250
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (597 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a technique of using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from asynchronous diagrams for optical performance monitoring of quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) data signals. We show that asynchronous diagrams generated from balanced detection give superior results compared to single-ended detection in a 100 Gb/s QPSK system. Experimental demonstration verifies the effectiveness of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Continuously Tunable Photonic Fractional Temporal Differentiator Based on a Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 251 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A tunable temporal photonic fractional differentiator implemented based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating is proposed and demonstrated. The phase response at a cladding mode resonant wavelength is strongly polarization-dependent and the fractional order of the photonic differentiator can be continuously tuned by changing the polarization state of the input light wave. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out. The fractional differentiation of an optical Gaussian pulse with a bandwidth of 40 GHz is demonstrated, in which the fractional order is continuously tuned from 0.81 to 1.42. View full abstract»

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  • Raman Nonlinear Polarization Pulling in the Pump Depleted Regime in Randomly Birefringent Fibers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 254 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The polarization evolution of the pump and signal in Raman copropagating amplifiers is numerically investigated, by considering the nonlinear polarization rotation and the pump depletion effects. The signal and pump quality at the fiber output is evaluated. The intrinsic limitations of the nonlinear polarization pulling effect are determined. View full abstract»

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  • An Optical Multicast Overlay Scheme for a WDM PON Using Inverse-RZ-Duobinary Signals

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 257 - 259
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and demonstrate an optical multicast overlay scheme on a wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network, employing bandwidth efficient inverse return-to-zero-duobinary signals. Multicast control is realized by tuning the voltage bias at the point-to-point downstream modulator at the optical line terminal. At the optical network unit, one photodetector with two decision modules is used to receive the point-to-point and the multicast data, which lead to low-cost and colorless optical network units. The 10-Gb/s downstream operation of the proposed optical multicast overlay scheme and 2.5-Gb/s carrier distributed upstream transmission have been experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Single-End Measurement of Root Mean Square Differential Group Delay in Single-Mode Fibers by Polarization Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 260 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel technique, based on polarization-sensitive reflectometry, able to perform single-end measurements of the root mean square differential group delay of single-mode fibers. The technique uses single wavelength measurements and may be applied to sections of fiber links. The theoretical analysis is supported by experimental results. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This letters journal addresses all aspects of the IEEE Photonics Society Constitutional Field of Interest with emphasis on photonic/lightwave components and applications, laser physics and systems and laser/electro-optics technology.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Seb J. Savory
University College London