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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Development of a Hybrid MEMS BLDC Micromotor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the design of a new hybrid microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromotor. It is a small three-phase axial flux brushless dc (BLDC) motor. The stator is developed following the almost-standard CMOS technology rules used for MEMS manufacturing, and the coils have two copper layers. The rotor is made of a ring permanent magnet assembled over the stator chip. The stator design has been performed using an analytical model also presented in this paper. The microfabrication of the first prototypes is presented, followed by their characterization. With an efficiency of about 42% for an input power of 310 nW, this MEMS micromotor has very good performance and demonstrates the potential of electromagnetic systems at this scale. View full abstract»

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  • Sources and Characteristics of Unbalanced Magnetic Pull in Three-Phase Cage Induction Motors With Axial-Varying Rotor Eccentricity

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 12 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper puts forward a model for assessing unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) due to rotor eccentricity in cage induction motors that takes into account the axial variation in the eccentricity. It is tested using ten- and four-pole machines with experimental results validating the model. This paper assesses the effects of rotor differential flux, saturation, bar number, and variable-frequency operation on the UMP and highlights the key points for the generation of UMP in cage induction motors. Both dynamic and static eccentricities are studied. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Determination of Optimal Split Ratio of E-Core Permanent Magnet Linear Oscillating Actuators

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 25 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The split ratio, i.e., the ratio of stator bore radius to stator outer radius, is an important design parameter for permanent-magnet (PM) linear machines, as it significantly influences the thrust force capability and efficiency. The optimal split ratio for maximum thrust force is investigated analytically for both surface-mounted PM (SPM) and interior PM (IPM) E-core linear oscillating actuators. It utilizes simple lumped magnetic circuit models and accounts for the magnetic saturation, the curvature effect, the fringing effect, and the armature reaction effect which may greatly affect the accuracy of the analytical model for the optimal split ratio. The optimal split ratio for both SPM and IPM prototype actuators is found to be around 0.55. The developed analytical models are validated by both finite-element analyses and measurements. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Condition Monitoring and Protection Methods for Medium-Voltage Induction Motors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 34 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (91)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Medium-voltage (MV) induction motors are widely used in the industry and are essential to industrial processes. The breakdown of these MV motors not only leads to high repair expenses but also causes extraordinary financial losses due to unexpected downtime. To provide reliable condition monitoring and protection for MV motors, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of the existing condition monitoring and protection methods in the following five areas: thermal protection and temperature estimation, stator insulation monitoring and fault detection, bearing fault detection, broken rotor bar/end-ring detection, and air gap eccentricity detection. For each category, the related features of MV motors are discussed; the effectiveness of the existing methods are discussed in terms of their robustness, accuracy, and implementation complexity. Recommendations for the future research in these areas are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Different Architectures of Fault-Tolerant Actuator Using a Two-Channel PM Motor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 47 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the context of more electric aircraft, the use of electric actuators instead of hydraulic ones is one of the main topics of research and development in electrical engineering. A high level of reliability, the redundancy, and the compactness are required for aircraft electrical actuators. For achieving these purposes, a classical solution consists in using two identical actuators motorized by one permanent magnet (PM) motor supplied by a voltage source inverter (VSI). In this paper, a solution based on the use of only one fault-tolerant actuator performed by a two-star connected-winding (two-channel) PM motor supplied by two pulsewidth modulated VSIs is proposed. The design of the PM motor can be achieved in two different ways, which are proposed and studied in this paper. The authors focus this paper on the comparison between the two winding architectures and compare the two motors in terms of the short-circuit current and magnetic decoupling of the two windings. Both simulation and experimental results are given and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Detection of Rotor Faults for Inverter-Fed Induction Machines Under Standstill Conditions

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 55 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is difficult to apply conventional online motor current signature analysis techniques for diagnosis of rotor faults for closed-loop induction motor drives for many applications due to the masking effect of the feedback current controller and/or variable frequency or load operation. Relying solely on traditional offline inspection techniques during regular maintenance does not allow frequent monitoring of rotor problems and is inconvenient since it requires rotor disassembly and/or manual rotor rotation. In this paper, a new automated technique for testing voltage source inverter-fed squirrel-cage induction machines at a standstill for rotor faults is proposed. The main concept is to use the inverter to excite the machine with a pulsating field at a number of angular positions to observe the variation in the impedance pattern due to broken rotor bars, whenever the motor is stopped. An experimental study on a 7.5-hp induction motor verifies that broken bars can be detected with high sensitivity and reliability. It will be shown that the proposed method can provide automated and reliable assessment of rotor condition frequently without motor disassembly, manual rotation, or additional instrumentation. The proposed test can also provide rotor quality assessment independent of variations in motor or load operating conditions since it is a standstill test. View full abstract»

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  • Simple Modeling and Prototype Experiments for a New High-Thrust Low-Speed Permanent-Magnet Disk Motor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fully integrated electric propulsion systems are gaining popularity in both commercial and military sectors. Propulsion motor manufacturers are investigating new direct-drive solutions for use in electric ships. These applications require motors with high torque output at low speeds. Such requirements were the motivation for the design of a new permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with a novel topology. This paper describes the efficient mathematical model used to optimize our PMSM design. Based on a simplified theoretical model for the motor's behavior, we were able to quickly and accurately predict torque output. The minimalist design of this transverse flux machine is shown to be advantageous for computer simulation and machine manufacturing. Initial results from a prototype are included and discussed. Future plans for the prototype are outlined. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Suspension Performance of a Bearingless Brushless DC Motor for Small Liquid Pumps

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 72 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the experiment results from the testing of a magnetic suspension system in a bearingless brushless dc motor. This machine is suitable for use in small liquid pumps. The bearingless motor structure, the principle of the suspension force generation, and the magnetic suspension control strategy are proposed by the author. A prototype bearingless brushless dc motor is designed using computed results from a finite-element method simulation of the system. The simulation is experimentally verified using a prototype machine where the rotor is successfully suspended without mechanical contact when it drives a liquid pump at the maximum rotational speed of 2200 r/min and the maximum fluid flow of 8.2 L/min. This result shows that the proposed bearingless brushless dc motor is suitable as the drive for small liquid pumps. View full abstract»

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  • Induction Machine Design Methodology for Self-Sensing: Balancing Saliencies and Power Conversion Properties

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 79 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Zero-to-low-speed flux/rotor-position self-sensing techniques rely on the interaction of saliencies (asymmetries) with an injected signal or special switching pattern in the inverter to produce a response which contains information about the location of the saliency. In this paper, three types of deterministic spatial rotor position saliencies are introduced into an induction machine (IM). The saliencies were created by modulating the following: 1) the rotor bridge opening width; 2) the rotor bridge opening height; and 3) the rotor bridge opening fill. The influence of saliency geometric design variables on the self-sensing and power conversion properties is determined using a design of experiments and response surface methodology. An example IM design, which maximizes the self-sensing properties while preserving power conversion abilities, is presented. Modulation of the rotor bridge fill appears to be the least desirable saliency type. Both rotor bridge opening width and height modulations can be used successfully, but the rotor bridge opening width modulation requires extra simulations to characterize the self-sensing properties. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Verification of Design Techniques of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors for Low-Torque-Ripple Applications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 88 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-performance motor drive applications require smooth operation with minimum torque ripple. This paper is focused on identifying various design parameters in the stator and rotor that can be utilized to reduce the torque ripple of sinusoidally excited permanent-magnet synchronous motors. This paper investigates the sensitivity of various design parameters on torque ripple and torque linearity that must be considered at the design stage for low-torque-ripple applications. Only the torque ripple and torque nonlinearity due to electromagnetic origin are considered in this paper. Finite-element analysis along with experimental data is provided to validate the findings. Design techniques have been provided to minimize the overall torque ripple and increase the torque linearity. Tradeoff between magnetic flux per pole and electrical loading of the machine is needed for low-torque-ripple performance. This also provides superior torque linearity. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless Control of IPM Motors in the Low-Speed Range and at Standstill by HF Injection and DFT Processing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 96 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a sensorless controller for an interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor is presented based on well-known high-frequency signal injection techniques. The issue of the demodulation process is the key point of this paper. A novel approach based on discrete Fourier transform and nonconventional reference frame transformation is presented, allowing a simple and robust noncoherent demodulation, i.e., in which no information about the carrier phase is needed. In the classically adopted coherent approaches, in fact, uncertainty about carrier phase reflects in uncertainty in the demodulated signal amplitude, affecting observer gains and signal-to-noise ratio and definitively providing a degradation of the performance of the estimator. Analytical development of the sensorless algorithm, including the demodulation technique, is provided. A complete investigation by simulation is carried out aiming at showing the performance of the proposed method. Finally, experimental results are presented based on a prototype motor drive for city scooters. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Tracking of MTPA Trajectory in IPM Motor Drives Based on AC Current Injection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 105 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a novel approach for the real-time tracking of the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) trajectory of an interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motor drive. The proposed approach is based on the injection of proper test signals and allows the MTPA trajectory to be learned and updated in the drive during steady-state conditions. The analytical development of the estimation algorithm, which is supported by a complete validation by simulation, is given in this paper. Finally, experimental results are presented based on a prototype IPM drive system. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Control Scheme for Maximum Power Operation of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Including Maximum Torque Per Flux Control

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 115 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel control scheme for maximum power operation of synchronous reluctance motors. The proposed scheme consists of a combination of maximum torque per ampere control, maximum torque per flux control, flux-weakening control, and torque limiting. The first three control methods are based on a mathematical model in a rotating reference frame that is synchronized with the stator flux linkage. The final method utilizes a reactive torque calculated as the inner product of the flux and current vectors. The proposed control scheme is suitable for direct torque control (DTC) or flux-oriented control. In this paper, the scheme is applied to a DTC-based motor-drive system. The validity of the control scheme is verified by simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Voltage Trajectory Control for Field-Weakening Operation of Induction Motor Drives

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 122 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new voltage trajectory control for the field-weakening operation of induction motor drives. The presented method does not require a lookup table and reduces the parameter sensitivity. Moreover, the dc-link voltage utilization can be extended such that the voltage can reach the hexagon trajectory of the space vector of the voltage. The difference between the switching period and the summation of active switching times for inverter pulsewidth modulation control is used for field-weakening control. As the summation of the active switching times is less than its switching period, constant torque is retained. In contrast, the field-weakening control is considered. Smooth and automatic transition between two field-weakening regions can be achieved by the calculated q-axis current subjected to the voltage, current, and maximum pullout torque constraints. Experimental and simulation results will be presented to fully support the claims. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Verification of Deep Field Weakening Operation of a 50-kW IPM Machine by Using Single Current Regulator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 128 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes critical control issues associated with the deep field weakening operation of interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machines. The singlecurrent-regulator control algorithm is reviewed, which controls the d-axis current actively and gives a fixed q-axis voltage command. To achieve better operational efficiency and performance, improvements are made to choose an optimal q -axis voltage for variable-speed and variable-load conditions. The control algorithm is implemented on a 50-kW IPM machine. Test results, including 7:1 constant power speed ratio operation, are presented to verify the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation of Amplitude Imbalance and Imperfect Quadrature in Resolver Signals for PMSM Drives

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 134 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a compensation algorithm for reducing the position errors that are due to two nonideal output signals of a resolver in the vector control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor. Practically, a resolver generates periodic position errors because of the amplitude imbalance and imperfect quadrature between the two output signals of the resolver. As a result, the dq-axis currents of the synchronous reference frame have ripple components that are twice the stator fundamental frequency. In this paper, the effects of the position errors are analyzed on the basis of the synchronous dq-axis current equations, including the position errors. The d-axis current is directly used as the input signal of the proposed compensator to estimate the position errors by using a simple integral operation according to the rotor position, because the d-axis current is typically constant or zero. The proposed algorithm additionally considers the bandwidth effect of the closed current control loop to estimate the exact error signals according to the variation of the rotor speed. Therefore, the proposed algorithm does not need any additional hardware and much computation time. Furthermore, this algorithm can be applied to both the steady and transient states. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives With High Acceleration by Consideration of Torque–Speed and Torque–Acceleration Product

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 144 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (487 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design of drives for high accelerating loads becomes very simple and clear with the fact that the torque-acceleration product is transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear, just like in the case of the torque-speed product (i.e., mechanical power). With this knowledge, it is easy to determine the required rated power and power rate a motor must possess for driving a given load with the specified torque, speed, and acceleration. The design of a gear for each suitable motor results in two independent ranges of gear ratio based on the consideration of constant-speed conditions and acceleration processes. In this paper, a simple criterion makes it possible to check whether these ranges have an overlap from which the gear ratio to be realized can be chosen. Final considerations show how to check and/or improve the suitability of a motor for a given application and how to determine the optimal combination of motor and gear. View full abstract»

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  • An Estimation Method of Rotational Direction and Speed for Free-Running AC Machines Without Speed and Voltage Sensor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 153 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an estimation method of rotational direction and speed for free-running ac machines driven by an inverter without speed and voltage sensor. The method has four estimation modes, and it utilizes only the measured phase current of machines. The performance of the proposed method is verified through the experiments for both permanent-magnet synchronous motor and asynchronous machines. View full abstract»

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  • Control of Dynamic Capacitor

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 161 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industrial plants are faced with stringent requirements by the utility to maintain a near unity power factor. These plants have traditionally utilized switched capacitor banks as a cost-effective means for power factor correction (PFC). However, if there is a significant level of harmonics present in the current that is disturbing the neighboring loads, then a separate unit for harmonic filtering is required as well. By the time a realistic system is configured, significant cost and complexity are encountered. The concept of a dynamic capacitor (D-CAP) was previously introduced as a means by which to achieve dynamic VAR injection as well as active harmonic filtering in one single integrated unit. The topology consists of taking an existing asset like a PFC capacitor, adding a pair of ac switches and small LC components per phase, and thereby realizing an asset with augmented functionalities. Although the power stage is simple, the underlying control is very challenging. This paper discusses the intricacies of controlling such an architecture and provides keen insights into how one would go about designing a controller. View full abstract»

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  • A Dynamic Voltage Restorer Equipped With a High-Frequency Isolated DC–DC Converter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 169 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) that is characterized by the use of a high-frequency unidirectional isolated dc-dc converter. A traditional DVR has a large and bulky series transformer even for three-phase low-voltage up to 480-V applications because the transformer operates at the line frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The emergence of state-of-the-art semiconductor devices and magnetic cores has driven power electronic engineers to develop compact high-frequency isolated dc-dc converters. This paper discusses the control and performance of a low-voltage DVR using a high-frequency isolated dc-dc converter. The high-frequency (20-kHz) transformer in the dc-dc converter is much smaller, for example, one-hundredth, in volume than the line-frequency transformer. Moreover, connecting the shunt converter to the load side brings a significant reduction in energy-storage capacity to the DVR. Experimental results obtained from a three-phase three-wire 200-V 5-kW laboratory system confirm the viability and effectiveness of the system configuration. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Energy Storage Technique for Efficiency Improvement of Single-Stage Three-Level Resonant AC/DC Converters

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 176 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of single-stage power-factor-corrected (SSPFC) three-level resonant ac/dc converters solves many problems that present SSPFC converters face today, namely, high component stresses, high circulating currents, and low efficiency. This makes single-stage three-level resonant ac/dc converters a good candidate for high-power applications. These converters provide the flexibility of simultaneously using two control variables. They can operate with a combined variable-frequency and asymmetrical pulsewidth modulation or with a combined variable-frequency phase-shift modulation. This provides good regulation of the output voltage, dc-bus voltage, and input current. The drawback of these methods is that the efficiency of the converter drops as the load is reduced because the converter starts to drift away from its resonance frequency, thus leading to more circulating currents and conduction losses. Therefore, a load-adaptive energy storage technique is proposed in this paper to guarantee the converter operation near its maximum efficiency point for a wide range of loading. This leads to almost constant converter efficiency from full load to 40% load. The use of interleaved converters is also proposed to extend the constant efficiency range of operation to lighter loads (15%-20% of full load). Analytical simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitor Voltage-Balancing Techniques for a Multipulse Rectifier With Active Injection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 185 - 198
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1679 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two techniques are presented to balance the filter capacitor voltages of a multipulse rectifier with the active injection operating on a variable-frequency supply. The active injector consists of a low-rated bidirectional switch that modifies the behavior of a 12-pulse rectifier at either low or high frequency, resulting in 24-pulse or multilevel pulse width modulation operation, respectively. The operation of the rectifier and the injector, the practical issues that unbalance the capacitor voltages, and the methods to correct this imbalance are explained together with experimental results obtained with a 4-kW prototype. View full abstract»

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  • A Physics-Based Model for a SiC JFET Accounting for Electric-Field-Dependent Mobility

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 199 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a physical model for a SiC Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is presented. The novel feature of the model is that the mobility dependence on both temperature and electric field is taken into account. This is particularly important for high-current power devices where the maximum conduction current is limited by drift velocity saturation in the channel. The model equations are described in detail, emphasizing the differences introduced by the field-dependent mobility model. The model is then implemented in Pspice. Both static and dynamic simulation results are given. The results are validated with experimental results under static conditions and under resistive and inductive switching conditions. View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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