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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2011

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • A Semianalytical Spectral Element Method for the Analysis of 3-D Layered Structures

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (957 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A semianalytical spectral element method (SEM) is proposed for electromagnetic simulations of 3-D layered structures. 2-D spectral elements are employed to discretize the cross section of a layered structure, and the Legendre transformation is then used to cast the semidiscretized problem from the Lagrangian system into the Hamiltonian system. A Riccati equation-based high precision integration method is utilized to perform integration along the longitudinal direction, which is the undiscretized direction, to generate the stiffness matrix of the whole layered structure. The final system of equations by the semianalytical SEM will take the form of a set of linear equations with a block tri-diagonal matrix, which can be solved efficiently by the block Thomas algorithm. Numerical examples demonstrate the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • A Common Electromagnetic Framework for Carbon Nanotubes and Solid Nanowires—Spatially Dispersive Conductivity, Generalized Ohm's Law, Distributed Impedance, and Transmission Line Model

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 9 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    General equations are presented for the spatially dispersive conductivity, distributed impedance, Ohm's law relation, and transmission line model of both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and solid material nanowires. It is shown that spatial dispersion results in an intrinsic (material-dependent) transmission-line capacitance. Spatial dispersion is numerically unimportant in metal nanowires, but leads to a shift in propagation constant of a few percent for CNTs and semiconducting nanowires. Theoretically, spatial dispersion is important for both nanowires and nanotubes, and is necessary to preserve the inductance-capacitance-velocity relation , where is kinetic inductance, is intrinsic capacitance, and is electron Fermi velocity. It is shown that in order to obtain the correct intrinsic capacitance, it is necessary to use a charge-conserving form of the relaxation-time approximation to Boltzmann's equation. Numerical results for the propagation constant of various nanowires and CNTs are presented. The general formulation developed here allows one to compute, and directly compare and contrast, properties of CNTs and solid nanowires. View full abstract»

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  • Neural-Network Modeling for 3-D Substructures Based on Spatial EM-Field Coupling in Finite-Element Method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 21 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new neural-network method to describe the electromagnetic (EM) behavior at the interface between the substructures from an internally decomposed EM structure. A set of neural networks is used to represent the EM behavior of the substructure as seen from the interface. This allows EM coupling between substructures to be effectively represented. The method is developed in a finite-element environment. An EM transfer function matrix is formulated to produce training data, allowing neural networks to learn the spatial coupling between EM-field variables at various locations over the interface of the substructure. A new formulation is proposed where trained neural networks are integrated into the finite-element equation for efficient simulation of an overall EM structure. A technique is developed to allow the proposed model to be used with the mesh different from that in neural-network training. Examples show that the proposed method provides better accuracy than conventional neural-network approaches for modeling substructures from an internally decomposed EM problem. Using the proposed model also speeds up finite-element simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Macromodeling of Parameterized S -Parameter Responses

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 39 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new adaptive sampling strategy for the parametric macromodeling of -parameter-based frequency responses. It can be linked directly with the simulator to determine up front a sparse set of data samples that characterize the design space. This approach limits the overall simulation and macromodeling time. The resulting sample distribution can be fed into any kind of macromodeling technique, provided that it can deal with scattered data. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by a parameterized H-shaped microwave example. View full abstract»

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  • A General Approach for Sensitivity Analysis of Distributed Interconnects in the Time Domain

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 46 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the continually increasing operating frequencies, simulation and optimization for signal integrity in high-speed designs is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, a novel and generic method for sensitivity analysis of distributed interconnects is developed. Advantages of the proposed method are that it is independent of the macromodel used to represent the interconnects, and it does not require the computation of the sensitivity of the macromodel components with respect to the interconnect parameter of interest. Various numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity, generality, and efficiency of the new method. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Implementation for 3-D Laguerre-Based Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 56 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When the Laguerre-based finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used for electromagnetic problems, a huge sparse matrix equation results, which is very expensive to solve. We previously introduced an efficient algorithm for implementing an unconditionally stable 2-D Laguerre-based FDTD method. We numerically verified that the efficient algorithm can save CPU time and memory storage greatly while maintaining comparable computational accuracy. This paper presents new efficient algorithm for implementing unconditionally stable 3-D Laguerre-based FDTD method. To do so, a factorization-splitting scheme using two sub-steps is adopted to solve the produced huge sparse matrix equation. For a full update cycle, the presented scheme solves six tri-diagonal matrices for the electric field components and computes three explicit equations for the magnetic field components. A perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is also extended to this approach. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, numerical examples are given. View full abstract»

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  • Linear Circuit Models for On-Chip Quantum Electrodynamics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 65 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present equivalent circuits that model the interaction of microwave resonators and quantum systems. The circuit models are derived from a general interaction Hamiltonian. Quantitative agreement between the simulated resonator transmission frequency, qubit Lamb shift, and experimental data will be shown. We demonstrate that simple circuit models, using only linear passive elements, can be very useful in understanding systems where a small quantum system is coupled to a classical microwave apparatus. View full abstract»

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  • A Planar Magic-T Structure Using Substrate Integrated Circuits Concept and Its Mixer Applications

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1311 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a planar 180 phase-reversal T-junction and a modified magic-T using substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and slotline are proposed and developed for RF/microwave applications on the basis of the substrate integrated circuits concept. In this case, slotline is used to generate the odd-symmetric field pattern of the SIW in the phase-reverse T-junction. Measured results indicate that 0.3-dB amplitude imbalance and 3 phase imbalance can be achieved for the proposed 180 phase-reversal T-junction over the entire -band. The modified narrowband and optimized wideband magic-T are developed and fabricated, respectively. Measured results of all those circuits agree well with their simulated ones. Finally, as an application demonstration of our proposed magic-T, a singly balanced mixer based on this structure is designed and measured with good performances. View full abstract»

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  • Exact Synthesis and Implementation of New High-Order Wideband Marchand Baluns

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 80 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New ultra-wideband high-order Marchand baluns with one microstrip unbalanced port and two microstrip balanced ports are proposed in this paper. The proposed Marchand baluns are synthesized based on an -plane high-pass prototype using the Richards' transformation. The responses of the synthesized high-order Marchand baluns are exactly predicted at all real frequencies. All circuit elements are commensurate, which means the electrical lengths of all transmission line elements are a quarter-wavelength long at the center frequency. Two fifth-order Marchand baluns with reflection coefficients of 20.53 and 21.71 dB corresponding to 131% and 152% bandwidth, respectively, are synthesized and realized using the combinations of microstrip lines, slotlines, and coplanar striplines. Simulated and measured results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Microstrip Branch-Line Couplers for Crossover Application

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 87 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The branch-line coupler may be redesigned for crossover application. The bandwidth of such a coupler can be extended by suitably incorporating additional sections into the composite design. Laboratory tests on microstrip prototypes have shown the return loss and isolation of the three- and four-section couplers to be better than 20 dB over bandwidths of 22% and 33%, respectively. The insertion losses and group delays vary by less than ±0.05 dB and ±1 ns, respectively, for both prototypes. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Effects of Interference Suppression Filters on Ultra-Wideband Pulses

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 93 - 98
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study the effects of interference suppression filters (multiple stopbands) on ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulses. Multiple stopbands of the filter, which is placed in the receiver, affect the UWB pulse amplitude, pulsewidth, and ringing; resulting in reduced signal-to-noise ratio and degradation in receiver performance. An analytical method is proposed in this paper to model the effect of stopbands on the pulse shape. In this paper, the effects of an interference suppression filter on three different Gaussian pulses are studied. Theoretical and measured pulses are compared and found to be in good agreement. The proposed method enables the UWB radio designer to predict the distortion of the received signals after passing through interference suppression filters. View full abstract»

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  • A Distributed Dual-Band LC Oscillator Based on Mode Switching

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 99 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1868 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a distributed dual-band LC oscillator suitable for low-phase-noise applications. It switches between the odd and even resonant modes of a fourth-order LC resonator. In contrast to other switched-resonator designs, the switches used for mode selection do not carry current, and therefore, do not affect the quality factor of the resonator, which leads to low phase noise. Analysis shows it achieves the same phase-noise figure-of-merit (FoM) as a single-band LC oscillator that uses the same inductor and active core. This was verified by a prototype in a 0.13-μm CMOS process. It draws a current of 4 mA from a 0.5-V power supply and achieves a FoM of 194.5 dB at the 4.9-GHz band and 193.0 dB at the 6.6-GHz band, which is the same as the reference standalone LC oscillator. There is good agreement among theory, simulation, and measurement results. View full abstract»

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  • Broadband Differential Low-Noise Amplifier for Active Differential Arrays

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 108 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, differential low-noise amplifiers are presented as a very powerful solution for radio astronomy applications. A fully differential amplifier topology has been analyzed and implemented in microstrip technology with discrete surface mount components. The amplifier design is made for an active receiving dense antenna array. Thus, the differential amplifier source impedance is no longer 50 Ω, but 150 Ω from the proposed bunny-ear antennas. A full characterization in terms of gain and noise has been undertaken. Source-pull measurements have been included in order to evaluate the performance of the amplifiers operating with variable source impedances. Noise temperatures below 55 K have been obtained for the differential design in the 300-1000-MHz band for the 150-Ω impedance. In addition, the results for different scanning angles are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A 0.18- \mu{\hbox {m}} Dual-Gate CMOS Device Modeling and Applications for RF Cascode Circuits

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 116 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1027 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A merged-diffusion dual-gate CMOS device model is presented in this paper. The proposed large-signal model consists of two intrinsic BSIM3v3 nonlinear models and parasitic components. The parasitic elements, including the substrate networks, the distributed resistances, and the inductances, are extracted from the measured S-parameters. In order to verify the model accuracy, a cascode configuration with the proposed dual-gate device is employed in a low-noise amplifier. The dual-gate model is also evaluated with power sweep and load-pull measurements. In addition, a doubly balanced dual-gate mixer is successfully demonstrated using the proposed model. The measured results agree with the simulated results using the proposed device model for both linear and nonlinear applications. The advanced large-signal dual-gate CMOS model can be further used as an RF sub-circuit cell for simplifying the design procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Six-Port Gigabit Demodulator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 125 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents measurement results for a six-port-based demodulator designed for a center frequency of 7.5 GHz and with a bandwidth of 1 GHz for operation in the ultra-wideband band. The demodulator includes the six-port correlator, diodes, and amplifiers needed to recover the baseband data. Measurement results show that the prototype supports data rates at 1.7 Gbit/s with bit-error rate if a two-tap linear equalizer is used and bit-error rate if only threshold detection is used. The measured performance of the used six-port correlator including the amplifiers is presented and their influence on the overall system performance is discussed. Limitations in the present system and possible improvements are also considered. View full abstract»

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  • Differential Amplifier Characterization Using Mixed-Mode Scattering Parameters Obtained From True and Virtual Differential Measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 132 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the differences in large signal mixed-mode scattering parameter characterization of differential amplifiers arising from virtual and true differential probing. The analysis is carried out by means of differential gain compression curves obtained from exemplary amplifier test assemblies with variable common mode rejection ratio. Based on analytical derivations involving basic nonlinear circuit theory, mathematical closed form transfer functions of these amplifiers are presented that enable an a-priori estimation of the occuring measurement error. Numerical simulations complete the theoretical investigations by giving additional physical insights onto the individual amplifier nodal voltages effecting the compression. Experimental results obtained from true and virtual differential compression curve measurements of the considered amplifier topologies are finally compared to the results gained from the theoretical considerations. Based on these results, the reason for the deviation between virtual and true differential measurements is addressed and upper and lower bounds for these deviations are given that are in accordance with the results reported in literature. View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency Enhancement of Doherty Amplifier Through Mitigation of the Knee Voltage Effect

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 143 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach to maximize the efficiency of a Doherty power amplifier (PA) with the knee voltage effect. Since the carrier PA with , which is the usual matching impedance for a carrier PA at a low power region, does not reach to the saturated operation at the 6-dB back-off power level, the maximum efficiency could not be achieved. However, the carrier amplifier can be driven into the saturation using the load impedance larger than and can deliver the maximum efficiency even under the knee voltage effect. The optimized design for the maximum efficiency at the back-off level is derived. The optimized amplifier is analyzed and simulated in terms of its load modulation behavior, efficiency, and output power, then compared with the conventional Doherty PA. The enhanced performance is demonstrated by the Doherty PA built using CREE's GaN HEMT CGH40045 devices at 2.655 GHz. For worldwide interoperability for microwave access applications with a 7.8-dB peak-to-average power ratio, the proposed PA delivers an efficiency of 49.3% at an output power of 42 dBm with an acceptable linearity of 23.1 dBc. The linearity is improved to 43 dBc by employing a digital feedback predistortion technique, satisfying the system linearity specification. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Design Methodology of High-Efficiency Class-F and Class- {\hbox {F}}^{{\hbox {-}1}} Power Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 153 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1821 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, efficiency-limiting physical constraint effects imposed on the knee voltage, along with a variation of the optimum load resistance, are investigated for highly efficient Class-F and Class- amplifiers. First, for an accurate analysis and comparison, new current waveform models are identified, and a realistic approach incorporated using a nonzero knee voltage and voltage-dependent nonlinear capacitance is employed to derive the voltage waveforms of the amplifiers. An analysis is performed to show the efficiency, output power, power gain, and output power compression points for both modes. Using this knowledge, along with a complete performance comparison, we provide a direction for optimizing the amplifier design. The analytic results are further verified based on the measured results of 3.54-GHz Class-F and Class- amplifiers using a commercial 60-W peak-to-envelope power gallium-nitride device. The experimental results show that Class-F and Class- amplifiers operate at drain efficiencies of 69.9% and 69.4% at saturated output powers of 47.4 and 47.2 dBm, respectively. These remarkably similar performances have excellent agreement with the predicted analysis at our operational frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Performance of a 600–720-GHz Sideband-Separating Receiver Using {\hbox {AlO}}_{x} and AlN SIS Junctions

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 166 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design, modeling, construction, and characterization of a sideband separating heterodyne receiver that covers the frequency range from 600 to 720 GHz. The receiver has been constructed using waveguide technology in the split-block technique. The core of the mixer consists of a quadrature hybrid, two directional couplers to inject the local oscillator signal, two superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions, three signal-termination loads, and two planar IF/bandpass-filter/dc-bias circuits. The instrument that we have constructed presents excellent performance as demonstrated by two important figures of merit: receiver noise temperature and sideband ratio. Across the entire band, the uncorrected single-sideband noise temperature is below 500 K and reaches 190 K at the best operating point. The sideband ratio is greater than 10 dB over most of the frequency operating range. Superconducting junctions containing AlO - and AlN-tunnel barriers were tested. View full abstract»

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  • A Calibration Method for RF and Microwave Noise Sources

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 178 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Uncertainties in noise-figure and noise-parameter measurements depend to a large degree on the accuracy with which noise sources are calibrated. In some cases, the uncertainties are similar to measured quantities. This paper discusses a method for calibration of RF and microwave noise sources against a reference noise source. This method takes into account noise parameters of the receiver used for noise power measurements and includes temperature corrections to account for both drifts in the ambient temperature and heat transfer between the receiver and noise sources. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. As estimated with a Monte Carlo analysis, a uncertainty of 0.046 dB for a 5-dB excess-noise-ratio (ENR) noise source is obtained with the proposed method. This uncertainty is approximately one third of ENR uncertainties reported for commercial noise sources. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Variable-Temperature Broadband Series-Resistor Calibration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 188 - 195
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a broadband on-wafer calibration from 45 MHz to 40 GHz for variable temperature measurements, which requires three standards: a thru, reflect, and series resistor. At room temperature, the maximum error of this technique, compared to a benchmark nine-standard multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method, is comparable to the repeatability of the benchmark calibration. The series-resistor standard is modeled as a lumped-element -network, which is described by four frequency-independent parameters. We show that the model is stable over three weeks, and compare the calibration to the multiline TRL method as a function of time. The approach is then demonstrated at variable temperature, where the model parameters are extracted at 300 K and at variable temperatures down to 20 K, in order to determine their temperature dependence. The resulting technique, valid over the temperature range from 300 to 20 K, reduced the total footprint of the calibration standards by a factor of 17 and the measurement time by a factor of 3. View full abstract»

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  • Flicker Noise Effects in Noise Adding Radiometers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 196 - 205
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (539 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of noise adding radiometers that includes the effects of flicker, or 1/f, noise which often limits radiometer performance. The 1/f noise processes within the detector are affected by the modulation of the detector voltage as a result of the injected noise power and cause the overall 1/f noise to increase. The functional dependence of the 1/f noise parameters on degree of source modulation is determined experimentally. The primary result of this paper is a concise mathematical formula for the noise equivalent temperature difference of a noise adding radiometer explicitly showing the dependences on the radiometer parameters, as well as detector voltages when the source is on and off. From this formula, we derive the optimum on and off voltage ratio that maximizes sensitivity. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to "Editorial"

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 206
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org