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Semiconductor Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Simultaneous in situ measurement of film thickness and temperature by using multiple wavelengths pyrometric interferometry (MWPI)

    Page(s): 112 - 118
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    Film thickness and temperature are two of the most important quantities in semiconductor manufacturing. They play a fundamental role in many standard production techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD, LPCVD, PECVD), thermal oxidation and diffusion. They are especially important for more recently developed technologies like molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal organic MBE (MOMBE), metal organic CVD (MOCVD), chemical beam epitaxy (CBE), etc. In this paper, an optical in situ method for simultaneous film thickness and temperature measurements-named multiple wavelengths pyrometric interferometry (MWPI)-is introduced, which is capable of high resolution (up to 0.1 nm for thickness and 0.025 K for temperature) and for real time data evaluation. It can be used for process control as well as in situ quality inspection without time delay or additional handling mechanisms and is suitable for monitoring single films as well as multilayer structures. MWPI is insensitive to vibration, rotation and misalignment of the wafer. Due to its optical basis it is also insensitive to hostile environments like high temperature and/or chemical reactive gases View full abstract»

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  • An object-oriented SECS programming environment

    Page(s): 119 - 127
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    An object-oriented programming (OOP) environment for developing SEMI Equipment Communication Standard (SECS) applications with the C++ and C programming languages in a Unix workstation environment is described. The system defines a set of programming objects corresponding to the standard SECS-II item types, messages and headers as well as a number of support classes and operations. Conversion between standard program datatypes and SECS-II items is transparent or explicitly managed by the developer. Within a standard framework using standard C++ input/output methods, SECS-II messages may be created, analyzed, transmitted and received between internal buffers, external files and communication channels. Classes corresponding to specific SECS stream and function codes are also available and can be incorporated easily into application code with little or no modification View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring plasma-process induced damage in thin oxide

    Page(s): 96 - 102
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    Plasma etching and resist ashing processes cause current to flow through the thin oxide and the resultant plasma-induced damage can be simulated and modeled as damage produced by constant current electrical stress. The oxide charging current produced by plasma processing increases with the `antenna' size of the device structure. Oxide charge measurement such as CV or threshold voltage is a more sensitive technique for characterizing plasma-processing induced damage than oxide breakdown. The oxide charging current is collected only through the aluminum surfaces not covered by the photoresist during plasma processes. Although forming gas anneal can passivate the traps generated during plasma etching, subsequent Fowler-Nordheim stressing causes more traps to be generated in these devices than in devices that have not been through plasma etching. Using the measured charging current, the breakdown voltage distribution of oxides after plasma processes can be predicted accurately. Oxide shorts density of a single large test capacitor is found to be higher than that in a multiple of separated small capacitors having the same total oxide area. This would lead to overly pessimistic oxide defect data unless care is taken View full abstract»

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  • The formula: world class manufacturing for hybrid thin-film component production

    Page(s): 170 - 177
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    In less than one year, Avantek's hybrid thin film component (HTFC) production operation transformed itself into a showcase for successful world class manufacturing (WCM). Production cycle time was reduced by 60%, work-in-process inventory was reduced by 92%, and overall process yields were improved by over 15%. WCM for this HTFC operation included the application of a number of productivity concepts. The proper mix of just-in-time (JIT), total quality management (TQM) and employee involvement concepts has transformed this operation into a powerful competitive tool for the company. The authors describe the steps taken to empower HTFC's employees and to develop a teamwork approach. While the success of this approach intertwines with other WCM tools, teamwork has created infectious group enthusiasm for TQM-like problem solving while eliminating non-value-added activity required by JIT View full abstract»

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  • Supplier improvement via SPC applications workshops

    Page(s): 178 - 183
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    To fill the gap between basic classroom courses and help bring suppliers to a Six Sigma level, the Supply Management Quality Assurance organization developed the concept of SPC applications workshops. These workshops combine classroom training with actual hands on applications using the supplier's process as the training materials. This leaves the supplier with an understanding of how to implement the tools for `his' process. Each workshop is designed to meet the needs of the supplier as well as to provide Motorola with essential data for evaluating the capability of a supplier to produce product to meet Motorola's need. Each workshop contains several basic elements which are common to all: problem definition, measurement capability studies, multi-vari analysis, process capability analysis, correlation analysis, and the development of data collection and reporting format. The author discusses the methodology for performing an applications workshop View full abstract»

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  • Advanced CIM environment for manufacturing data analysis

    Page(s): 128 - 133
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    The Harris semiconductor manufacturing systems organization has released a new environment for performing complex analyses of semiconductor manufacturing processes and IC products in its facilities worldwide. This innovative analysis toolset has increased the productivity of engineers by providing a method for complex manufacturing data reduction without the need for exhaustive training. The interactive, forms-based interface utility has also provided significant reductions in the time required to isolate parameters and identify relationships that significantly influence manufacturing yields. With little knowledge of data structures, query languages, or the underlying statistical analysis software, users of the system can access data in a variety of Harris worldwide locations and generate complex ad-hoc queries that result in statistics, histograms, box plots, and scatter plots. The more sophisticated user can enjoy the benefits of an open system. The foundation of the system is the internally developed, Unix-based manufacturing and engineering data base (MEDB). MEDB is a fully automated system for collecting and loading in-line manufacturing parameters, sample probe, wafer probe, and package test data from a variety of equipment platforms. The system is comprised of Harris proprietary database management software wrapped around the commercially available INGRES relational database product View full abstract»

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  • The evolution of employee empowerment

    Page(s): 143 - 155
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    The authors present the evolution of employee involvement programs into empowered self-directed work teams (SDWTs) to drive continuous improvement methodologies. With the primary goal of increased manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction, SDWTs are responsible for the day-to-day operations and directions of existing wafer fabs at Harris Semiconductor in Palm Bay, Florida. The SDWTs were formed to improve key fab performance indices such as throughput yield (TPY), cycle time, performance-to-schedule and reduction of costs View full abstract»

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  • From trend charts to control charts: setup tests for making the leap

    Page(s): 184 - 188
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    Statistical tests are developed to provide an operational definition of the term `under control' for application in deciding whether trend charts in semiconductor operations should be implemented as control charts, which often require considerable investment in responding to special cause flags. The decision rules derive from Monte Carlo simulations of traditional special cause flags modified for sample size to provide constant and low probabilities of inappropriate process rejection, to help ensure easy tracing of underlying problems and to help ensure large improvements in process capability from investment in fixes. The tests maintain the high efficiency of time series analysis intrinsic to traditional special cause flags. That uncompensated effects of sample size in control chart setup invite wildly uncontrolled risk of rejecting good processes is shown. A table of decision rules is provided to facilitate application of the setup tests at a constant and low risk of rejecting good processes View full abstract»

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  • Why even successful teams sometimes fail-self-directed team catalysts [manufacturing]

    Page(s): 163 - 169
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    The competitive need to significantly reduce cycle time and product inventory while improving yields in its logic fabricator, led IBM's semiconductor facility in Essex Junction, to adopt a continuous flow manufacturing (CFM) methodology and the team approach to implement this methodology. However, once these employee teams successfully achieved record breaking results, their effectiveness began to erode. What makes good teams hard to start and even harder to maintain? What causes leaders to move from either tyranny or apathy to vocal advocate? Why do teams seem to self-destruct despite their success? The answers to these questions lie in understanding team catalysts; that is, those conditions that foster the maturation of teams but are often eroded once success has been achieved. When team catalysts are maintained, an ongoing breakthrough occurs View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring supplier quality at PPM levels

    Page(s): 189 - 195
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    Motorola has traditionally monitored supplier quality levels using the lot accept rate. This measure, total lots accepted at incoming QA divided by the total lots received, was an adequate measure of supplier quality for many years. With the Motorola Six Sigma goal in place, supplier quality levels approached 100 percent and lot accept rate as a monitoring and rating metric lost its relevance. Suppliers with 99 to 100 percent lot accept rates began to feel that they had solved all their problems while line complaints continued to be received from Motorola manufacturing sites. Lot accept rate had lost its value as a metric for monitoring supplier quality. Line p.p.m. was chosen as a new metric for supplier quality. The authors discuss the need for the line p.p.m. metric, how the program was successfully implemented into five Motorola sites within the one year pilot project, some of the stumbling blocks encountered along the way, and the type of data that is currently being reported View full abstract»

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  • Research accomplishments at the University of Arizona SEMATECH Center of Excellence for contamination/defect assessment and control

    Page(s): 134 - 142
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    The Arizona SEMATECH Center of Excellence (SCOE) was established in May of 1988, is funded by SEMATECH and contractually monitored by the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC). The SCOE is engaged in research in a broad front to understand and control contamination which causes yield limiting defects in submicron ULSI circuits. Sandia National Laboratory personnel are integrated with UA personnel in the SCOE research. The focus of the research is on contaminants, both particulates and homogeneous or distributed, which originate in, are caused by, or are transported and deposited by process gases and chemicals or process equipment. Further, the work involves investigating the mapping from contaminants and contaminant levels to degradation of device properties. The resulting degradation in device properties can then be used to estimate the effects of such contaminants for submicron processes and circuits. Results achieved during the four years of the SCOE's existence are described in this paper View full abstract»

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  • Advantages of plasma etch modeling using neural networks over statistical techniques

    Page(s): 103 - 111
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    Due to the inherent complexity of the plasma etch process, approaches to modeling this critical integrated circuit fabrication step have met with varying degrees of success. Recently, a new adaptive learning approach involving neural networks has been applied to the modeling of polysilicon film growth by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). In this paper, neural network modeling is applied to the removal of polysilicon films by plasma etching. The plasma etch process under investigation was previously modeled using the empirical response surface approach. However, in comparing neural network methods with the statistical techniques, it is shown that the neural network models exhibit superior accuracy and require fewer training experiments. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that the predictive capabilities of the neural models are superior to that of their statistical counterparts for the same experimental data View full abstract»

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  • The implementation of total quality management (TQM) in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Page(s): 156 - 162
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    The author reviews his five year experience in the implementation of total quality management (TQM) in the operation of the silicon wafer fabrication (fab) facility in Xerox Microelectronics Center (MEC). First, the TQM basic concepts and its operational implications are summarized. This is followed by a detailed description of the TQM implementation process in the wafer fab. Driven by Xerox corporate commitment to quality, the implementation process includes an organizational system analysis of MEC operations, a restructuring of the wafer fab organization, the formation of a quality council, the launching of a comprehensive education and training program, and the implementation of statistical process control techniques. Also, a cornerstone in the TQM strategy is empowering all employees through participation in problem solving and quality improvement teams, and involvement in an employee suggestion system. It is shown that the TQM strategy proved to be instrumental in achieving significant improvements in customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, productivity, profitability, product quality, manufacturing costs, and on-time delivery View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing addresses the challenging problems of manufacturing complex microelectronic components.

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Anthony Muscat
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
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1133 E. James Rogers Way
University of Arizona
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