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Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Editorial [publication schedules]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3
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  • On the Convergence of N-FINDR and Related Algorithms: To Iterate or Not to Iterate?

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 4 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A popular algorithm for unmixing hyperspectral data, namely, Winter's N-FINDR algorithm, is frequently used to benchmark other algorithms or as the basis for new algorithms. The interpretations of this algorithm within the literature are not consistent, and some of these differences have significant impact on the convergence of the algorithm. Despite this, the differences in implementation have not been explicitly acknowledged within the literature, which means that many studies are now ambiguous or incomparable. An examination of various implementations of the N-FINDR algorithm highlights that not all interpretations possess the properties asserted by Winter and that interpretations that consider each pixel multiple times generate much larger simplexes. Regardless of which implementation researchers choose to use, if they are explicit in their choice, this would allow for unambiguous comparisons. View full abstract»

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  • Data-Adaptive Prediction of Sea-Surface Temperature in the Arabian Sea

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 9 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A nonlinear data-adaptive approach known by the name of genetic algorithm has been proposed for predicting satellite-observed sea-surface temperature (SST) in the Arabian Sea. A preliminary empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis has been carried out to separate the temporal variability from the spatial variability, and the algorithm has been applied to the time series of the principal components (PCs). The algorithm finds explicit analytical forecast equations that are later used to forecast the PCs. Afterward, predicted SSTs have been reconstructed using the predicted PCs and precomputed EOFs. Performance of the forecast has been evaluated by comparing it with persistence forecast, and it has been found that the algorithm is able to improve upon persistence forecast for the lead times of two to four weeks. View full abstract»

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  • Semiempirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for SAR Data in C-Band and Cross Polarization Using Radar Images and Field Measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 14 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The estimation of surface soil parameters (moisture and roughness) from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images requires the use of well-calibrated backscattering models. The objective of this letter is to extend the semiempirical calibration of the backscattering integral equation model (IEM) initially proposed by Baghdadi for HH and VV polarizations to HV polarization. The approach consisted in replacing the measured correlation length by a fitting/calibration parameter so that model simulations would closely agree with radar measurements. This calibration in C-band covers radar configurations with incidence angles between 24 and 45.8. Good agreement was found between the backscattering coefficient provided by the SAR and that simulated by the calibrated version of the IEM. View full abstract»

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  • Global CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Changes Near Clouds

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 19 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several recent studies have found that clouds are surrounded by a transition zone of rapidly changing aerosol optical properties and particle size. Characterizing this transition zone is important for better understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects, and also for improving satellite retrievals of aerosol properties. This letter presents a statistical analysis of a monthlong global data set of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations over oceans. The results show that the transition zone is ubiquitous over all oceans and extends up to 15 km away from clouds. They also show that near-cloud enhancements in backscatter and particle size are strongest at low altitudes, slightly below the top of the nearest clouds. Also, the enhancements are similar near illuminated and shadowy cloud sides, which confirms that the asymmetry of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer reflectances found in an earlier study comes from 3-D radiative processes and not from differences in aerosol properties. Finally, the effects of CALIPSO aerosol detection and cloud identification uncertainties are discussed. The findings underline the importance of accounting for the transition zone to avoid potential biases in studies of satellite aerosol products, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol direct radiative effects. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Backscattering Models at L-Band for Growing Corn

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 24 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The impact of incoherent and coherent formulations on estimates of terrain backscatter (σterrain0) at L-band for a growing season of corn is examined. The average root mean square difference (RMSD) between the two formulations over the growing season ranged between 3-4 dB, with higher RMSDs at HH polarization (pol), indicating the presence of coherent effects. In the incoherent model, the direct scattering from stems was the primary mechanism, while in the coherent formulation, the interactions between the stems and soil were the primary mechanisms due to the coherent effects. Both incoherent and coherent formulations estimated equally high sensitivities of σterrain0 to soil moisture (SM) during early stage under low vegetation conditions. During the early and mid stages, the σterrain0 estimated by both formulations exhibited higher sensitivities during dry conditions than wet conditions. In contrast, during the reproductive stage, the σterrain0 by the incoherent formulation was more sensitive to the SM at wet conditions than at dry conditions. Based upon the ALOS/SMAP accuracy for σterrain0, the incoherent formulation exhibited the highest sensitivity during the early stage with detection of SM changes as low as 2 vol% for dry condition, whereas the coherent formulation exhibited the highest sensitivity during the mid stage with detection of SM changes as low as 2.5 vol%. The results of this study suggest that the coherent effects should be considered for defining accuracy of SM estimation algorithms for corn at L-band. View full abstract»

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  • Prelaunch Calibration of Microwave Humidity Sounder on China's FY-3A Meteorological Satellite

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 29 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    China's Feng Yun-3A (FY-3A) meteorological satellite is a second-generation polar-orbiting meteorological satellite launched in May 2008. The Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) is the main payload, designed for atmospheric humidity sounding. Before the launch of MWHS, a series of experiments was conducted in a thermal/vacuum (T/V) chamber. This letter describes the MWHS T/V calibration, in which the flight model currently operating on FY-3A was tested. The calibration procedure and data-processing methods are presented. Calibration results, such as radiometric resolution, receiver nonlinearity, and calibration bias, were obtained. The results meet the specifications on bias and sensitivity of MWHS. Since the instrument temperatures will be approximately 10°C-20°C on orbit, the calibration errors of MWHS over the range of 100-300 K would be less than 0.3 K using the nonlinearity coefficients derived in the T/V test. View full abstract»

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  • Mapping Three-Dimensional Surface Deformation by Combining Multiple-Aperture Interferometry and Conventional Interferometry: Application to the June 2007 Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 34 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Radar Waveform for Monostatic Ionosonde

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 39 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Monostatic radar, whether using interpulse or intrapulse coded pulse trains, will suffer from the blind zones caused by eclipsing. This letter proposes a novel biphase interpulse coded radar waveform using diverse Pulse Repetition Intervals (PRIs) instead of a consistent PRI within each coherent processing interval (CPI). This waveform can achieve long unambiguous range, high-range resolution and high Doppler resolution without blind zones, and is specially suitable for a monostatic ionosonde. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Raw-Signal Simulation of Extended Scenes for Missile-Borne SAR With Constant Acceleration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 44 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fast raw-signal simulation is of considerable value for missile-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) algorithm development. On the basis of the two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier simulation method for stripmap SAR, we present a fast echo simulation method suitable for missile-borne SAR diving with constant acceleration. The analytical expression for the 2-D signal spectrum is derived and then converted to a stripmap one. Simulation results for a point target and a real scene demonstrate its validity and effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • X-, C-, and L-Band DInSAR Investigation of the April 6, 2009, Abruzzi Earthquake

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 49 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter compares the coseismic deformation maps obtained from different synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors using the well-known differential SAR interferometry technique. In particular, four deformation maps have been obtained from X-, C-, and L-band SAR sensors onboard COSMO-SkyMed, Envisat, and ALOS satellite missions correspondingly. The test case is the April 6,2009, earthquake (Mw = 6.3). This seismic event struck a densely populated region of the Apennines and was felt all over Central Italy. The SAR data set is rather inhomogeneous, since it includes interferograms with three different wavelengths, four acquisition geometries, different spatial resolutions, variable temporal and spatial baselines, and differently emphasized signal noise. However, we find that the detected displacements are highly comparable. The outcome of this work is that, even though such differences have an impact on the properties of the interferograms, the displacements can be measured with an overall discrepancy of about half the value of the shortest wavelength (COSMO-SkyMed) data set. View full abstract»

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  • Combination of Direct and Double-Bounce Ground Responses in the Homogeneous Oriented Volume Over Ground Model

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Complex interferometric coherence expressions for the homogeneous (random or oriented) volume-over-ground model are originally derived in a simplified way by neglecting one of the two possible contributions of the ground response: direct return from the ground surface or double-bounce interaction with stems or trunks. The influence of these depends on both system and scene parameters, and in many cases, none of them should be ignored a priori. Therefore, a more general formulation accounting for the simultaneous presence of both ground contributions should be developed. This letter derives this formulation and analyzes the combined effect of both ground returns on the complex coherences. In addition, the implications for a subsequent inversion procedure based on this model are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Brillouin Precursor Propagation Through Foliage for Digital Sequences of Pulses

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 59 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of Brillouin precursors through dispersive foliage media, using leafy vegetation dielectric models proposed by Fung-Ulaby, El Rayes-Ulaby, Brown-Curry-Ding, Maetzler, and Pearce. A fast-Fourier-transform-based formulation is used to analyze the peak amplitude decay and pulse broadening effect (or effective oscillation frequency) related to the precursor formation for both single pulse and sequence of pulses traveling through the leafy vegetation. The influence of the Brillouin precursor on the receiver structure is also investigated. Simulations have been carried out in frequency bands between 100 MHz and 6 GHz allocated for remote sensing applications and digital satellite communications. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Combination of Spatial Interpolation and Multispectral Remote Sensing for Shallow Water Bathymetry

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 64 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is often a need for making a high-resolution or a complete bathymetric map based on sparse point measurements of water depth. Well-known feasible methods for this problem include spatial interpolation and passive remote sensing using readily available multispectral imagery, whose accuracies depend strongly on geometric and optical conditions, respectively. For a more accurate and robust water-depth mapping, in this letter, the two methods are combined into a new method in a statistically reasonable and beneficial manner. The new method is based on a semiparametric regression model that consists of a parametric imagery-based term and a nonparametric spatial interpolation term that complement one another. An accuracy comparison in a test site shows that the new method is more accurate than either of the existing methods when sufficient training data are available and far more accurate than the spatial interpolation method when the training data are scarce. View full abstract»

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  • Radar Imaging Simulation for Urban Structures

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 68 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the recent advent of very high resolution (VHR) spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors such as TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed, the potential to use SAR simulators is increasing. In this letter, we propose a novel radar imaging simulator that is relatively simple to implement and that finds a balance between accuracy and efficiency. The main goal of the proposed method is to obtain a precise simulation of the geometry of objects in SAR images rather than a detailed radiometric simulation. The simulator is based on an extended ray-tracing procedure to determine which surfaces of a generic object contribute to the backscatter. The backscatter contributions are calculated by means of a Lambertian-specular mixture model. The simulator has already been employed successfully in a methodology for 3-D reconstruction of man-made objects from single detected VHR SAR imagery. Here, we illustrate its work on two rather different structures, a rectangular gable-roof building and an Egyptian pyramid. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Urban Water-Body Detection and Segmentation From Sparse ALSM Data via Spatially Constrained Model-Driven Clustering

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 73 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Identifying hydrological features is important for urban planning and disaster assessment. Data spatial resolution poses challenges in automatic processing. In this letter, we present a novel spatially constrained model-driven clustering method that automatically detects and delineates water bodies in an urban area using airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) data and imagery. Our method analyzes the modality of the sparseness histogram to decide the existence of water body, followed by clustering. Using the sparseness, clusters are decided by selecting candidate sites. In the iteration of clustering process, new sites are recruited within a close spatial vicinity of the boundary sites. Experiments were conducted using data sets from the city of New Orleans. Our method demonstrated superior robustness regardless of the density of ALSM sample and data discrepancy and very competitive accuracy in comparison with manual tracing, with an overall accuracy above 98%. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Estimation of Human Presence Detection Signals From a Scanning-Beam Millimeter-Wave Correlation Radiometer

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 78 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The scanning-beam millimeter-wave correlation radiometer has recently been applied to human presence detection and classification. The natural frequency of the scanning-beam correlation radiometer signal, called the fringe frequency, results from human presence in the scanning beam and must be known in order to filter the signal and provide the best possible radiometric sensitivity. This letter presents new results in estimating the fringe frequency of a 27.4-GHz scanning-beam correlation radiometer by comparing different spectral estimation techniques, including CLEAN, RELAX, PHD, MUSIC, and ESPRIT. Experiments were performed with a human placed beyond the mean detection range of the sensor, resulting in signal power levels below the average power expected in an operational environment. Results show good performance for the CLEAN and RELAX algorithms at fringe frequencies in the range of 15-60 Hz and for the MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms at fringe frequencies in the range of 60-155 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Conflation of Vector Buildings With Imagery

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a system to solve the vector-to-imagery building conflation problem. To drive the system, structure outlines in high-resolution images are extracted via a shape-driven level set scheme. Shape and relative position features are then computed for the image-extracted buildings and for vector graphics buildings from a geospatial information system (GIS). These two features are used by a graph-matching procedure that finds correspondences between the image-extracted buildings and those from a GIS. Extensions of our system to vector-to-vector building conflation, generic polygonal object conflation, and image-to-image registration are also possible. View full abstract»

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  • Focusing of Tandem Bistatic-Configuration Data With Range Migration Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 88 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A bistatic range migration algorithm (RMA) based on an exact analytical bistatic point-target (PT) spectrum in the tandem configuration is proposed in this letter. For the conventional geometry-based bistatic formula method, the derived spectrum is only a quasi-analytical one because a variable called half-quasi-bistatic angle (HQBA) is not exactly analytically expressed. The key step of the proposed algorithm is to deduce an analytical HQBA in the tandem configuration, and thus, an exact analytical closed-form PT spectrum is acquired. Based on this analytical spectrum, a bistatic RMA is presented. It is demonstrated that this algorithm can handle the bistatic tandem configuration with extremely large baseline/range ratio and can also be applied to wide-swath imaging. View full abstract»

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  • k -Segments-Based Geometric Modeling of VLS Scan Lines

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 93 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel k-segments-based 2-D geometric modeling schematic is proposed for characterizing the scan lines of vehicle-based laser scanning (VLS) with just a few geometric primitives. VLS has been developing quickly as a new research focus recently, but the relevant data processing techniques lag behind the system establishment due to the associated huge standwise point clouds collected in a real 3-D sense. To solve this issue, the often-assumed sampling mode based on scan lines suggests an alternative frame for exploring new efficient methodologies in diverse applications. As we know, principal segments can reflect the morphological signatures of the scatter-point-represented objects, and besides, profiles comprised by various open and close outlines can be geometrically modeled by line segments and ellipses, respectively. By combining these two merits, the k-segments-based geometric modeling algorithm can be constructed, which segments and fits the center-clustered points, e.g., in crowns, into ellipses and the line-arranged points, e.g., on walls, into line segments. Eventually, the experiments based on real VLS data primarily validate this new algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Analysis of Krylov Solvers for Three-Dimensional Simulations of Borehole Sensors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 98 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We perform a comparative analysis of three Krylov subspace methods, viz., the restarted generalized minimum residual (RGMRES), the conjugate gradient squared (CGS), and the stabilized biconjugate gradient (Bi-CGSTAB), for solving large non-Hermitian sparse linear systems arising from the 3-D finite-volume modeling of electromagnetic borehole sensors in complex earth formations. Incomplete LU factorization and symmetric successive overrelaxation preconditioning strategies are used to speed up the convergence rate. We compare these algorithms in terms of accuracy, convergence rate, and overall CPU time. Results show that CGS has a highly irregular convergence behavior, whereas RGMRES and Bi-CGSTAB provide similar numerical accuracy. However, the convergence rate and CPU time of the latter depend on the borehole sensor geometry and on the type of preconditioner adopted. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Total-Variation-Based Curvelet Shrinkage for Three-Dimensional Seismic Data Denoising

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 103 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transform-based denoising methods are popularly used in image and signal processing, including seismic data processing. However, they often suffer from unwanted artifacts, e.g., nonsmooth edges and pesudo-Gibbs phenomena. A total variation (TV) minimization technique has the ability to suppress these artifacts, particularly in the vicinity of discontinuities. In this letter, we employ the almost optimal sparse transform for seismic data, i.e., curvelet transform, to represent and denoise seismic cubes, combining a projected TV technique as a postprocessing method, in order to reduce unwanted nonsmooth artifacts caused by the curvelet transform. We shrink seismic noise via retaining the significant curvelet coefficients, but for the small ones under a given threshold, we modify them by searching for the minimization of their TV values, instead of setting them to zeros, i.e., TV-combined curvelets with adjustment of small curvelet coefficients by TV minimization. We prove its validity in seismic denoising by comparing with existing methods, including curvelets, TV denoising, and TV-combined curvelets with adjustment of large curvelet coefficients by TV minimization. Numerical experiments show that seismic noise is effectively suppressed by the present technique and that nonsmooth artifacts caused by the curvelet transform are also reduced significantly. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters (GRSL) is a monthly publication for short papers (maximum length 5 pages) addressing new ideas and formative concepts in remote sensing as well as important new and timely results and concepts.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Alejandro C. Frery
Universidade Federal de Alagoas