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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Introduction to the Focused Section on Surgical and Interventional Medical Devices

    Page(s): 829 - 837
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    The ten regular papers and one short paper in this focused section highlight several important medical technology achievements enabled by mechatronics. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Noncontact Tumor Imager for Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery

    Page(s): 838 - 846
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    In video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), a surgeon cannot easily detect a lung tumor during surgical operation. This paper discusses a noncontact tumor imager capable of detecting a tumor position for application during VATS; this sensor is based on the phase differential technique. The developed sensor comprises an air supply system and an optical-fiber-based displacement sensor adjacent to the air nozzle. For a periodic air pressure, a displacement sensor provides sinusoidal outputs with individual phases. The phase difference varies according to the change in the mechanical impedance parameters of tissues between two points. We confirmed the validity of the sensor for the removed human lung through basic experiments. With regard to clinical applications, both the tumor detection capability and the safety to lung tissues of the developed sensor were confirmed through in vivo animal experiments using pig lungs. Finally, the sensor system was developed for clinical tests and the results of the clinical experiments are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Intraprocedural Registration for Image-Guided Kidney Surgery

    Page(s): 847 - 852
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    This paper reviews the process of using surface-based registration techniques for image-guided kidney surgery and presents data for both open and minimally invasive kidney surgery either by robot or by hand. View full abstract»

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  • Toward the Development of a Hand-Held Surgical Robot for Laparoscopy

    Page(s): 853 - 861
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS), which typically involves endoscopic camera and laparoscopic instruments may seem to be the ideal surgical procedure for its apparent benefits. However, in comparison to open surgeries, the spatial and mechanical tool limitations posed on surgeons are so high that often MIS is foregone for complex cases and even when it is possible, the procedure requires a high dexterity, caliber, and experience from the surgeon. Particularly, suturing procedure through MIS is known to be extremely challenging. We are working toward the development of a robotic hand-held surgical device for laparoscopic interventions that enhances the surgeons' dexterity. The instrument produces two independent DOFs, which is sufficient for enabling MIS suturing procedure in vivo. The end-effector's orientation is controlled by an intuitive and ergonomic controller and its position is controlled directly by the surgeon. Different control modes, handles, and end-effector kinematics are primarily evaluated using a virtual reality simulator before choosing the best combination. A proof-of-concept prototype of the device has been developed. View full abstract»

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  • Assemblable Three-FingeredNine-Degrees-of-FreedomHand for Laparoscopic Surgery

    Page(s): 862 - 870
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    This paper describes a three-fingered nine-degrees-of-freedom hand whose parts can be inserted through trocars and assembled inside the abdominal cavity. Unlike other studies of surgery robots, this study focuses on a nondominant hand of a surgeon and its goal is to develop a robotic hand that can carry out assistive tasks for surgery, as if the human nondominant hand existed in the abdominal cavity. Another advantage of such a robotic hand is that it can grasp and retract large internal organs. The assemblage of the developed hand consists of center, right, and left finger units. The center finger unit is inserted through one trocar, and the right and left finger units are inserted through another trocar and then passed through the trocar, where the center finger unit is inserted. Then, the three finger units are connected to form the hand. One notable advantage of this assembly procedure is that the power transmission used to drive the finger joints is connected outside the abdominal cavity, which makes assembly and disassembly much easier and safer than the previously proposed hand. Although the hand has no wrist, its three finger joints play the role of a wrist joint. In vivo experiments demonstrate that the assembly procedure is simple, and that the hand can be made to grasp, hold up, and retract large internal organs, such as small intestine and spleen, by manipulating its joints in such a way that the hand fits the shape of the organ. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Novel Bimanual Robotic System for Single-Port Laparoscopy

    Page(s): 871 - 878
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    This paper presents the design and fabrication of Single-Port lapaRoscopy bImaNual roboT (SPRINT), a novel teleoperated robotic system for minimally invasive surgery. SPRINT, specifically designed for single-port laparoscopy, is a high-dexterity miniature robot, able to reproduce the movement of the hands of the surgeon, who controls the system through a master interface. It comprises two arms with six degrees of freedom (DOFs) that can be individually inserted and removed in a 30-mm-diameter umbilical access port. The system is designed to leave a central lumen free during operations, thus allowing the insertion of other laparoscopic tools. The four distal DOFs of each arm are actuated by on-board brushless dc motors, while the two proximal DOFs of the shoulder are actuated by external motors. The constraints generated by maximum size and power requirements led to the design of compact mechanisms for the actuation of the joints. The wrist is actuated by three motors hosted in the forearm, with a peculiar differential mechanism that allows us to have intersecting roll-pitch-roll axes. Preliminary tests and validations were performed ex vivo by surgeons on a first prototype of the system. View full abstract»

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  • ViKY Robotic Scope Holder: Initial Clinical Experience and Preliminary Results Using Instrument Tracking

    Page(s): 879 - 886
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    Robotic endoscope holders constitute an alternative to complete telesurgery systems, by offering a “third hand” to the surgeon during a laparoscopic procedure. ViKY robotic scope holder (Endocontrol, Grenoble, France) is a lightweight, sterilizable body-mounted robot with 3 DOF. In this paper, we present the specifics of this robot, the newly developed XL version dedicated to single-port surgery and the initial clinical experience. We have proposed a method to control the robot, based on the detection and tracking of surgical instrument from image analysis and shape priors, to enrich the interaction between the surgeon and the robot. We present here, our work in progress toward its integration into a probabilistic framework, with the aim of improving the method's speed and robustness. We also present the surgeons' viewpoints on the feasibility of its integration into the operating theater. View full abstract»

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  • A Robotic System for Overlapping Radiofrequency Ablation in Large Tumor Treatment

    Page(s): 887 - 897
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    Overlapping radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in large tumor treatment requires multiple insertions of electrodes, which often compromise its efficacy and predictability. Surgical robot is a promising candidate for the execution of multiple RFA in large tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. In this paper, we share our experience of design and implementation of a novel robotic system specialized for overlapping RFA. It consists of two components: a robotic manipulator and an automatic ablation planning module. The manipulator architecture is designed to facilitate the kinematic requirement for the multiple overlapping ablation technique within the constraints of minimally invasive surgery. An efficient “Voxel Growing” algorithm is adopted to automatically produce the ablation points according to the tumor's profile. The feasibility of the proposed robotic system is demonstrated by extensive simulation- and experiment-based evaluation conducted on ex vivo porcine liver. View full abstract»

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  • An Endoscope With 2 DOFs Steering of Coaxial Nd:YAG Laser Beam for Fetal Surgery

    Page(s): 898 - 905
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    This paper reports a rigid endoscope that provides an endoscopic view and transmits a high-power infrared laser beam coaxially to arbitrary points in the view to photocoagulate body tissue, mainly for treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. The endoscope system consists of a hot mirror for coaxial transmission of visible light and a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser beam, and an optical galvano scanner for steering the laser beam from the endoscope tip. The optical system of the endoscope is designed for high-power laser transmission, and achieves a small laser beam. The camera and galvano mirrors are calibrated to control the laser spot automatically by pointing a target on the endoscopic image. We evaluated the laser transmission efficiency, firing angle, positioning accuracy, and feasibility of photocoagulation by in vitro experiment. The laser transmission efficiency was 34%. However, the endoscope provided changeable firing angles of 24° in a horizontal direction and 22° in a vertical direction. Furthermore, the positioning accuracy was sufficiently high because the errors in both air and water were mostly smaller than the diameter of target vessels of 1 mm. As an in vitro experiment, we successfully coagulated rabbit's mesenteric vessels by changing the firing angle. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Estimation of 3-D Needle Shape and Deflection for MRI-Guided Interventions

    Page(s): 906 - 915
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    We describe a MRI-compatible biopsy needle instrumented with optical fiber Bragg gratings for measuring bending deflections of the needle as it is inserted into tissues. During procedures, such as diagnostic biopsies and localized treatments, it is useful to track any tool deviation from the planned trajectory to minimize positioning errors and procedural complications. The goal is to display tool deflections in real time, with greater bandwidth and accuracy than when viewing the tool in MR images. A standard 18 ga × 15 cm inner needle is prepared using a fixture, and 350-μm-deep grooves are created along its length. Optical fibers are embedded in the grooves. Two sets of sensors, located at different points along the needle, provide an estimate of the bent profile, as well as temperature compensation. Tests of the needle in a water bath showed that it produced no adverse imaging artifacts when used with the MR scanner. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Novel Artificial Urinary Sphincter: A Versatile Automated Device

    Page(s): 916 - 924
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    Management of male severe stress urinary incontinence is currently achieved by the treatment of choice: an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS). This implantable system is designed to exert a constant circumferential force around the urethra. Although continence is totally or partially recovered in most of the patients, this method has some significant drawbacks. Besides the difficulty and discomfort of using the device, the revision rate caused by constant urethral compression, leading to urethral injuries, remains high. We present in this study a new AUS concept, with an ergonomic control, providing a lower exerted pressure on the urethral tissues and improving the continence efficiency. In fact, the implant includes a system which automatically detects circumstances involving high-intravesical pressure and adapts the occlusive pressure accordingly. The device was evaluated using isolated goat urethra, and then, in vivo. Recorded data of 16 human subjects performing different daily exercises were used to assess the detection algorithms. It is shown that occlusive pressure can be controlled by the implant with an accuracy of 1 cm H2O (98 Pa). Acceptable detection performance of seven of the eight targeted activities was observed. View full abstract»

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  • Initial Evaluation of a Tactile/Kinesthetic Force Feedback System for Minimally Invasive Tumor Localization

    Page(s): 925 - 931
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS), while beneficial to patients, leads to new challenges for surgeons and prevents tumors from being localized using finger palpation. A tactile-sensing system (TSS), consisting of a hand-held tactile-sensing instrument (TSI) with a visualization interface, was developed to assist in intraoperative tumor localization. This paper presents the calibration of the TSI and its integration with a visualization interface that allows palpation forces to be displayed. Experiments were conducted to determine whether providing visual force feedback (VFF) to the user would significantly benefit TSS performance when attempting to locate 10 mm hemispherical tumors in ex vivo bovine liver. The TSS with VFF realized a 33% and 21% relative reduction in average and maximum applied forces, respectively, and a 53% relative increase in detection accuracy when compared to the use of the TSS without VFF. Thus, VFF improves the performance of the TSS and has the potential to help surgeons identify tumors intraoperatively during MIS. View full abstract»

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  • Dimensional Optimization Design of the Four-Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulator in FAST

    Page(s): 932 - 941
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    For the design of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST), a four-cable-driven parallel manipulator, which is long in span and heavy in weight, is adopted as the first-level adjustable feed-support system. The purpose of this paper is to optimize dimensions of the four-cable-driven parallel manipulator to meet the workspace requirement of constraint condition in terms of cable tension and stiffness. Accordingly, this optimization method adopts catenary simplification in order to set up the cable tension equilibrium equations, preliminarily optimizing three important dimensional parameters. Stiffness of the cable is also taken into consideration because of its effect on work performance of a cable-driven parallel manipulator. However, the stiffness value of a cable-driven parallel manipulator is not totally credible by traditional theoretical analysis. Therefore, an experimental method for stiffness analysis is presented in this paper. It applies Buckingham π theorem to set up an experimental stiffness similarity model to obtain a more credible stiffness value, which is used in the optimization process. In this way, dimensional optimization is realized with a set of optimized dimensions for building the feed-support system in the FAST. More importantly, the stiffness similarity model can be universally adopted in stiffness analysis of other large cable-driven parallel manipulator. View full abstract»

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  • A Mobile Agent-Based Framework for Flexible Automation Systems

    Page(s): 942 - 951
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    Modern manufacturing systems are increasingly becoming highly dynamic due to the integration with advanced information technology in response to rapid changes in products and market conditions. A more flexible platform is critically needed for developing a new generation of manufacturing systems in order to address the challenges of uncertainty and flexibility requirements. This paper presents a mobile agent-based framework that supports dynamic deployment of control algorithms and tasks in automation systems. The framework is based on a mobile agent system called Mobile-C. It uses Ch, an embeddable interpretive C/C++ environment for mobile agent execution. Since Ch has been ported to most existing computing platforms, the framework can control automation systems that work in different operating systems. This mobile agent-based framework has been applied to the control of an automation work cell. Using an automaton package in Ch as a middleware, automation tasks can be described as high-level control programs and are portable to heterogeneous mechatronic devices that comprise the automation cell. The validation of the dynamic deployment of different tasks has been conducted in an experimental automation work cell that consists of a Puma 560, an IBM 7575, and a conveyor system. The results show that the mobile agent approach can effectively deploy and execute new control algorithms and tasks as mobile agents on any subsystem in a network. View full abstract»

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  • Active Knee Rehabilitation Orthotic Device With Variable Damping Characteristics Implemented via an Electrorheological Fluid

    Page(s): 952 - 960
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    This paper presents a novel, smart, and portable active knee rehabilitation orthotic device (AKROD) that provides variable damping at the knee joint, controlled in ways that can facilitate motor recovery in poststroke and other neurological disease patients, and to accelerate recovery in knee injury patients. The key features of AKROD include a compact, lightweight design, with highly tunable resistive torque capabilities through a variable damper component that is achieved through an electrorheological fluid (ERF) smart brake. Closed-loop torque and velocity controllers based on adaptive nonlinear control methodologies were developed and successfully implemented on the ERF brake. Preliminary testing of AKROD was performed using nine healthy subjects executing a set of isokinetic and isotonic exercises. These results were compared with exactly the same tests performed on a modern day computer controlled rehabilitation resistance machine, a Biodex System 3. The results showed comparable accuracy and repeatability between the two devices. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Highly Integrated Mechatronic Gear Selector Levers for Automotive Shift-by-Wire Systems

    Page(s): 961 - 968
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    Increased requirements regarding ergonomic comfort, limited space, weight reduction, and electronic automation of functions and safety features are on the rise for future automotive gear levers. At the same time, current mechanical gear levers have restrictions to achieve this. In this paper, we present a monostable, miniaturized mechatronic gear lever to fulfill these requirements for automotive applications. This solution describes a gear lever for positioning in the center console of a car to achieve optimal ergonomics for dynamic driving, which enables both automatic and manual gear switching. In this paper, we describe the sensor and actuator concept, safety concept, recommended shift pattern, mechanical design, and the electronic integration of this shift-by-wire system in a typical automotive bus communication network. The main contribution of this paper is a successful system design and the integration of a mechatronic system in new applications for optimizing the human-machine interface inside road vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Mode Switched Control of an Electropneumatic Clutch Actuator

    Page(s): 969 - 981
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    This paper proposes a stabilizing switched controller for an electropneumatic clutch actuator. Input restrictions arise from the fact that the allocation of air to and from the actuator chamber is governed by on/off valves. The dual-mode controller is a combination of a local and a global switched controller, and asymptotic stability in the region of operation of the clutch is proven. Asymptotic stability is verified and the controller's performance is investigated through experiments in a test vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Hall-Effect-Sensing 6-DOF Precision Positioner

    Page(s): 982 - 985
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    This paper presents the design, control, and implementation of a compact high-precision multidimensional positioner. A 1.52-kg single levitated moving part, named as the platen, generates all six-axis fine and coarse motions, resulting in a reliable and effective positioning system. Three laser distance sensors are used to measure its vertical translational motion and x- and y-axis rotational motion. Three two-axis Hall-effect sensors are used to determine its lateral motions and rotational motion about the z -axis by measuring the magnetic flux density generated by a magnet matrix. Real-time control is implemented on a Linux-based operating system, Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) with COntrol and MEasurement Device Interface (Comedi) and Comedi libraries. A maximum travel of 220 mm in the x -direction and 200 mm in the y-direction, and a rotation angle of 18.6° about the z-axis were achieved experimentally. A maximum velocity of 0.3 m/s with an acceleration of 3.6 m/s2 was obtained in the y-direction. Step responses the demonstrated a 10- μm resolution and 6-μm rms noise in the translational mode. This compact single-moving-part positioner is suitable for use in precision-positioning systems, e.g., in semiconductor manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Pole Configurations of Permanent-Magnet Spherical Actuators

    Page(s): 986 - 989
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    This paper presents a generic design concept of three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) permanent-magnet (PM) spherical actuators. A ball-shaped rotor mounted with multiple layers of PM poles is concentrically housed in a spherical-shell-like stator with multiple layers of air-core coils. This design allows more rotor and stator poles to be incorporated to increase torque output and motion range of the actuator. The magnetic field and torque modeling methods are generalized to multiple layers of poles, which provides a convenient way to analyze field distribution and torque performance of spherical actuators with various pole configurations. The simulation results of flux distribution and torque variation of double-layer configuration are compared with those of single-layer one. It shows that the magnetic field distribution and torque variation for both configurations are coincident with PM-pole arrangement on the rotor surface. The tilting torque of double-layer design is larger than that of single layer, and the torque variation is more uniform. The spinning torque of single layer is relatively large. The proposed analyzing methods of field and torque could be employed for preliminary study of other PM spherical actuators. View full abstract»

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  • 2011 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics

    Page(s): 990
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  • Call for papers 2011 focused section on marine mechatronics systems

    Page(s): 991
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scitopia.org [advertisement]

    Page(s): 992
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2010 Index IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Vol. 15

    Page(s): 993 - 1009
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr