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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - 3646
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Innovations for In-Pile Measurements in the Framework of the CEA-SCK•CEN Joint Instrumentation Laboratory

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3647 - 3654
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimizing the life cycle of nuclear systems under safety constraints requires high-performance experimental programs to reduce uncertainties on margins and limits. In addition to improvement in modeling and simulation, innovation in instrumentation is crucial for analytical and integral experiments conducted in research reactors. The quality of nuclear research programs relies obviously on an excellent knowledge of their experimental environment which constantly calls for better online determination of neutron and gamma flux. But the combination of continuously increasing scientific requirements and new experimental domains -brought for example by Generation IV programsnecessitates also major innovations for in-pile measurements of temperature, dimensions, pressure or chemical analysis in innovative mediums. At the same time, the recent arising of a European platform around the building of the Jules Horowitz Reactor offers new opportunities for research institutes and organizations to pool their resources in order to face these technical challenges. In this situation, CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) and SCK'CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) have combined their efforts and now share common developments through a Joint Instrumentation Laboratory. Significant progresses have thus been obtained recently in the field of in-pile measurements, on one hand by improvement of existing measurement methods, and on the other hand by introduction in research reactors of original measurement techniques. This paper highlights the state-of-the-art and the main requirements regarding in-pile measurements, particularly for the needs of current and future irradiation programs performed in material testing reactors. Some of the main on-going developments performed in the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory are also described, such as: - a unique fast neutron flux measurement system using fission chambers with 242Pu deposit and a specific online data- - processing, - an optical system designed to perform in-pile dimensional measurements of material samples under irradiation, - an acoustical instrumentation allowing the online characterization of fission gas release in Pressurized Water Reactor fuel rods. For each example, the obtained results, expected impacts and development status are detailed. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron Spectroscopy by Means of Artificial Diamond Detectors Using a Remote Read Out Scheme

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3655 - 3660
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Artificial crystal diamond neutron detectors are under test at JET tokamak since 2003 and they have demonstrated to be reliable and stable as well as to withstand the harsh working condition available in a large tokamak. Up to now they were used to measure the total and time dependent neutron emission while neutron spectroscopy was never attempted. On the other hand neutron spectrometry con yields important information on the burning plasma and it is requested for future experiments that will use DT plasmas so producing 14 MeV neutrons. Neutron spectrometry can only be attempted by using single crystal diamond (SCD) which, as it has been demonstrated, can show an energy resolution (FWHM) as low as 0.5%. However, in a future fusion reactor such as ITER, the huge neutron and gamma fluxes as well as the high temperature will not allow the electronics to be located close to the detector measuring point and near the plasma. For this reason it is necessary to develop a new approach in which new detectors able to withstand harsh environments and the electronics are far apart. This is a very challenging task if it is devoted to perform signal Pulse Height Analyses (PHS) with high energy resolution. To exploit this concept a SCD detector covered with a thin layer of 6LiF was installed at JET during the 2008 experimental campaigns and equipped with a remote read-out scheme located about 100 m away from the detector. The detector's signal was transported up to a conceptually new fast charge amplifier (FCA) developed to fulfil the task by means of a high frequency, single, low attenuation, super-screened cable. This FCA is able to read, stretch (up to 100 ns) and amplify the small (some μV) and ultra fast (<; 100 ps wide) signal produced by the radiation in the diamond detector. The signal amplified by the FCA was then processed through a commercial fast digitizer (NI-5114) 250 Ms/sec, 200 MHz equipped with 64 MB ram memory. Both signal amplitude and are- - a can be used to get a PHS spectrum demonstrating the unique performances of the FCA. In the present paper the results obtained at JET are reported as well as the first attempt to get 14 MeV neutron spectrometry using the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator. View full abstract»

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  • An Advanced NSSS Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3661 - 3666
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1139 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advanced design features of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 are summarized herein. During the overall system design and detailed component design processes, many design improvements have been made for the system. The major design changes are: 1) the application of a common software platform for all subsystems, 2) the implementation of remote access, control and monitoring capabilities, and 3) the equipment redesign and rearrangement that has simplified the system architecture. Changes give an effect on cabinet size, number of cables, cyber-security, graphic user interfaces, and interfaces with other monitoring systems. The system installation and operation for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 will be more convenient than those for previous Korean nuclear units in view of its remote control capability, automated test functions, improved user interface functions, and much less cabling. View full abstract»

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  • 3-Dimensional Coupled Neutronic and Thermal-Hydraulic Calculations for a Compact Core Combining MCNPX and CFX

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3667 - 3671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The neutronic Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the thermal-hydraulic CFD code CFX have been coupled to satisfy the increasing demand for 3-dimensional results with high spatial resolution in nuclear reactor physics. In a first step, results for an evolute shaped fuel plate of a symmetric compact core and an attached cooling channel in the fuel element of FRM II were regarded. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography and Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Contribution to Alpha Decay Studies in Actinide-Doped Matrices

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3672 - 3677
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A thermal desorption system coupled with a gas analyzer has been adapted and nuclearized to investigate He behavior in actinide-doped samples used to simulate alpha decay aging. This technique widely used in standard laboratories allows measurements of the helium balance and reduced diffusion coefficients, and a preliminary evaluation of helium locations (related to defects and thermal annealing). In our system implemented in a hot cell, small samples are annealed at up to 1100°C in controlled atmosphere. They are inserted in a 10 to 20 cm3 vessel connected to a micro gas chromatography detector. Initial system calibration allowed concentration measurements within about 10%. Comparisons with the CNRS/CRPG rare gas analysis laboratory at Nancy, France, were applied on natural uranium oxides originating from Oklo (Gabon) and Mistamisk (Canada). The latest results obtained on Mistamisk samples are in good agreement, with a maximum relative deviation of 14%. The data were used to determine the activation energy of about 1 eVcdotat-1. On (U,Pu)O2 and PuO2 samples the experiments highlight the impact of defects (up to 100 dpa) on He mobility. The defect population must now be characterized to improve our knowledge of He/defect interactions and mechanisms. In addition and synergy to the macroscopic release measurements by gas chromatography, positron annihilation spectroscopy, an effective nondestructive technique for vacancy defect investigation, was also developed and nuclearized in our hot cell laboratory as part of a project supported by the NOMADE and MATINEX research groups. Specific protocols for doped sample analysis were also developed and validated with UO2 and (U,Pu)O2 samples. View full abstract»

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  • Research Activities in Fission Chamber Modeling in Support of the Nuclear Energy Industry

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3678 - 3682
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fission chambers are widely used in the nuclear industry. As an example, they play a major role in the control of any fission reactor and are thus regarded as a key component for ensuring their safety. They are also employed in the material testing reactors for monitoring irradiations. We have recently started a research program, the objective of which is to improve the performance of those neutron detectors in terms of lifetime, calibration, and online diagnosis. In this paper, we present several studies carried out in order to model the signal delivered by a fission chamber. First, the simulation of the deposit evolution allowed us to select the most appropriate fissile material for a given spectrum and fluence. Second, we studied the impact of the bias voltage and filling gas characteristics on the charge collection time. Finally, the simulation of a pulse signal prior to amplification showed how it is important to have a satisfactory knowledge of the energy for creating ion pairs to accurately assess the signal in current or Campbelling mode. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron Dosimetry and 3-D Neutron Transport Calculations as Toolkit at HFR Petten for Detailed Neutron Monitoring and Damage Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3683 - 3686
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dosimetry at the High Flux Reactor in Petten, the Netherlands, serves a variety of purposes ranging from demonstrating compliance with the license for operating the reactor to validating the predictions of displacements per atom (DPA) in material irradiations. It is also used in the validation of the 3-D neutron transport calculations during post-irradiation analysis to normalize the spectrum obtained from these calculations. In this paper, a thorough examination of irradiated steel specimens is carried out using the measurements performed with the neutron activation technique as well as the 3-D neutron transport calculations to check the consistency in the resulting DPA values. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Plutonium in Large Concrete Radioactive Waste Packages by Photon Activation Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3687 - 3693
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Characterization of nuclear waste packages is crucial to optimize waste management (temporary storage, transport, final repository). Passive and active non-destructive methods are well-adapted to this problem and their coupling can be extremely useful in order to optimize data analysis. Photon activation analysis (PAA), based on the photofission process and on the detection of delayed particles emitted after this reaction, is a powerful tool for the analysis of bulky concrete waste packages. Methods developed around PAA allow to locate, identify and quantify the mass of actinides (235U, 238 U, 239Pu) present in a given package in order to estimate its alpha activity. In this article, we present experimental and simulated results obtained in PAA during the characterization of a real nuclear waste package in the SAPHIR facility (Active Photon and Irradiation System). For the first time, several non-destructive methods (passive gamma-ray spectrometry, high-energy radiography) are combined with traditional PAA techniques (altitude scan, global photofission, photofission tomography) in order to optimize the characterization process. View full abstract»

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  • Pressure Measurement Based on Thermocouples

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3694 - 3700
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (882 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Measuring gas pressures reliably in a harsh radiation environment was confirmed to be tricky during operation of the liquid spallation target of MEGAPIE at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Severe drift of calibration and the loss of a sensor were experienced. At the same time, the only instrumentation that worked flawlessly in the system were thermocouples. Motivated by this experience, a novel pressure sensor for application in high radiation fields has been developed, which is based on temperature measurement. The new sensor takes advantage of the fact that the thermal conductivity over a mechanical joint exhibits a strong dependence on the contact pressure. In the novel sensor heating is applied at one point and temperatures are measured at different specific locations of the pressure gage; in particular, the temperatures on the two sides of a mechanical contact are monitored. From the observed temperature distribution the gas pressure can be derived. By choosing specific mechanical details in the lay-out, it is possible to tailor the useful measurement range. In addition to yielding pressure values, the new sensor concept admits for obtaining a measure for the accuracy of the result. This is done by continuous self monitoring of the device. The health status and based thereupon the plausibility of the indicated pressure value can be deducted by comparing sensed temperatures to expectation values for any given heating power. Malfunctioning of the pressure gage is reliably detected from the diverse readings of only one device; this can be seen as providing internal redundancy while at the same time immunity to common mode failure. After some analytical and finite element studies to verify the concept in principle, a first prototype of such a novel pressure sensor has been built at PSI. Initial measurement campaigns demonstrated the correct operation of the device as anticipated. Further potential for optimization, like designing a gage for high temperature appli- - cations or the miniaturization of such sensors, has been revealed. View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo Shielding Comparative Analysis Applied to TRIGA HEU and LEU Spent Fuel Transport

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3701 - 3707
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper is a comparative study of LEU and HEU fuel utilization effects for the shielding analysis during spent fuel transport. A comparison against the measured data for HEU spent fuel, available from the last stage of spent fuel repatriation fulfilled in the summer of 2008, is also presented. All geometrical and material data for the shipping cask were considered according to NAC-LWT Cask approved model. The shielding analysis estimates radiation doses to shipping cask wall surface, and in air at 1 m and 2 m, respectively, from the cask, by means of 3D Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code. Before loading into the shipping cask, TRIGA spent fuel source terms and spent fuel parameters have been obtained by means of ORIGEN-S code. Both codes are included in ORNL's SCALE 5 programs package. The actinides contribution to total fuel radioactivity is very low in HEU spent fuel case, becoming 10 times greater in LEU spent fuel case. Dose rates for both HEU and LEU fuel contents are below regulatory limits, LEU spent fuel photon dose rates being greater than HEU ones. Comparison between HEU spent fuel theoretical and measured dose rates in selected measuring points shows a good agreement, calculated values being greater than the measured ones both to cask wall surface (about 34% relative difference) and in air at 1 m distance from cask surface (about 15% relative difference). View full abstract»

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  • Behavioral Modeling Technique for TID Degradation of Complex Analog Circuits

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3708 - 3715
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A behavioral modeling technique has been developed for creating TID-aware behavioral models of voltage feedback op-amps without the creation of an underlying SPICE micro-model. The model accurately predicts the TID response of board-level designs with a 79X increase in simulation speed when compared to the SPICE model for the example application of a Schmitt trigger oscillator. This behavioral model permits the analysis of op amp characteristic sensitivity on circuit level behaviors. This type of sensitivity analysis can be particularly useful for determining which portion of a circuit is most affected by TID and where to more effectively harden a system against TID degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Layout Effects on SET Propagation in 90-nm ASIC and FPGA Test Structures

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3716 - 3724
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1107 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    SET propagations in ASIC-like and FPGA-like digital circuits are investigated, using 90-nm test structures, by fault injection and radiation tests. SET fault injection tests are used to show the dependence of the final SET-pulse on the design and layout of the logic circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Methodology of Soft Error Rate Computation in Modern Microelectronics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3725 - 3733
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have proposed a test methodology based on successive experimental determination of angular cross-section dependence followed by averaging over full solid angle. Equivalence between phenomenological and chord-length distribution averaging for soft error rate computation is shown. Role of energy-loss straggling in subthreshold error rate enhancement has been revealed. Nuclear reaction induced error rate computation method providing crossover between BGR and chord-length approaches has been proposed. Possibility of inclusion of multiple bit error rate estimation in a unified computational scheme is shown. View full abstract»

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  • A Framework for the Solution of Inverse Radiation Transport Problems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3734 - 3743
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radiation sensing applications for SNM detection, identification, and characterization all face the same fundamental problem: each to varying degrees must infer the presence, identity, and configuration of a radiation source given a set of radiation signatures. This is a problem of inverse radiation transport: given the outcome of a measurement, what source terms and transport medium caused that observation? This paper presents a framework for solving inverse radiation transport problems, describes its essential components, and illustrates its features and performance. The framework implements an implicit solution to the inverse transport problem using deterministic neutron, electron, and photon transport calculations embedded in a Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear optimization solver. The solver finds the layer thicknesses of a one-dimensional transport model by minimizing the difference between the gamma spectrum calculated by deterministic transport and the measured gamma spectrum. The fit to the measured spectrum is a full-spectrum analysis-all spectral features are modeled, including photopeaks and continua from spontaneous and induced photon emissions. An example problem is solved by analyzing a high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurement of plutonium metal. View full abstract»

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  • First Tests of MICROMEGAS and GEM-Like Detectors Made of a Resistive Mesh

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3744 - 3752
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe here various detector designs: GEM-type, MICROMEGAS-type, as well as cascaded detectors made of a resistive mesh manufactured from a resistive Kapton foil, (20 μm thick, surface resistivity a few MΩ/cm2) by a laser drilling technique. As in any other micro-pattern detector, the maximum achievable gas gain of these detectors is restricted by the Raether limit; however, the resistive mesh makes them and the front end electronics fully spark protected. This approach may function as an alternative/or complementary component of the ongoing efforts in developing MICROMEGAS and GEMs with resistive anode readout plates and can be especially beneficial in micro-pattern detectors combined with a micro-pixel-type integrated front end electronics. View full abstract»

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  • Ion Back-Flow Suppression in GEM-MIGAS

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3753 - 3759
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Gas Electron Multiplier with a MIcromegas Gap Amplifying Structure (GEM-MIGAS) is obtained by the coupling of a GEM to a short induction gap, typically 50 μm , where additional charge multiplication occurs. In this work, the GEM-MIGAS gain and ion back-flow are investigated, for induction regions in the range of 50-300 μm. The studies were carried out with a GEM-MIGAS coupled to a semitransparent CsI-photocathode operated in Ar/5%CH4 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. The increase of the induction gap thickness from 50 μm to 300 μm leads to an increase of the maximum achievable charge gain by a factor of 100, from ~ 2 × 103 to ~ 2 × 105. Moreover, the high field ratio between amplification and conversion regions, which prevents ions to drift towards the conversion region, allows a strong reduction, by a factor ~ 20, of the ion back-flow ratio to the drift region, when compared with the operation in GEM-mode (i.e. at low induction field). For typical drift fields of 0.1 and 0.5 kV/cm, an ion back-flow fraction ~ 1% and ~ 4%, respectively, was obtained for the corresponding charge gains of ~ 5 × 104 and ~ 2 × 105, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Noise-Adjusted Principal Component Analysis for Buried Radioactive Target Detection and Classification

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3760 - 3767
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a noise-adjusted principal component analysis (NAPCA)-based approach to the detection and classification of buried radioactive targets with short sensor dwell time. The data used in the experiments is the gamma spectroscopy collected by a Sodium Iodide (NAI) scintillation detector. Spectral transformation methods are first applied to the data, followed by NAPCA. Then k-nearest neighbor (kNN) clustering is applied to the NAPCA-transformed feature subspace to achieve detection or classification. This method is evaluated using a database of 240 spectral measurements consisting of background (construction sand), benign material measurements (uranium ore), and target measurements (depleted uranium) at various depths. Compared to other widely used algorithms for depleted uranium, the proposed technique can provide better performance. View full abstract»

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  • Two-Dimensional Markov Chain Analysis of Radiation-Induced Soft Errors in Subthreshold Nanoscale CMOS Devices

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3768 - 3774
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radiation-induced soft errors have been a reliability concern for logic integrated circuits since their emergence. Feature-size and supply-voltage reduction require the analysis of soft-error sensitivity as a function of technology scaling. In this paper, an analytical framework based on Markov chains and queue theory is presented for computation of alpha-particle-induced soft-error rates of a flip-flop operated in the subthreshold regime. The proposed framework is capable of reflecting the technology parameters such as supply voltage Vdd, channel length, process-induced threshold variation, and operating temperature. As an example, the framework is used to investigate the mean time to error of flip-flops built in a 32 nm fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator technology operating in the subthreshold regime subject to two limiting fluxes of alpha particle radiation: high at 100 (α/h.cm2) and ultra-low alpha (ULA) emission 0.002 (α/h.cm2). View full abstract»

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  • Gamma Radiation Induced Short-Wavelength Shift of the Bragg Peak in Type I Fiber Gratings

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3775 - 3778
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have studied the gamma-radiation induced effect on the Bragg peak position in fiber gratings. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a short-wavelength shift was observed for the Type I gratings written in an intrinsically photosensitive fiber. Based on the kinetics of the peak shift observed under irradiation and during post-irradiation annealing, we propose that two different types of defects are generated by ionizing radiation. One type is responsible for the refractive index increase during irradiation, while the creation of the defects of another type results in the index decrease. The concurrence of the two types of defects can be a way to obtain high stability of the gratings under irradiation. View full abstract»

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  • Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles
    Joint Redundant Residue Number Systems and Module Isolation for Mitigating Single Event Multiple Bit Upsets in Datapath

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3779 - 3786
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles

    "Joint Redundant Residue Number Systems and Module Isolation for Mitigating Single Event Multiple Bit Upsets in Datapath"
    by Lei Li and Jianhao Hu,
    in the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol.57, no.6, Dec. 2010, pp. 3779-3786

    After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    This paper contains substantial duplication of original text from the paper cited below. The original text was copied without attribution (including appropriate references to the original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.

    Due to the nature of this violation, reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper, and future references should be made to the following articles:

    "Multiple Error Detection and Correction Based on Redundant Residue Number Systems"
    by Vik Tor Goh and M.U. Siddiqi,
    in the IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol.56, no.3, March 2008, pp.325-330

    "A Coding Theory Approach to Error Control in Redundant Residue Number Systems. I: Theory and Single Error Correction"
    by H. Krishna, K-Y. Lin, and J-D. Sun,
    in the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol.39, no.1, Jan 1992, pp.8-17

    In this paper, we propose a joint scheme which combines redundant residue number systems (RRNS) with module isolation (MI) for mitigating single event multiple bit upsets (SEMBUs) in datapath. The proposed hardening scheme employs redundant residues to improve the fault tolerance for datapath and module spacings to guarantee that SEMBUs caused by charge sharing do not propagate among the operation channels of different moduli. The features of RRNS, such as independence, parallel and error correction, are exploited to establish the radiation h- rdening architecture for the datapath in radiation environments. In the proposed scheme, all of the residues can be processed independently, and most of the soft errors in datapath can be corrected with the redundant relationship of the residues at correction module, which is allocated at the end of the datapath. In the back-end implementation, module isolation technique is used to improve the soft error rate performance for RRNS by physically separating the operation channels of different moduli. The case studies show at least an order of magnitude decrease on the soft error rate (SER) as compared to the NonRHBD designs, and demonstrate that RRNS+MI can reduce the SER from 10-12 to 10-17 when the processing steps of datapath are 106. The proposed scheme can even achieve less area and latency overheads than that without radiation hardening, since RRNS can reduce the operational complexity in datapath. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable SEU-Tolerant Latch

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3787 - 3794
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single event upset (SEU) hardened latch that can mitigate SEU pulses having a width less than T, where T is the longest anticipated duration of SEUs. The propose latch includes a controllable inertial delay inverter. In order to mitigate SEUs with pulse widths less than T, a global controller uses delay locked loops to control the rise and fall times of the controllable inertial delay inverter in each latch to be equal to T. This allows T to be adjustable for different applications and environmental conditions. This technique introduces little area penalty and does not adversely affect propagation delay. View full abstract»

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  • Femtosecond Radiation Experiment Detector for X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) Coherent X-Ray Imaging

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3795 - 3799
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A pixel array detector (PAD) module has been developed at Cornell University for the collection of diffuse diffraction data in anticipation of coherent X-ray imaging experiments that will be conducted at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The detector is designed to collect X-rays scattered from monochromatic femtosecond pulses produced by the LCLS X-ray laser at framing rates up to 120 Hz. Because X-rays will arrive on femtosecond time scales, the detector must be able to deal with instantaneous count-rates in excess of 1017 photons per second per pixel. A low-noise integrating front-end allows the detector to simultaneously distinguish single photon events in low-flux regions of the diffraction pattern, while recording up to several thousand X-rays per pixel in more intense regions. The detector features a per-pixel programmable two-level gain control that can be used to create an arbitrary 2-D, two-level gain pattern across the detector; massively parallel 14-bit in-pixel digitization; and frame rates in excess of 120 Hz. The first full-scale detector will be 1516 x 1516 pixels with a pixel size of 110 X 110 microns made by tiling CMOS ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) that are bump-bonded to high-resistivity silicon diodes. X-ray testing data of the first 185 X 194 pixel bump-bonded ASICs is presented. These are tiled to make the final detector. The measurements presented include confirmation of single photon sensitivity, pixel response profiles indicating a nearly single-pixel point spread function, radiation damage measurements and noise performance. View full abstract»

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  • Neutron Detection via the Cherenkov Effect

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3800 - 3806
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have incorporated neutron-absorbing elements in transparent, nonscintillating glasses and used the Cherenkov effect to convert neutron-induced beta-gamma radiation directly into light. Use of the Cherenkov effect requires glasses with a high index of refraction (to lower the threshold and increase the number of Cherenkov photons) and neutron absorbers resulting in radioactive products emitting high-energy beta or gamma radiation. In this paper, we present a brief description of the requirements for developing efficient Cherenkov-based neutron detectors, show the results of measurements of the response of representative samples to thermal and fast neutron fluxes, and give the results of a calculation of the expected response of a detector to a moderated fission spectrum. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
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