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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 6 • Date Nov.-Dec. 2010

Technology from Emerging-Market Countries

The white lotus—shown on the cover of this issue—flourishes from the Middle East through southern Asia, and over the last two decades, economic growth in the region's emerging-market countries has been strong. As a result, the leading emerging-market countries have been able to establish a firm basis for research and development in technologies that will fuel their future growth. This issue features several papers that illustrate a broad range of information technologies developed in China, India, and the Middle East that are likely to have a worldwide impact.

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Cover 1

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Preface: Technology from emerging-market countries

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • EagleEye: Entity-centric business intelligence for smarter decisions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1:1 - 1:11
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4567 KB)  

    This paper describes EagleEye, which is an intelligent system that provides business intelligence through advanced data mining and text analytics. Unlike traditional search engines, EagleEye is entity oriented, and an entity can be an organization, a person, or a place. Given an entity name, the basic function of EagleEye is to generate a consolidated view of the entity information it gathers from many disparate data sources and to organize and categorize it, and automatically detect entity relationships. EagleEye can also analyze the opinions of entities, evaluate whether they are positive or negative, and provide insight into many aspects of consumer sentiment toward product brands. This type of information can enable enterprises to manage the reputation of their brands and to respond more quickly to changes in the marketplace. We present the key technologies—such as entity-name grouping, entity-relation extraction, and entity-oriented opinion mining—that were developed to support these functions. EagleEye has been successfully deployed to a number of clients across a variety of industries in China. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate in practice the capability and business value of EagleEye. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-index and self-approximate-optimal operation for a smart electrical power grid

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2:1 - 2:14
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2810 KB)  

    An instrumented, intelligent electrical power grid, or smart grid , is under research and is being preliminarily constructed in many parts of the world to deal with new challenges to modern power systems brought on by pressures on environment and resources. In this paper, a smart grid with the ability of multi-index self-approximate-optimal operation is considered the most distinctive difference between a smart grid and a traditional power grid. Multi-index is the index set that consists of a series of key indices for the grid operating chain, including generation, transmission, distribution, consumption, and dispatching. Self-approximate-optimal refers to the process by which the electricity grid arrives at a satisfactory operation point from an unsatisfactory point by its automated closed-loop control and regulation. In this paper, the general architecture and solution algorithm of multi-index self-approximate-optimal operation are proposed and developed. Furthermore, two realistic and promising practices in China are described to illustrate how a smart grid can be achieved under the guidance of the proposed multi-index self-approximate-optimal operation. View full abstract»

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  • A behavior-based SMS antispam system

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3:1 - 3:16
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2364 KB)  

    Short messaging service (SMS) is one of the fastest-growing telecom value-added services worldwide. However, mobile message spam is a side effect for ordinary mobile phone users that seriously troubles their daily life and, as a result, threatens the revenue of telecom operators. In this paper, we present an SMS antispam system that combines behavior-based social network and temporal (spectral) analysis to detect spammers with both high precision and recall. The system infrastructure and the proposed approximate neighborhood index solution, which solves the scalability issue of social networks, are described in detail. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed system achieves excellent discrimination between spammers and legitimates, and even with fixed recall at 95%, the online system and offline detection subsystems maintain a precision of about 98% and 99.5%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Framework for building a low-cost, scalable, and secured platform for Web-delivered business services

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 4:1 - 4:14
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2112 KB)  

    Many business services are now being delivered over the Web. This method of delivery is attracting the attention of both small- and medium-sized businesses and providers of application-based services because of its easier access, more affordable fees, and greater efficiency in delivering services to massive numbers of receivers. However, it requires the resolution of several key technical challenges. Data security is of top priority for most users because their data reside on remote servers whose resources are shared among tenants. In addition, such a platform needs to meticulously control the operational and delivery costs so that it remains competitive compared with traditional approaches. We have been developing a low-cost, scalable, and secured platform for Web-delivered business services. The platform enables the delivery of business services over the Web with a set of common business and operational support services, including subscription management, massive multitenancy, federated identity management, Web application security protection, and more. For instance, massive multitenancy deals with the isolation of data and service performance for subscribers. In this paper, we discuss the framework for such a platform, the key challenges for realizing the framework, and the approaches for dealing with the challenges. View full abstract»

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  • Effective decision support systems for workforce deployment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 5:1 - 5:15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2692 KB)  

    Efficient utilization of human resources is imperative for information technology (IT) service businesses that continually manage the assignment and movement of practitioners to or between projects. These organizations constantly strive to balance the many objectives of multiple stakeholders in order to minimize idle resources while aiming to increase revenue from new project opportunities, as well as to improve the quality of practitioners assigned to each project. However, these various objectives conflict, so we can only hope to achieve an aggregated form of these disparate objectives. This emphasizes the need for a well-designed decision support system. Such a system will facilitate optimal assignment of practitioners to projects while minimizing the overheads involved in a multiuser decision-making environment. Here, “optimal” refers to maximizing certain aggregated attributes of the various matches made with respect to the system. The term “user” refers to the decision makers who assign employees to various projects. The system comprises a text-matching module, a business logic module, an optimization module, and a user interface (UI) module. Key innovations include translating the business objectives into optimization criteria to be solved using integer programming, incorporating individual user preferences into the optimization, and encapsulating user experience into the matching logic. Additional innovations include those in text analytics to differentiate skill and nonskill terms and a UI design that helps users understand the relative global optimality of each recommendation in familiar terms while influencing decisions made independently by individual users in a way that collectively leads to organizationally optimal outcomes. We also explain the role of decision support in implementing job-rotation and cross-training programs for practitioners. Finally, we share our experiences in the development and deployment of this system- - in an IT service company and describe areas where further work is needed. View full abstract»

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  • Alternative information Web for visually impaired users in developing countries

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 6:1 - 6:15
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9801 KB)  

    Websites in the World Wide Web are primarily meant for visual consumption. Accessibility tools such as screen readers that render the visual content in audio format enable the visually impaired to access information on websites. Despite standards that are available to make websites more amenable for screen reading software, not many website authors embed the required metadata information that feeds into such tools. Moreover, the wide variety of visual controls available makes it more difficult to interpret websites with screen readers. This problem of accessing information and services on the Web escalates even further for visually impaired users in developing regions, since they are either semiliterate or illiterate or cannot afford computers and high-end phones with screen-reading capability. In this paper, we present an alternative platform: the World Wide Telecom Web (WWTW), which can be used for delivering information and services to the visually impaired. WWTW is a network of VoiceSites that can be created and accessed by voice interaction over an ordinary phone. We present user studies that demonstrate that using applications on the Telecom Web does not require extensive training. The study leads us to believe that the Telecom Web can be the mainstream Web for blind users, particularly in developing countries. View full abstract»

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  • Discovery and analysis of tightly knit communities in telecom social networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 7:1 - 7:13
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB)  

    Community identification has been a major research area in social network analysis. One popular type of community is one in which every member of the community knows every other member, which can be viewed as a clique in a graph representing the social network. In this paper, we present a novel highly scalable method for finding large maximal cliques that is validated with experimental results on several real-life social networks. In addition, while the importance of finding tightly knit communities has been widely accepted, the influence of community on the behavior of the individuals belonging to those communities is relatively unexplored. We also attempt to answer various questions in the context of cliques as communities in telecom social networks: how individuals in communities behave, what influence a community has on the behavior of an individual, and whether communities have a characteristic behavior of their own. We also examine whether the behavior of individuals who belong to communities differs from those who do not. We believe that the findings of such a study will reassert the importance of finding communities in telecom social networks and will help telecom operators improve group targeting and customer relationship management. View full abstract»

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  • High-quality HDR rendering technologies for emerging applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 8:1 - 8:15
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8568 KB)  

    This paper introduces high-dynamic-range (HDR) technologies that enable real-time HDR rendering for emerging imaging applications on both current and upcoming platforms. The technologies introduced in this paper are based on two key methods for real-time transformation of the photographic-quality Reinhard tone-mapping operator on emerging appliances, without compromising its quality. The first allows computing convolutions “selectively,” yielding faster computation than state-of-the-art convolution techniques while requiring a significantly lower memory footprint. The second utilizes machine learning to decrease the number of required convolutions per pixel. Both methods allow for scalable parallel implementation on commodity multicore processors and embedded processors. We also extend this implementation to 3-D and higher dimensions on massively parallel architectures for possible important applications such as medical imaging and multispectral or hyperspectral imaging applications. The inverse tone-mapping operation is equally important for rendering legacy content on new HDR displays. We used the underlying tone-mapping operator to perform inverse tone mapping using the two key methods described above. While existing techniques generally extend the dynamic range from the highlights side, our new operator performs two-sided expansion, yielding enhanced details in shades (and highlights) with generally negligible visible contrast loss. Applications of these technologies include 3-D volume rendering for the medical and seismic industries, video display on HDR television screens, and next-generation digital cameras and smart phones performing on-the-fly tone mapping. View full abstract»

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  • Intermodal transportation in Istanbul via Marmaray

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 9:1 - 9:10
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3421 KB)  

    Intermodal transportation (IMT) combines two or more different modes of transportation without changing the packaging of the freight transported in order to minimize the transportation cost and to utilize the benefits of modes that are used. One of the most common intermodal freight transportation systems is the Rolling Highway (Ro-La), where a special train system is used to carry highway vehicles on railway cars. This paper reviews IMT and proposes a system in which the facility layout problems are solved simultaneously with the scheduling problems arising in Ro-La transportation. In this context, the best station layouts are obtained by applying a layout improvement algorithm to several initial layouts with respect to different scoring functions. One of the important questions to answer in the IMT problem pertains to the number of loading and unloading platforms. Using the output of the layout improvement algorithm, the train scheduling model is solved to find the minimum number of platforms in a station, the number of trains, and the departures with the carried trucks and trailers, while scheduling train operations, with the objective of minimizing operation costs. The proposed IMT system is applied to the Marmaray Undersea Railway Tunnel Project with regard to different Ro-La systems, and its effectiveness is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and performance analysis of parallel conjugate gradient on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 10:1 - 10:12
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3891 KB)  

    This paper presents our implementation of the method of parallel conjugate gradients (CGs) on the Cell Broadband Engine® (Cell/B.E.®). The solution of linear systems of equations is one of the most central-processing-unit-intensive steps in oil reservoir simulation applications and can greatly benefit from the multitude of single-instruction–multiple-data-capable synergistic processor element (SPE) cores in the Cell/B.E. processor. We assume that the linear system of equations is of standard form Ax = B, where A is a square sparse coefficient matrix. Several solvers exist with distinct advantages and disadvantages. When dealing with 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D reservoirs, the resulting coefficient matrix can be formulated as a banded matrix. This paper reports the implementation of the serial CG on the Cell/B.E. PowerPC® processor element (PPE) and the parallelization and performance analysis of CG across 1, 8, and 16 SPEs for tridiagonal (1-D reservoir grid), pentadiagonal (2-D reservoir grid), and heptadiagonal (3-D reservoir grid) matrices. Our implementation is shown to scale well with data size, grid dimensionality, and number of cores. View full abstract»

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  • Massive video-surveillance parallelization on the Cell Broadband Engine processor

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11:1 - 11:8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1519 KB)  

    The Cell Broadband Engine® (Cell/B.E.®) is a multicore processor with a PowerPC® processor element (PPE) and eight synergistic processor elements (SPEs). The Cell/B.E. architecture is designed to improve upon conventional processors in terms of memory latency, bandwidth, and power consumption. In this paper, we discuss the parallelization, implementation, and performance of a video-surveillance application on the Cell/B.E. We report the video-surveillance application performance measured on a computer with one Cell/B.E. processor and with varying numbers of SPEs enabled. These results were compared with the results obtained on the single PPE of the Cell/B.E. with all eight SPEs disabled. The results indicate that our video-surveillance application performs approximately 25 times faster on the eight-SPE-core Cell/B.E. than modern reduced instruction set computer processors by processing input data from eight separate surveillance-video streams in parallel. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center