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Intelligent Transport Systems, IET

Issue 4 • Date December 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Special issue - selected papers from the 16th World Congress on ITS

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 229 - 231
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems and Services) is an application area of ICT (Information and Commmuncation Technologies) which has become more and more visible as an element of our ordinary life. It is continuously developing due to new ICT (components and system solutions) and demands for new and personalised services. This Special Issue is devoted to some of the latest and most interesting scientific findings as they were presented at the 16th ITS World Congress in September 2009 in Stockholm, Sweden. As the Scientific Paper Director I had the priveledge to get an up-to-date and detailed insight into the wide spectrum of scientific endeavours to be found in the ITS sector. I am therefore very honoured and grateful for the invitation to act as the Guest Editor of this Special Issue. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative single-loop speed estimation model with advanced loop data

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 232 - 243
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    With the advances in traffic sensor technology, more useful traffic information can be generated directly or indirectly. This study introduces an innovative single-loop speed estimation model using recent traffic sensor technology. Proposed speed estimation model can be easily integrated with existing loop systems without requiring any roadside construction work. With accurately estimated speed, accurate travel time can also be derived. This will help disseminate accurate real-time traffic information, and therefore improve overall network performance, and traffic control/operation. The spatial and temporal transferability of the developed model was tested and encouraging results were obtained. Automated vehicle grouping is also one of the main contributions of the proposed model. View full abstract»

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  • Ecological driver assistance system using model-based anticipation of vehicle-road-traffic information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 244 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB)  

    This study presents a novel concept of an ecological driver assistance system (EDAS) that may play an important role in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in the near future. The proposed EDAS is designed to measure relevant information of instant vehicle-road-traffic utilising advanced sensing and communication technologies. Using models of vehicle dynamics and traffic flow, it anticipates future situations of the vehicle-road-traffic network, estimates fuel consumption and generates the optimal control input necessary for ecological driving. Once the optimal control input becomes available, it could be used to assist the driver through a suitable human interface. The vehicle control method is developed using model predictive control algorithm with a suitable performance index to ensure safe and fuel-efficient driving. The performance of the EDAS, in terms of speed behaviour and fuel consumption, is evaluated on the microscopic transport simulator AIMSUN NG. Comparative results are graphically illustrated and analysed to signify the prospect of the proposed EDAS in building environmentally friendly ITS. View full abstract»

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  • 'Intelligent' in-vehicle intelligent transport systems: Limiting behavioural adaptation through adaptive design

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 252 - 261
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)  

    Most would agree that the use of in-vehicle intelligent transport systems (ITS) can lead to changes in driver behaviour that were not necessarily intended by the system's designers. This collection of unintended behavioural changes is often referred to as behavioural adaptation (BA). While it is unlikely that designers of in-vehicle ITS will be able to accurately predict every possible manifestation of BA to a given system, it is argued herein that they may nonetheless be able to minimise the potential for 'negative' BA, increase system usability and, consequently, user acceptance, by applying principles of intercultural adaptability and adaptive interface design during the design phase. View full abstract»

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  • Auditory signs to support traffic awareness

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 262 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (195 KB)  

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) may contribute to increased levels of cognitive workload, which in turn can lead to a more dangerous driving behaviour. An experiment was conducted to examine the use of auditory signs to support drivers' traffic situation awareness. Eighteen experienced truck drivers identified traffic situations based on information conveyed by brief sounds. Aspects of learning, cognitive demand and pleasantness were monitored and rated by the drivers. Differences in cognitive effort was estimated using a dual-task set-up, in which drivers responded to auditory signs while simultaneously performing a simulated driving task. As expected, arbitrary sounds required significantly longer learning times compared to sounds that have a natural meaning in the driving context. The arbitrary sounds also resulted in a significant degradation in response performance, even after the drivers got a chance to learn the sounds. Finally, the results indicate that the use of arbitrary sounds can negatively impact driver satisfaction. These results have implications for a broad range of developing intelligent transport systems designed to assist drivers in absence of fundamental visual information or in visually demanding traffic situations. View full abstract»

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  • Innovative on-demand bus system in Japan

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 270 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  

    The innovative on-demand bus system is developed and the result of field tests shows that the system is valid for different city types. On-demand is a demand-responsive transit service where the vehicles transport users after they reserve their seats, and the vehicle does not move if there is no reservation. On-demand bus is an existing technology and it runs all over the world, but the high running cost is a problem. The aim of the developed system is practical introduction of the system from cost viewpoint. Local government can start the service in low cost with cloud computing technology. In order to build up the cloud computing system, schedule calculation system and the communication device in the car are required. In order to validate the developed system, simulation and field test are held. The result of computer simulation shows that the developed calculation algorithm works well as designed. The result of field test shows that the on-demand bus service in three different type cities are provided through the Internet with cloud computing technology and it is evaluated to enable new public transportation system. View full abstract»

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  • Controlled inducement and measurement of drowsiness in a driving simulator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 280 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)  

    The authors present a study of driver drowsiness, looking for patterns in biomedical and biomechanical variables that allow one to characterise the drowsiness cycle and detect its phases with new technologies. Biomedical signals, eye closure, pressures on the seat, and longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle were recorded in a driving simulator, during a test in an environment that induced drowsiness, while subjects were motivated to struggle against sleep. Twenty volunteers were measured during the 1 h 45 min tests. A control signal that combined EEG and percent of eye closure (PERCLOS) was defined to classify the different states of the participants during the test. According to that standard, drowsiness was successfully induced in 80 of the subjects. The changes in those states influenced both the performance of the driving task and the biomedical signals, although the former were less sensitive to early fatigue. Heart rate variability and respiration turned out to be promising indicators of the state of the driver, which can be used in future drowsiness detection systems. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring visual distraction in driving: The potential of head movement analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 289 - 297
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB)  

    Owing to several reasons (e.g. changing light conditions) the measurement of eye movement behaviour is often unstable and data loss can occur. It is investigated whether head movement recording could be an alternative to eye movement analysis for measuring distraction through visual secondary tasks in driving. During a 1-h drive in the driving simulator, 16 participants conducted a self-paced menu system task that was designed according to design principles for commercial in-vehicle information systems. Influence of visual distraction was analysed and compared for parameters of eye and head movement. Parameters like percent road centre for head and eye movement and proportion of head movement were calculated. The results show that head movement analysis can differentiate nearly as well between distracted and attentive driving as parameters based on eye movement recording in this task context. It is concluded that head movement analysis seems to be a promising alternative for assessing drivers' distraction under certain circumstances. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of the automatic vehicle identification based spatial travel time information collected in Stockholm

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 298 - 306
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB)  

    To support the implementation of real-time traffic information systems in the Stockholm city area using automatic vehicle identification (AVI) data, a preliminary travel time analysis tool has been developed. The program can manage and analyse travel time measurements in a distributed database server where both online and historical traffic information are saved. Meanwhile, several existing travel time estimation algorithms are implemented in the travel time analysis program, and are evaluated using four months of AVI data collected in the urban streets and arterials of and near the Stockholm downtown area. The advantages and disadvantages of those algorithms are also analysed using the highly noisy travel time measurements collected under the urban context. In addition, the authors have also evaluated a common statistical median filtering approach and suggested some modifications for AVI data estimation. In general, all these algorithms have the potential to be applied for real daily travel time estimation and the statistical median filter with modifications has been suggested for historical travel time estimation in real application. Finally, the authors point out an essential problem in travel time estimation and suggest a direction that may have the potential to improve the online traffic information quality. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing supply chain security with vulnerability management and new technology

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 307 - 317
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    This study discusses risk management tools and the mobile enterprise factory innovation process as a motor for security enhancement using new technological solutions. New technologies provide opportunities for increasing the overall security and safety of shipments by proactive supply chain risk management and introduction of powerful security solutions. Concept development methods, risk management tools and technology expertise were combined to a process that resulted in effective business solutions for enhancing supply chain security. As practical results, this study presents a new risk assessment model, the supply chain security and technology management model, and a case study of a solution for integrity monitoring of shipments. View full abstract»

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  • New technology and quality of life for older people: Exploring health and transport dimensions in the UK context

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 318 - 327
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)  

    The aim of this study is to explore issues of inclusion and quality of life (QoL) for older people in relation to their experiences of and attitudes towards using information and communication technologies (ICT) in meeting their transport and healthcare needs. The objectives of the research were to use focus groups and supplementary questionnaires to collect rich qualitative data from older people in order to inform policy-relevant work on designing more user-friendly and user-targeted intelligent transport systems (ITS). The authors trace the complex relationships between individual attitudes and needs in accessing the services provided by the three relevant policy sectors of transport, healthcare and communications technologies. This study observed that older cohorts show a slight tendency to be less comfortable with ICT, and therefore to integrate it less into daily life. Moreover, the data reveal that the differences between individuals occur through interactions between knowledge and their practices, combined with factors relating to an individual's physical and mental experience of ageing. The trend of an ageing demographic and increased longevity makes normalising ICT in older people's lifestyles a policy imperative, so that the development of ITS recognises the particular needs of older people, avoids unintentional exclusion, and enhances QoL. Our recommendations focus on using ITS to facilitate access to healthcare, as that was the main concern of the participants. The authors suggest a conceptual representation of the ideal relationship between ICT, accessibility of services and mobility of individuals that gives policy-makers and service providers a better understanding of the desired outcome of working together. View full abstract»

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  • Accelerated incident detection across transportation networks using vehicle kinetics and support vector machine in cooperation with infrastructure agents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 328 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    This study presents a framework for highway incident detection using vehicle kinetics, such as speed profile and lane changing behaviour, as envisioned in the vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII, also known as IntelliDrive) in which vehicles and infrastructure communicate to improve mobility and safety. This framework uses an in-vehicle intelligent module, based on a support vector machine (SVM), to determine the vehicle's travel experiences with autonomously generated kinetics data. Roadside infrastructure agents (also known as RSUs: roadside units) detect the incident by compiling travel experiences from several vehicles and comparing the aggregated results with the pre-selected threshold values. The authors developed this VII-SVM incident detection system on a previously calibrated and validated simulation network in rural Spartanburg, South Carolina and deployed it on an urban freeway network in Baltimore, Maryland to evaluate its transportability. The study found no significant differences in the detection performance between the original network and a new network that the VII-SVM system has not seen before. This demonstrated the feasibility of developing a generic VII-SVM system, applicable across transportation networks. View full abstract»

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  • Motorway travel time prediction based on toll data and weather effect integration

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 338 - 345
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB)  

    This study reports the main findings of the Travel time Prediction based on electronic Toll collection (ETC) data with wEather effect integration on mOtorways (TPTEO) project aiming at developing and implementing a route planner tool and travel time prediction system on the interurban motorway network managed by French motorway AREA Company. One of the main innovative characteristics of this project is the use of toll collection data (TCD) to derive speed and travel time estimation and prediction. This data source is becoming more and more available on motorway facilities and provides an efficient way not only to estimate and predict travel time but also to achieve the origin-destination (OD) matrices elaboration and exhibit trends in traffic. Based on the previous studies on weather effect quantification, the prediction algorithm is designed to account for the weather impact during the prediction process. The resulting tool is considered to be accurate enough and paves the way for developing weather responsive advanced traffic management and information systems. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing the occlusion technique as an assessment tool for driver visual distraction

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 346 - 355
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB)  

    In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) are becoming increasingly prevalent as the standard equipment of modern cars. However, there are concerns regarding the risks arising from the visual load and potential distraction caused by these systems while driving. To counteract potential compromises of driving safety the minimisation of visual demands has been acknowledged as a major goal to be achieved by safe design of the human-machine interface (HMI). In this context, the visual occlusion technique has been developed as a tool for the assessment of the in-vehicle HMI of IVIS in terms of visual demands. An unresolved issue with the standardised experimental protocol is how subjects make use of the occluded intervals and how this might affect the assessments of visual demands. We assumed that subjects would continue task performance during occluded periods leading to an underestimation of visual demands by the occlusion parameters `total shutter open time` (TSOT) and the `occlusion index` R. We predicted that a simple additional loading task to be performed in parallel could disrupt IVIS task performance during the occluded period leading to higher estimations of visual demands by TSOT and R. This prediction was confirmed by our data. These show significant increases in TSOT and R when the standard occlusion protocol was enhanced by a simple auditory tracking task to be performed in parallel. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that under the condition of additional auditory tracking, TSOT and R discriminated more clearly between an `easy` and a `difficult` IVIS task than under the standard condition. It is concluded that amending the standard occlusion technique by imposing subjects to some cognitive load during the occlusion intervals is a viable approach to improving its sensitivity and that this aspect should be considered by future standardisation work. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of road vibrations-based vehicle property sensing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 356 - 364
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)  

    This article discusses a novel approach to vehicle property sensing based on traffic-induced road surface vibrations and investigates the feasibility of this approach. Road surface vibrations from real-life experiments are acquired using three-axis accelerometers and the data are analysed. Based on the assessment of the data, a first coarse scheme for axle detection of passing vehicles is developed. The scheme is then evaluated using measurement data from a highway with moderate traffic intensity but diverse traffic. It is found that the proposed approach is feasible and the estimation scheme yields promising results. Furthermore, delimitations, encountered problems and identified research challenges are discussed and future research directions are given. View full abstract»

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  • Role of automatic vehicle location systems and localisation accuracy in freight transport: An analytical estimation of gained operational times

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 365 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB)  

    This study concerns the application of automatic vehicle location systems (AVLSs) for the control and management of fleet of vehicles whose regular routes are random, that is, with origins and destinations so numerous and variable that they cannot be predefined. Typical examples include road shipments, pick-up and delivery services and express couriers, demand responsive transport services and public utility services (gas, water etc.). Specific reference is made to transport of goods but analogous observations may be valid for passenger transport. The average response time of the mobile unit depends on (i) the accuracy of the AVLS adopted; (ii) the configuration of the fleet within the territory where it operates; (iii) a number of operative parameters, among which are the size of the operative area, the number of vehicles employed, the average time that they are in use, their average speed and the average time taken to perform the service. The results of two specific models provide average response times which can be compared in transport operations carried out with and without the use of an AVLS. If we abstract the equations derived from these, we obtain a quantity Δt, which measures the reduction in response time resulting from the adoption of an AVLS. The relevance of the results is related to the role of accuracy, integrity and continuity of the future Galileo system for transport location services. View full abstract»

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  • Greedy algorithm for railway traffic re-scheduling during disturbances: A Swedish case

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 375 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    The positive trend of increased use of railway transportation in Europe has resulted in an increased sensitivity to and occurrence of traffic disturbances. In addition to the need for extensions of the infrastructure, the need to effectively limit and predict the effects of disturbances becomes apparent. The kernel of the disturbance management problem is to revise the original timetable in line with the new conditions and decide where, when and how trains should overtake or meet to minimise the negative effect of the disturbance. In previous research, the author has designed optimisation-based approach for re-scheduling, which seems promising, but for some scenarios it is difficult to find good solutions within seconds. Also, more detailed constraints will have to be included, which makes the problem even more complex and difficult to solve. Therefore the author developed a greedy algorithm that effectively delivers good solutions within the permitted time. To quickly retrieve a feasible solution, the algorithm performs a depth-first search using an evaluation function to prioritise when conflicts arise and then branches according to a set of criteria. A performance analysis of the algorithm was carried out using simulated experiments showing its strengths and weaknesses. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced traffic monitoring for sustainable traffic management: Experiences and results of five years of collaborative research in the Netherlands

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 387 - 400
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB)  

    This study overviews the scientific and practical results obtained within the advanced traffic monitoring (ATMO) project (www.atmo.tudelft.nl) from its inception in 2004 until its final year 2009. ATMO is a 2.5 million Euros research project in which universities, public bodies and the industry collaboratively addressed the question how to translate large amounts of raw traffic data from all sorts of sensors and systems into useable and meaningful information for traffic information, and sustainable traffic management and control. In the context of sustainability, traffic monitoring entails not just observing or estimating `classic` traffic data and information, such as average speed, volume or delay and travel time, but also more diffuse concepts such as travel time reliability, traffic safety and environmentally related quantities. In five PhD tracks many scientific contributions were made such as new hybrid methods and models for traffic and travel time prediction, online traffic simulation models and new travel time reliability measures, to name a few. ATMO also demonstrated that bridging the gap between science and practice in the field of traffic monitoring requires entrepreneurial academics, sharing of data and results and tailor-made post-academic courses and education. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible organisation of multimodal travel information services

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 401 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB)  

    This paper addresses the potential of open service interfaces in travel information value chains. Such interfaces shall support the exchange of information and services between stakeholders in the value chain and facilitate efficient and flexible establishment and provision of new and improved travel information services. The traveller shall be supported in all phases of the travel process and encouraged to use of public transport in combination with walking, cycling and use of private cars. Dynamic information that makes the travel more predictable shall be provided. Action research is used, with ARKTRANS, the generic and multimodal ITS framework, as the starting point for a holistic and top-down approach. The needs of both travellers and those providing travel information services are addressed. The interface definition process, pilot implementations, and the value of the open service interfaces are discussed. The paper concludes that open service interfaces are likely to facilitate flexibility in the travel information value chains. Travel information services for different transport modes and covering different geographical regions can more easily be combined. Different types of travel information may be acquired and combined with existing services into value added services that support the needs of different user groups. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IET Intelligent Transport Systems is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to research into the practical applications of intelligent transport systems and infrastructures.

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