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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Classification of Plasma Systems for Plasma-Assisted Combustion

    Page(s): 3257 - 3264
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  • Combustion Dynamics of Plasma-Enhanced Premixed and Nonpremixed Flames

    Page(s): 3265 - 3271
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    Combustion dynamics are investigated for plasma-enhanced methane-air flames in premixed and nonpremixed configurations using a transient arc dc plasmatron. Planar laser-induced fluorescence images of hydroxyl (OH) and carbon monoxide (CO) radicals are obtained over a range of equivalence ratios (φ = 0.7 - 1.3), flow rates (6-18 LPM), and plasma powers (100-900 mA) to monitor radical propagation and in situ fuel reforming. The flow rates presented here are outside the range of normal flame stability. In the nonpremixed mode, the fuel is injected separately as a coflow around the plasma discharge, resulting in a unique two-cone flame front geometry, and the flame stability is mainly dependent on the flow dynamics. For premixed flames, partial oxidation occurs inside the chamber, resulting in higher energy conversion efficiencies, and stability is shown to be sensitive to the combustion chemistry. Both configurations are significantly influenced by in situ fuel reforming at higher plasma powers. View full abstract»

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  • In-Depth Study on Propane–Air Combustion Enhancement With Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Page(s): 3272 - 3281
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    Low-temperature plasmas generated from dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) play an important role in hydrocarbon combustion reactions. In this paper, two different arrangements of coaxial cylindrical DBD reactors are designed to investigate the enhancement processes of plasma-assisted propane combustion through activating propane and air, respectively. Each reactor corresponds to one kind of activation method. With plasma being on and off, the physical appearances of the propane combustion flame are observed and compared, and the spatial distributions of the flame temperature are measured and comparatively investigated under each activation approach. In addition, some major components such as OH, CH, and C2 in the combustion flame are identified using flame/plasma emission spectroscopy. The relationship of OH radical concentration with flame position is studied when plasma is on and off, and concentration profiles as well as densities of these major components in the main combustion zone are qualitatively measured and analyzed. Possible physical and chemical reaction mechanisms in the plasma and flame zones are discussed in detail under both activation ways. Experimental results suggest that propane combustion be enhanced with plasma applied on either propane or air stream. A temperature rise of about 30°C is achieved for the activation of propane, but about 50°C is achieved for the activation of air with a 30-W plasma being applied. It denotes that some active species like O-atoms, N-atoms, and excited molecular oxygen and nitrogen produced by activating air components play a greater role than those smaller fragments and radicals generated by cracking propane in plasma-assisted combustion in our experimental conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Initiation and Propagation of Discharge in Liquid Droplets: Effect of Droplet Sizes

    Page(s): 3282 - 3288
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    Three kinds of water mist with different droplet sizes are applied to understand the effect of droplet sizes on the initiation and propagation of discharges in a nonuniform field at atmospheric pressure. Based on the measurement of droplet sizes in three mists and the volume fraction of water droplets, effect of droplet sizes is demonstrated by directly comparing the percentages of the discharge path in mist at the different positions with those in air. It can be concluded that the mist with smaller μm-droplets has the negative impact on the initiation and propagation of discharges; the mist with larger μm-droplets has the inhibited effect on the starting and growth of positive discharge but has the contrary effects on negative discharge. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial and Natural Fireballs as Combustion Objects

    Page(s): 3289 - 3290
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    The creation of artificial and natural fireballs has been considered. Basing on successful experiments in discharges and plasma combustion influence on different materials, a theoretical model of ball lightning creation as a result of linear lightning impact on Earth components with creation of a reservoir-strong oxide cover filled with metal powder-has been proposed. This object is electrically charged due to the transfer of charges from the linear lightning. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Use of \hbox {CO}_{2} Reforming of Methane With an Arc-Jet Plasma

    Page(s): 3291 - 3299
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    Carbon dioxide reforming of methane has drawn the attention of many researchers for years, because of both its theoretical yield of hydrogen to carbon monoxide, i.e., H2/CO = 1, and the use of greenhouse gas CO2 . Although catalytic processes have been widely investigated, plasma-based techniques were recently considered, because catalytic processes have problems, such as coking and slow start-up time. However, since there is a lack of concrete information about plasma-induced processes, we systematically tested a dry reforming of methane by using an arc-jet plasma reactor. The effects of supplied power for plasma generation, CO2/CH4 ratio, O2 addition, and the amount of CH4 + CO2 in the reactant were experimentally investigated in nitrogen balance. As a result, the H2/CO ratio of a product can be controlled in the range of 0.8-2.5, and the direction for efficient use of the dry reforming process was proposed. Detailed mechanism and characteristics of the dry reforming of methane were also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Investigations of the Working Processes in a Plasma Coal Gasification System

    Page(s): 3300 - 3305
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    Theoretical investigations of the working processes in a plasma coal pilot gasification system have been conducted. The obtained results and recommendations can be used for modeling the operational modes of plasma gasification system, as well as geometry optimization, and the engineering design of prospective power generation units. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Plasma-Assisted Combustion and Reformation System

    Page(s): 3306 - 3312
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    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the working processes in a plasma-assisted combustion and reformation system have been conducted. The selected concept can provide higher performance, wider turndown ratios, more efficient propellant utilization, demonstration of potential fuel flexibility, and satisfaction of major gravimetric and volumetric density requirements. Obtained results and recommendations can be used for hybrid-type plasma-assisted system operation modes, including modeling, geometry optimization, prospective propulsion, and power-generation unit designs and engineering. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Fuel Nozzle as a Prospective Way to Plasma-Assisted Combustion

    Page(s): 3313 - 3318
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    This paper presents the results of development and experimental investigations of a plasma fuel nozzle (PFN) concept as the most prospective tool to realize plasma-assisted combustion in different heat engines. The results of plasma source selection and optimization, fuel atomizer options consideration and comparison, and influence on the combustion process parameters are reported. Experiments show that PFN is the most advanced solution for lean burn and low-Btu fuel combustors, STIG cycle turbines, flexi-fuel systems, and liquid and gaseous feedstock gasification units. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma Vitrification of Air Pollution Control Residues From Municipal Solid-Waste Incineration

    Page(s): 3319 - 3325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the frame of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, a specially designed plasma torch with a doubleanode configuration has been developed and tested. It produces an elongated, weak-fluctuation, and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. A calcium-rich air pollution control residue from a mechanical-grate municipal solid-waste incinerator is vitrified by this plasma arc technology. The produced slag shows a homogeneous, dense, and amorphous glassy structure, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Leaching results show that excellent immobilization of heavy metals in the silicate matrix can be achieved. Plasma vitrification also ensures high elimination efficiency (> 99.9%) of dioxins and furans. These results indicate that the slag produced has great potential for construction or geotechnical applications. View full abstract»

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    Page(s): 3326
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  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Sciences focuses on plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology.

 

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven J. Gitomer, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, US Civilian Research & Development Foundation
Guest Scientist, Los Alamos National Laboratory
1428 Miracerros Loop South
Santa Fe, NM  87505  87505  USA
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