By Topic

Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2010

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (45 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Investigation of Driver Performance With Night-Vision and Pedestrian-Detection Systems—Part 2: Queuing Network Human Performance Modeling

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 765 - 772
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a queueing network-based computational model to explain driver performance in a pedestrian-detection task assisted with night-vision-enhancement systems. The computational cognitive model simulated the pedestrian-detection task using images displayed by two night-vision systems as input stimuli. The system equipped with a far-infrared (FIR) sensor generated less-cluttered images than the system equipped with a near-infrared (NIR) sensor. Using a reinforcement learning process, the model developed eye-movement strategies for each night-vision system. The differences in eye-movement strategies generated different eye-movement behaviors, in accord with the empirical findings. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Markov Model for Headway/Spacing Distribution of Road Traffic

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 773 - 785
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we link two research directions of road traffic-the mesoscopic headway distribution model and the microscopic vehicle interaction model-together to account for the empirical headway/spacing distributions. A unified car-following model is proposed to simulate different driving scenarios, including traffic on highways and at intersections. Unlike our previous approaches, the parameters of this model are directly estimated from the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) Trajectory Data. In this model, empirical headway/spacing distributions are viewed as the outcomes of stochastic car-following behaviors and the reflections of the unconscious and inaccurate perceptions of space and/or time intervals that people may have. This explanation can be viewed as a natural extension of the well-known psychological car-following model (the action point model). Furthermore, the fast simulation speed of this model will benefit transportation planning and surrogate testing of traffic signals. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Creating Enhanced Maps for Lane-Level Vehicle Navigation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 786 - 798
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concept of enhanced maps (Emaps) was introduced with one main objective: It should characterize roads, first, with more completeness and, second, with more accuracy than standard maps to fulfill the requirements of new challenging road safety applications and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). This paper introduces a paradigm for Emap definition and creation on which every road lane is represented and topologically connected to the rest of lanes. Following this approach, a number of Emaps have been created in France, Germany, and Sweden. The experiments carried out in these test sites with the Emaps show the capability of our Emap definition to assist with the determination of the vehicle position at the lane level. Details of the processes of extraction and connection of the road segments are given in the core of this paper, as well as a discussion of the elaboration process and future guidelines in the conclusion. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Matrix Tools for General Observability Analysis in Traffic Networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 799 - 813
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We deal with the problem of observability of a given subset V1 of flows in terms of another subset V2, no matter which type of flows [link, origin-destination (OD), route, node, plate scanned, etc.] they contain or whether they are mixed types. Two problems are stated: The first consists of determining which subsets of flows in V1 can be calculated in terms of the observed flows V2. The second consists of determining which subset of flows V2 needs to be observed to calculate a given subset V1. A theorem providing necessary and sufficient conditions for observability is provided and used in the proposed methods to solve the two problems. Two theorems, one lemma, and one corollary provide the bases for optimizing the numerical procedures to solve these problems. Some examples of applications are used to illustrate the proposed methods. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Real-Time Measurement of Link Vehicle Count and Travel Time in a Road Network

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 814 - 825
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A system is described that measures the vehicle count and travel time in the links of a road network. The measurements require matching vehicle signatures recorded by a wireless magnetic sensor network. The matching algorithm is based on a statistical model of the signatures. The model itself is estimated from the data. The approach is first discussed for a single-lane road and extended to multiple-lane roads. The algorithm yields a correct matching rate of 75% for a false matching rate of 5% and reliably estimates the number of vehicles on each link and its travel-time distribution. The system is tested on a 0.9-mi-long segment of San Pablo Avenue, Albany, CA. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Near Real-Time Fuel-Optimal En Route Conflict Resolution

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 826 - 837
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the air-traffic conflict-resolution problem and develop an optimization model to identify the required heading and speed changes of aircraft to avoid conflict such that fuel costs are minimized. Nonconvex fuel functions in the optimization problem are modeled through tight linear approximations, which enable the formulation of the problem as a mixed-integer linear program. The significance of the developed model is that fuel-optimal conflict-resolution maneuvers can be identified in near real time, even for conflicts involving a large number of aircraft. Computational tests based on realistic air-traffic scenarios demonstrate that conflicts involving up to 15 aircraft can be solved in less than 10 s with an optimality gap of around 0.02%. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Enhancing Realism in Modeling Merge Junctions in Analytical Models for System-Optimal Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 838 - 845
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The existing analytical system-optimal dynamic traffic assignment (SO-DTA) model formulated with the linear programming (LP) approach usually assumes system control over vehicles in the entire network. This property would give rise to unreasonable priorities at merge junctions that are sometimes physically impossible to realize for the given roadway configuration. In this paper, we demonstrate that models with and without considering the merge-priority ratio would exhibit very different traffic patterns and route-choice behavior. To realistically model traffic flow on a transportation network, one should properly distinguish the level of control by drivers, roadway geometry, and system providers. This paper also attempts to develop an LP module that explicitly considers the merge-priority ratio of a merge junction and can potentially be incorporated into the existing LP formulation of the SO-DTA problem based on the cell-transmission model. By more realistically modelling the behavior of vehicles at merge junctions, the obtained solution can be used as a benchmark to compare control strategies developed without explicitly considering the merge-priority ratio at merge junctions or strategies developed with heuristic approaches. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Robust Class Similarity Measure for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 846 - 855
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traffic sign recognition is an example of a hard multiclass classification problem. The existing approaches to that problem typically associate with each sign class a real-valued likelihood function and assign such a label to the unknown image that maximizes the value of this function. These template-matching techniques are usually based on arbitrary similarity metrics, such as normalized cross correlation, which do not capture the characteristics of the sign imagery. In this paper, we study the concept of a robust sign similarity measure that can be inferred from the domain-specific data. Two novel machine-learning techniques are proposed as a framework for automatic construction of such a measure from the pairs of images representing either the same or different classes. One is called SimBoost, which is a variation of the AdaBoost algorithm, and the other is based on the fuzzy regression tree framework. Through the experiments with low-quality images, we show that the proposed method admits efficient road sign recognition and outperforms the existing approaches in terms of the classification accuracy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling the Stochastic Drift of a MEMS-Based Gyroscope in Gyro/Odometer/GPS Integrated Navigation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 856 - 872
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To have a continuous navigation solution that does not suffer from interruption, GPS is integrated with relative positioning techniques such as odometry and inertial navigation. Targeting a low-cost navigation solution for land vehicles, this paper uses a reduced multisensor system consisting of one microelectromechanical-system (MEMS)-based single-axis gyroscope used together with the vehicle's odometer, and the whole system is integrated with GPS. This system provides a 2-D navigation solution, which is adequate for land vehicles. The traditional technique for this multisensor integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of MEMS inertial sensors and their stochastic nature, which is difficult to model, the KF with its linearized models has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) has recently been suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics, and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF is utilized in this paper and is called the Mixture PF. Since PF can accommodate nonlinear models, this paper uses total-state nonlinear system and measurement models. In addition, sophisticated models are used to model the stochastic drift of the MEMS-based gyroscope. A nonlinear system identification technique based on parallel cascade identification (PCI) is used to model this stochastic gyroscope drift. In this paper, the performance of the PCI model is compared with that of higher order autoregressive (AR) stochastic models. Such higher order models are difficult to use with KF since the size of the dynamic matrix and the error-covariance matrix becomes very large and complicates the KF operation. The performance of the proposed 2-D navigation solution using Mixture PF with both PCI and higher order AR models is examined by road-test trajectories in a land vehicle. The two proposed combinations are compared with four other 2-D solu- - tions: a Mixture PF with the Gauss-Markov (GM) model for the gyro drift, a Mixture PF with only white Gaussian noise (WGN) for stochastic gyro errors, and two different KF solutions with GM model for the gyro drift. The experimental results show that the two proposed solutions outperform all the compared counterparts. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Efficient Optimization Approach to Real-Time Coordinated and Integrated Freeway Traffic Control

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 873 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper tackles the problem of real-time optimal control of traffic flow in a freeway network deployed with coordinated and integrated traffic controllers. One promising approach to this problem is casting the underlying dynamic control problem in a model predictive framework. The challenge is that the resulting optimization problem is computationally intractable for online applications in a network with a large number of controllers. In this paper, a game-theoretic approach with distributed controllers is proposed to address the foregoing issue. The efficiency of the proposed method is tested for a coordinated ramp metering and variable-speed limit control applied to a stretch of freeway network. The parallel nature of the optimization algorithm makes it suitable for solving large-scale problems with high accuracy. The speed and accuracy of the proposed solution approach are examined and compared with that of the conventional optimization method in a case study to demonstrate its superior performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An Interval Fuzzy Controller for Vehicle Active Suspension Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 885 - 895
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel interval type-2 fuzzy controller architecture is proposed to resolve nonlinear control problems of vehicle active suspension systems. It integrates the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model, interval type-2 fuzzy reasoning, the Wu-Mendel uncertainty bound method, and selected optimization algorithms together to construct the switching routes between generated linear model control surfaces. The stability analysis of the proposed approach is presented. The proposed method is implemented into a numerical example and a case study on a nonlinear half-vehicle active suspension system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Crash Probability and Error Rates for Head-On Collisions Based on Stochastic Analyses

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 896 - 904
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active safety systems are developed in the automotive industry to help avoid or mitigate collisions. To develop collision-avoidance or mitigation systems, an appropriate lead time must be determined to provide a warning or action with acceptable false positive and negative rates. There has been much research on the lead time for the rear-end collision, but the lead time for the head-on collision has not been studied much because of the complexity of the loadcase. In this paper, the crash probabilities of the head-on collision were estimated, and adaptive lead times were proposed. In addition, false positive and false negative rates were assessed for some precrash sensor errors. For the assessment, an analytical vehicle model was validated against static and dynamic test data, and the driver's behaviors in normal and evasive maneuvers were surveyed and modeled. Using the analytical vehicle model and the driver models, stochastic analyses were conducted to assess the crash probability, the adaptive lead times, and the error rates. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Pattern-Recognition Approach for Driving Skill Characterization

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 905 - 916
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Information about a driver's driving skill can be used to adapt vehicle control parameters to facilitate the specific driver's needs in terms of vehicle performance and safety. This paper presents an approach to driving skill characterization from a pattern-recognition perspective. The basic idea is to extract patterns that reflect the driver's driving skill level from the measurements of the driver's behavior and the vehicle response. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using a pattern-recognition approach to characterize a driver's handling skill. This paper concludes with the discussions of the challenges and future works to bring the proposed technique to practical use. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Goal Evaluation of Segmentation Algorithms for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 917 - 930
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a quantitative comparison of several segmentation methods (including new ones) that have successfully been used in traffic sign recognition. The methods presented can be classified into color-space thresholding, edge detection, and chromatic/achromatic decomposition. Our support vector machine (SVM) segmentation method and speed enhancement using a lookup table (LUT) have also been tested. The best algorithm will be the one that yields the best global results throughout the whole recognition process, which comprises three stages: 1) segmentation; 2) detection; and 3) recognition. Thus, an evaluation method, which consists of applying the entire recognition system to a set of images with at least one traffic sign, is attempted while changing the segmentation method used. This way, it is possible to observe modifications in performance due to the kind of segmentation used. The results lead us to conclude that the best methods are those that are normalized with respect to illumination, such as RGB or Ohta Normalized, and there is no improvement in the use of Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI)-like spaces. In addition, an LUT with a reduction in the less-significant bits, such as that proposed here, improves speed while maintaining quality. SVMs used in color segmentation give good results, but some improvements are needed when applied to achromatic colors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Designing On-Demand Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicles via Active Control of the Central Transfer Case

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 931 - 941
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1095 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New driveline architectures equipped with torque-biasing devices such as active differentials and active transfer cases have yielded a new generation of on-demand four-wheel-drive vehicles, where the torque distribution between left and right and between front and rear axles can actively be modulated online. This allows one to design active vehicle-control systems that are capable of altering, via electronic control, the behavior of a car dictated from its mechanical layout, e.g., understeering and oversteering characteristics. This paper proposes a control strategy that optimizes vehicle performance while guaranteeing vehicle stability and drivability by actively controlling the transfer case. The performance of the overall control strategy is assessed on both a multibody simulator and an instrumented test vehicle. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Light-Stripe-Projection-Based Target Position Designation for Intelligent Parking-Assist System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 942 - 953
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1337 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel light-stripe-projection-based target position-designation method for an intelligent parking assist system, providing an economical free-space-based target position-designation method for poorly lit indoor parking spaces without degradation of the external appearance when integrated into a vehicle's body. The proposed method can be applied by adding a low-cost light plane projector to existing backward-parking cameras. Light stripe features are detected by the difference between an image with the light plane projector on and off. Three-dimensional information of the parking area is reconstructed using the light-stripe-projection theory. By orientation normalization and depth-map construction, free spaces are detected, and the nearest is selected as the target position. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully designate the target position, in spite of poor lighting conditions and the black reflective surface of adjacently parked vehicles. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the Use of Q^{2} Abstractions to Lower the Computational Cost of Derivation of Conflict Resolution Advisories in Air Traffic Control

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 954 - 967
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the high computational complexity of generating multistep conflict resolution advisories (RAs) in air traffic control. Because this problem is known to be NP-hard, one cannot expect algorithms that will solve every instance of the problem independent of its size. Thus, the goal is to develop more efficient algorithms that can analyze a wider space of possible RAs, for instance, horizontal maneuvers. This paper presents a study of the use of abstraction to such a problem. However, abstractions can lead to wrong decisions, e.g., to maneuvers that result in unsafe states. Such abstractions are referred to as inconsistent. To avoid these kinds of problems, we use the so-called Q2 abstractions, which are derived from the specifications of a problem and are guaranteed to be consistent. To assess the usability of the Q2 approach to computing horizontal RAs, we analyze the impact of such abstractions on the computational cost of an exhaustive search algorithm and on the quality of RAs found. The results show that the use of the Q2 approach lowers the conflict-resolution computation time without losing much of the quality of solutions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Critical Scenarios and Their Identification in Parallel Railroad Level Crossing Traffic Control Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 968 - 977
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1718 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Deterministic and stochastic Petri nets (DSPNs) are well utilized as a visual and mathematical formalism to model discrete event systems. This paper proposes to use them to model parallel railroad level crossing (LC) control systems. Their applications to both single- and double-track railroad lines are illustrated. The resulting models allow one to identify and thus avoid critical scenarios in such systems by conditions and events of the model that control the phase of traffic light alternations. Their analysis is performed to demonstrate how the models enforce the phase of traffic transitions by a reachability graph method. Their important properties are verified. To our knowledge, this is the first work that employs DSPNs to model a parallel railroad LC system and identify its critical scenarios for the purpose of their complete avoidance. This helps advance the state of the art in traffic safety related to the intersection of railroads and roadways. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 2010 Index IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Vol. 11

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 978 - 991
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2011 IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 992
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (1237 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (31 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on ITS is concerned with the design, analysis, and control of information technology as it is applied to transportation systems. The IEEE ITS Transactions is focused on the numerous technical aspects of ITS technologies spanned by the IEEE. Transportation systems are invariably complex, and their complexity arises from many sources. Transportation systems can involve humans, vehicles, shipments, information technology, and the physical infrastructure, all interacting in complex ways. Many aspects of transportation systems are uncertain, dynamic and nonlinear, and such systems may be highly sensitive to perturbations. Controls can involve multiple agents that (and/or who) are distributed and hierarchical. Humans who invariably play critical roles in a transportation system have a diversity of objectives and a wide range of skills and education. Transportation systems are usually large-scale in nature and are invariably geographically distributed.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fei-Yue Wang
Professor
University of Arizona