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Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Dec. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • The Next Generation of Power Distribution Systems

    Page(s): 225 - 235
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper summarizes diverse concepts for the next generation of power distribution system. The objective is to bring distribution engineering more closely aligned to smart grid philosophy. Issues of design, operation, and control are discussed with regard to new system theoretic as well as component/materials advances. In particular, two transmission engineering techniques are modified for use in distribution engineering: state estimation, and locational marginal pricing. The impact of electronic control in distribution systems is discussed. Because education and training have a great impact on distribution engineering, these topics are discussed as well. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Demand Response Model

    Page(s): 236 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an optimization model to adjust the hourly load level of a given consumer in response to hourly electricity prices. The objective of the model is to maximize the utility of the consumer subject to a minimum daily energy-consumption level, maximum and minimum hourly load levels, and ramping limits on such load levels. Price uncertainty is modeled through robust optimization techniques. The model materializes into a simple linear programming algorithm that can be easily integrated in the Energy Management System of a household or a small business. A simple bidirectional communication device between the power supplier and the consumer enables the implementation of the proposed model. Numerical simulations illustrating the interest of the proposed model are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Energy-Efficient Buildings Facilitated by Microgrid

    Page(s): 243 - 252
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent research shows that 20%-30% of building energy consumption can be saved through optimized operation and management without changing the building structure and the hardware configuration of the energy supply system. Therefore, there is a huge potential for building energy savings through efficient operation. Microgrid technology provides an opportunity and a desirable infrastructure for improving the efficiency of energy consumption in buildings. The key to improve building energy efficiency in operation is to coordinate and optimize the operation of various energy sources and loads. In this paper, the scheduling problem of building energy supplies is considered with the practical background of a low energy building. The objective function is to minimize the overall cost of electricity and natural gas for a building operation over a time horizon while satisfying the energy balance and complicated operating constraints of individual energy supply equipment and devices. The uncertainties are captured and their impact is analyzed by the scenario tree method. Numerical testing is performed with the data of the pilot low energy building. The testing results show that significant energy cost savings can be achieved through integrated scheduling and control of various building energy supply sources. It is very important to fully utilize solar energy and optimize the operation of electrical storage. It is also shown that precooling is a simple way to achieve energy savings. View full abstract»

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  • Online Detection of Start Time and Location for Hypocenter in North America Power Grid

    Page(s): 253 - 260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1821 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The power grid dynamics in North America is online detected by the North American power grid frequency monitoring network, and the measured frequency signals by frequency disturbance recorders (FDRs) contain the white noise and spikes that affect the analysis to those signals. In this paper, an interference model is built to depict the FDR frequency signals. Since those contaminated and complicated FDR frequency signals cannot be denoised satisfactorily by a conventional median filter with fixed window size, it is necessary that an adaptive median filter is designed and employed to eliminate noise and spikes. Furthermore, the accurate event start time (EST) is very important to analyze the dynamic process of a power grid and to locate the hypocenter of both the load trip event and the generation trip event, and hence a simple and useful algorithm also is presented to estimate the EST. Two event cases from North American power grids are employed to validate our idea. View full abstract»

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  • Controlled Partitioning of a Power Network Considering Real and Reactive Power Balance

    Page(s): 261 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In response to disturbances, a self-healing system reconfiguration that splits a power network into self-sufficient islands can stop the propagation of disturbances and avoid cascading events. This paper proposes an area partitioning algorithm that minimizes both real and reactive power imbalance between generation and load within islands. The proposed algorithm is a smart grid technology that applies a highly efficient multilevel multi-objective graph partitioning technique. Thus, it is applicable to very large power grids. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on a 200- and a 22,000-bus test systems. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm improves the voltage profile of an island after the system reconfiguration compared with the algorithm that only considers real power balance. In doing so, the algorithm maintains the computational efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Impact of Pulsed Power Loads on Microgrid Power Systems

    Page(s): 270 - 277
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microgrid power systems are becoming increasingly common in a host of applications. In this work, the mitigation of the adverse affects of pulsed-power loads on these systems is considered. In microgrid power systems, pulsed loads are particularly problematic since the total system inertia is finite. Examples include ships and aircraft with high-power radars, pulsed weapons, and electromagnetic launch and recovery systems. In these systems, energy is collected from the system over a finite time period, locally stored, and then rapidly utilized. Herein, a new strategy to accommodate these loads is presented. This strategy is based on identifying the optimal charging profile. Using simulation and experiment, it is shown the proposed strategy is highly effective in reducing the adverse impact of pulsed-power loads. View full abstract»

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  • Selective Automation Upgrade in Distribution Networks Towards a Smarter Grid

    Page(s): 278 - 285
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Research on smart grid technologies has been advancing over the last years, producing novel practices concerning mainly the power distribution networks. However, in many countries these networks still operate in their traditional form, without offering the real-time operational characteristics which are essential for the utilization of the aforementioned practices. On the other hand, due to the extent of urban power distribution networks, as well as the substantial cost of medium voltage equipment, the full upgrade of these networks is in most cases not a feasible option. In this work, alternative options of selective automation upgrade in power distribution networks are offered, corresponding to the desired operational status of these networks. More specifically, the essential upgrades are analyzed for the implementation of reliability improvement and loss reduction techniques on such a network. View full abstract»

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  • Short-Term Load Forecast of Microgrids by a New Bilevel Prediction Strategy

    Page(s): 286 - 294
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microgrids are a rapidly growing sector of smart grids, which will be an essential component in the trend toward distributed electricity generation. In the operation of a microgrid, forecasting the short-term load is an important task. With a more accurate short-term loaf forecast (STLF), the microgrid can enhance the management of its renewable and conventional resources and improve the economics of energy trade with electricity markets. However, STLF for microgrids is a complex forecast process, mainly because of the highly nonsmooth and nonlinear behavior of the load time series. In this paper, characteristics of the load time series of a typical microgrid are discussed and the differences with the load time series of traditional power systems are described. In addition, a new bilevel prediction strategy is proposed for STLF of microgrids. The proposed strategy is composed of a feature selection technique and a forecast engine (including neural network and evolutionary algorithm) in the lower level as the forecaster and an enhanced differential evolution algorithm in the upper level for optimizing the performance of the forecaster. The effectiveness of the proposed prediction strategy is evaluated by the real-life data of a university campus in Canada. View full abstract»

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  • Assessing the Impact of Wind Power Generation on Operating Costs

    Page(s): 295 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wind power generation is taking an increasing share of the overall energy production in many power systems. While its low marginal operating cost reduces the overall cost of meeting the demand for electrical energy, the stochastic and intermittent nature of wind generation increases the uncertainty that the system operators face and obliges them to procure additional reserve capacity. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying fully the effect of wind power generation on the various components of the cost of operating the system. View full abstract»

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  • Ordering Electricity via Internet and its Potentials for Smart Grid Systems

    Page(s): 302 - 310
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet has evolved into a ubiquitous communication medium for information exchanges, services requests, and commodity purchasing. This paper proposes the concept, architecture, and the customer incentives for implementing a new demand-side management system called Online Purchase Electricity Now (OPEN). The new system allows customers to directly order the electricity via the Internet as if purchasing a book online. Utility companies, after consolidating the customers' orders, decide an optimal generation and distribution scheme to satisfy customers' demands. The time epoch between the customers' order and the actual generation acts as the lead time during which virtual energy will be scheduled for production. Such a virtual energy provisioning system can improve the reliability and stability of the electric grid which is increasingly integrated with distributed energy resources. Bayesian theory, hypothesis testing, and dynamic pricing are employed to justify the feasibility and applicability of the OPEN system. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Control Strategy for VSC-Based Systems Under Unbalanced Network Conditions

    Page(s): 311 - 319
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new adaptive control strategy, intended to improve the ride-through capability of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems under unbalanced network conditions and parameter uncertainties, is introduced. The proposed strategy resorts to a model reference adaptive control plus a resonant filter. The resonant filter scheme is based on a unique synchronous reference frame that prevents the use of the customary sequence component detector, increasing the controller bandwidth accordingly. Several tests are conducted to compare the proposed scheme against existing HVDC controllers, showing an improved performance regarding: 1) elimination of the 2ω ripple on the dc voltage arising during ac-side imbalances; 2) accurate and decoupled active and reactive power tracking when converter parameters are not perfectly known. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous Demand-Side Management Based on Game-Theoretic Energy Consumption Scheduling for the Future Smart Grid

    Page(s): 320 - 331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the existing demand-side management programs focus primarily on the interactions between a utility company and its customers/users. In this paper, we present an autonomous and distributed demand-side energy management system among users that takes advantage of a two-way digital communication infrastructure which is envisioned in the future smart grid. We use game theory and formulate an energy consumption scheduling game, where the players are the users and their strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances and loads. It is assumed that the utility company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs that differentiate the energy usage in time and level. We show that for a common scenario, with a single utility company serving multiple customers, the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs is achieved at the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy consumption scheduling game. The proposed distributed demand-side energy management strategy requires each user to simply apply its best response strategy to the current total load and tariffs in the power distribution system. The users can maintain privacy and do not need to reveal the details on their energy consumption schedules to other users. We also show that users will have the incentives to participate in the energy consumption scheduling game and subscribing to such services. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach can reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the total energy demand, the total energy costs, as well as each user's individual daily electricity charges. View full abstract»

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  • Power Electronic Signaling Technology—A New Class of Power Electronics Applications

    Page(s): 332 - 339
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of power electronics to facilitate the transmission or conversion of electric energy has been well known. This paper presents a different class of power electronic applications-the power electronic circuits are deployed to create small but discernible signals online. The signals are utilized for monitoring, power line communication and other information-oriented purposes. We use the term “power electronic (PE) signaling technology” to designate the technologies involved in these applications. The objective of this paper is to survey and review the developments in this fascinating field. Several highly successful PE signaling technologies and their applications are illustrated. It is believed that signaling-oriented power electronic techniques will have many potential applications in power systems and can be a major source of innovation for the smart grid initiative. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Phasor Measurement Unit on Locating Disturbance Source for Low-Frequency Oscillation

    Page(s): 340 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A smart power grid is an integration of the advanced measurement, communication, computer, and control techniques. Among all the state-of-the-art technologies in building a smart power grid, the phasor measurement unit (PMU) is an important and promising one. Nowadays in China, most ultrahigh- and high-voltage buses are all equipped with PMUs. This paper reports an application of PMU data on locating the disturbance source for the low-frequency oscillation that has happened several times in the interconnected big power grids in China recently. The posterior analysis by the Electric Power System Research Institute of China (CEPRI) has confirmed that these low-frequency oscillations are caused by the resonance phenomena. It is urgent to find the disturbance source in case it happens again. However, there have been no systematic and effective methods to locate the disturbance in a very large power system. The trial and error method has been implemented via the digital simulations, but in vain. To overcome this problem, a novel method is developed in this paper to locate the disturbance source with the help of PMUs. The method takes advantage of the PMU measurements to reduce the searching area for locating the disturbance source. Case studies show the efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Economic Load Dispatch Constrained by Wind Power Availability: A Wait-and-See Approach

    Page(s): 347 - 355
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a load dispatch model for the system consisting of both thermal generators and wind turbines is developed. The stochastic wind power is included in the model as a constraint. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the presented model has a set of closed-form solutions. The availability of closed-form solutions is helpful to gain more fundamental insights, such as the impact of a particular parameter on the optimal solution. Moreover, the feasible ranges of optimal solutions are given in the case that the output power of thermal turbines is restricted. Furthermore, the probability distribution and the average of solutions are derived. This is called the wait-and-see approach in the discipline of stochastic programming. The present work shows that the effects of random wind speed on the generated power can be readily assessed. View full abstract»

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  • PES Awards

    Page(s): 356
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  • 2010 Index IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid Vol. 1

    Page(s): 357 - 363
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Page(s): 364
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  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid is a cross disciplinary and internationally archival journal aimed at disseminating results of research on smart grid that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences energy generation, transmission, distribution and delivery. The journal publishes original research on theories and development on principles of smart grid technologies and systems. The Transactions also welcomes manuscripts on design, implementation and evaluation of power systems that are affected by smart grid. Surveys of existing work on smart grid may also be considered for publication when they propose a new viewpoint on history and a challenging perspective on the future of smart grid.

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Editor-in-Chief
Mohammad Shahidehpour
Illinois Institute of Technology