Scheduled System Maintenance:
On May 6th, system maintenance will take place from 8:00 AM - 12:00 PM ET (12:00 - 16:00 UTC). During this time, there may be intermittent impact on performance. We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 2010

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (66 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1981 - 1982
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (195 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Quantum computers: A status update [Point of View]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1983 - 1985
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Nanoelectronics Research for Beyond CMOS Information Processing [Scanning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1986 - 1992
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Regional, National, and International Nanoelectronics Research Programs: Topical Concentration and Gaps

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1993 - 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will outline some results obtained by an international working group on nanoelectronics, which collects data from major publicly funded programs in Europe, Japan, and the United States on long-term nanoelectronics research. It maps these programs and projects onto a set of research directions that are expected to drive nanoelectronics for the long term. The purpose is to identify those research topics attracting a lot of attention and those important topics that seem less attractive. This paper will give examples of interregional collaborative programs and identify sources of funding specifically provided to support international collaborations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • In Quest of the “Next Switch”: Prospects for Greatly Reduced Power Dissipation in a Successor to the Silicon Field-Effect Transistor

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2005 - 2014
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reduced power dissipation relative to the field-effect transistor (FET) is a key attribute that should be possessed by any device that has a chance of supplanting the FET as the ubiquitous building block for complex digital logic. We outline the possible physical approaches to achieving this attribute, and illustrate these approaches by citing current exploratory device research. We assess the value of the key exploratory research objectives of the semiconductor industry-sponsored Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI) in the light of this pressing need to reduce dissipation in future digital logic devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Carbon Nanotubes for VLSI: Interconnect and Transistor Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2015 - 2031
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2101 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer unique properties such as the highest current density, ballistic transport, ultrahigh thermal conductivity, and extremely high mechanical strength. Because of these remarkable properties, they have been expected for use as wiring materials and as alternate channel materials for extending complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) performance in future very large scale integration (VLSI) technologies. In this paper, we report the present status of CNT growth technologies and the applications for via interconnects (vertical wiring) and field-effect transistors (FETs). We fabricated CNT via and evaluated its robustness over a high-density current. In our technology, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were successfully grown at temperatures as low as 365°C using Co catalyst nanoparticles, which were formed and deposited by a custom-designed particle generation and deposition system. The density of MWNTs grown at 450°C reaches more than 1×1012/cm2. MWNTs were grown in via holes with a diameter as small as 40 nm. The resistance of CNT vias with a diameter of 160 nm was found to be of the same order as that of tungsten plugs. The CNT via was able to sustain a current density as high as 5.0×106A/cm2 at 105°C for 100 h without any deterioration in its properties. We propose a Si-process compatible technique to control carrier polarity of CNFETs by utilizing fixed charges introduced by the gate oxide. High-performance p- and n-type CNFETs and CMOS inverters with stability in air have been realized. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Graphene for CMOS and Beyond CMOS Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2032 - 2046
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Owing in part to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling issues, the semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide a solution beyond the 22-nm node. Single and few layers of carbon sheets (graphene) have been fabricated by a variety of techniques including mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition, and field-effect devices have been demonstrated with room temperature field-effect mobilities close to 10 000 cm2/Vs. But since graphene is a gapless semiconductor, these transistors have high off-state leakage and nonsaturating drive currents. This is problematic for digital logic, but is acceptable for analog device applications such as low-noise amplifiers and radio-frequency (RF)/millimeter-wave field-effect transistors (FETs). The remarkable transport physics of graphene due to its linear bandstructure have led to novel beyond CMOS logic devices as well, such as “pseudospin” devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • III-V Nanowires—Extending a Narrowing Road

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2047 - 2060
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Semiconductor nanowires have attracted considerable attention during the last decade and are considered as an alternative path to extend the road for scaled semiconductor devices. The interest is motivated by the improved electrostatic control in the cylindrical geometry and the possibility to utilize heterostructures in transistor design. Currently, nanowire transistors have been realized both in III-Vs and in group IV materials employing top-down as well as bottom-up technologies. In this review, we give an overview of the field and, in particular, we summarize state-of-the-art for III-V nanowire devices. It is demonstrated that the growth and processing technologies are maturing and that devices with good transistor characteristics are being fabricated by a combined bottom-up and top-down approach. Also, the first radio-frequency (RF)-implementations are reviewed and discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Enhancing CMOS Using Nanoelectronic Devices: A Perspective on Hybrid Integrated Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2061 - 2075
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a vision for the cointegration of deeply scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and emerging nanoelectronic devices into CMOS-hybrid systems. These hybrid systems will create new functionality, modality and add value to existing CMOS integrated circuits. We describe several new nanoelectronic devices which may enable new dimensions to traditional CMOS circuits and systems that build on CMOS compatible, parallel nanoscale fabrication methods. In addition, we show that the integration of multimodal sensors and nonvolatile memory enables a platform of self-evolving hardware that is able to adapt to fabrication variation, environmental changes, and applications changes on-the-fly. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Mechanical Computing Redux: Relays for Integrated Circuit Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2076 - 2094
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power density has grown to be the dominant challenge for continued complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology scaling. Together with recent improvements in microrelay design and process technology, this has led to renewed interest in mechanical computing for ultralow-power integrated circuit (IC) applications. This paper provides a brief history of mechanical computing followed by an overview of the various types of micromechanical switches, with particular emphasis on electromechanical relays since they are among the most promising for IC applications. Relay reliability and process integration challenges are discussed. Demonstrations of functional relay logic circuits are then presented, and relay scaling for improved device density and performance is described. Finally, the energy efficiency benefit of a scaled relay technology versus a CMOS technology with comparable minimum dimensions is assessed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Low-Voltage Tunnel Transistors for Beyond CMOS Logic

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2095 - 2110
    Cited by:  Papers (125)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Steep subthreshold swing transistors based on interband tunneling are examined toward extending the performance of electronics systems. In particular, this review introduces and summarizes progress in the development of the tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) including its origin, current experimental and theoretical performance relative to the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), basic current-transport theory, design tradeoffs, and fundamental challenges. The promise of the TFET is in its ability to provide higher drive current than the MOSFET as supply voltages approach 0.1 V. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Molecular Nanoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2111 - 2123
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Molecular electronics is envisioned as a promising candidate for the nanoelectronics of the future. More than a possible answer to ultimate miniaturization problem in nanoelectronics, molecular electronics is foreseen as a possible way to assemble a large numbers of nanoscale objects (molecules, nanoparticules, nanotubes, and nanowires) to form new devices and circuit architectures. It is also an interesting approach to significantly reduce the fabrication costs, as well as the energetic costs of computation, compared to usual semiconductor technologies. Moreover, molecular electronics is a field with a large spectrum of investigations: from quantum objects for testing new paradigms, to hybrid molecular-silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. However, problems remain to be solved (e.g., a better control of the molecule-electrode interfaces, improvements of the reproducibility and reliability, etc.). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spin-Transistor Electronics: An Overview and Outlook

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2124 - 2154
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Spin transistors are a new concept device that unites an ordinary transistor with the useful functions of a spin (magnetoresistive) device. They are expected to be a building block for novel integrated circuits employing spin degrees of freedom. The interesting features of spin transistors are nonvolatile information storage and reconfigurable output characteristics: these are very useful and suitable functionalities for various new integrated circuit architectures that are inaccessible to ordinary transistor circuits. This article reviews the current status and outlook of spin transistors from the viewpoint of integrated circuit applications. The device structure, operating principle, performance, and features of various spin transistors are discussed. The fundamental and key phenomena/technologies for spin injection, transport, and manipulation in semiconductors and the integrated circuit applications of spin transistors to nonvolatile logic and reconfigurable logic are also described. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Promise of Nanomagnetics and Spintronics for Future Logic and Universal Memory

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2155 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is both a review of some recent developments in the utilization of magnetism for applications to logic and memory and a description of some new innovations in nanomagnetics and spintronics. Nanomagnetics is primarily based on the magnetic interactions, while spintronics is primarily concerned with devices that utilize spin polarized currents. With the end of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) in sight, nanomagnetics can provide a new paradigm for information process using the principles of magnetic quantum cellular automata (MQCA). This paper will review and describe these principles and then introduce a new nonlithographic method of producing reconfigurable arrays of MQCAs and/or storage bits that can be configured electrically. Furthermore, this paper will provide a brief description of magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM), the first mainstream spintronic nonvolatile random access memory and project how far its successor spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) can go to provide a truly universal memory that can in principle replace most, if not all, semiconductor memories in the near future. For completeness, a description of an all-metal logic architecture based on magnetoresistive structures (transpinnor) will be described as well as some approaches to logic using magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Device and Architecture Outlook for Beyond CMOS Switches

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2169 - 2184
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2983 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sooner or later, fundamental limitations destine complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling to a conclusion. A number of unique switches have been proposed as replacements, many of which do not even use electron charge as the state variable. Instead, these nanoscale structures pass tokens in the spin, excitonic, photonic, magnetic, quantum, or even heat domains. Emergent physical behaviors and idiosyncrasies of these novel switches can complement the execution of specific algorithms or workloads by enabling quite unique architectures. Ultimately, exploiting these unusual responses will extend throughput in high-performance computing. Alternative tokens also require new transport mechanisms to replace the conventional chip wire interconnect schemes of charge-based computing. New intrinsic limits to scaling in post-CMOS technologies are likely to be bounded ultimately by thermodynamic entropy and Shannon noise. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Memory Devices: Energy–Space–Time Tradeoffs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2185 - 2200
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many memory candidates based on beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) nanoelectronics have been proposed, but no clear successor has yet been identified. In this paper, we offer a methodology for system-level analysis and address the relationship of the maximum performance of a given memory device type to device physics. The method is illustrated for the classical dynamic RAM (DRAM) device and for the emerging memory device known as the resistive RAM (ReRAM). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Phase Change Memory

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2201 - 2227
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, recent progress of phase change memory (PCM) is reviewed. The electrical and thermal properties of phase change materials are surveyed with a focus on the scalability of the materials and their impact on device design. Innovations in the device structure, memory cell selector, and strategies for achieving multibit operation and 3-D, multilayer high-density memory arrays are described. The scaling properties of PCM are illustrated with recent experimental results using special device test structures and novel material synthesis. Factors affecting the reliability of PCM are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Atomic Switch

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2228 - 2236
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An atomic switch is a nanoionic device that controls the diffusion of metal ions and their reduction/oxidation processes in the switching operation to form/annihilate a metal atomic bridge, which is a conductive path between two electrodes in an ON-state. Since metal atoms can provide a highly conductive channel even if their size is in the nanometer scale, atomic switches may enable downscaling to smaller than the 11-nm technology node. Two-terminal atomic switches have the potential for use in memories and programmable switches. Three-terminal atomic switches, where the formation/annihilation of a metal atomic bridge between a source electrode and a drain electrode are controlled by a third (gate) electrode, work as nonvolatile transistors. Recent development of two-terminal atomic switches that use a metal oxide as the ionic conductive material, in which a metal atomic bridge is formed, has enabled the integration of atomic switches with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. Also introduced are the novel characteristics of atomic switches, such as their small size, low power consumption, low ON-resistance, nonvolatility, and learning abilities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) Based on Metal Oxides

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2237 - 2251
    Cited by:  Papers (57)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we review the recent progress in the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology, one of the most promising emerging nonvolatile memories, in which both electronic and electrochemical effects play important roles in the nonvolatile functionalities. First, we provide a brief historical overview of the research in this field. We also provide a technological overview and the epoch-making achievements, followed by an account of the current understanding of both bipolar and unipolar ReRAM operations. Finally, we summarize the challenges facing the ReRAM technology as it moves toward the beyond-2X-nm generation of nonvolatile memories and the so-called beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) device. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Irving Langmuir [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2252 - 2254
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Irving Langmuir, who was an active member of the IRE and served a term as its President during 1923, was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1932 in recognition of his fundamental contributions to the understanding of surface chemistry. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2255
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (75 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 2010 Index Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 96-98

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2256 - 2320
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Imagine a simple way to make an impact [advertisment]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University