By Topic

Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date December 2010

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Staff

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (155 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - committee

    Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (51 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): i - ii
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 2605 - 2608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 2609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Criterion for material selection in design of bulk piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Page(s): 2610 - 2612
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vibration energy harvesting has gained tremendous attention in the past decade and continues to grow rapidly. There are various transduction mechanisms for converting the vibration energy into electrical energy, out of which the piezoelectric mechanism has been shown to provide advantages at the micro-to-meso scale. In the past few years, several studies have tried to address the question of which piezoelectric composition is better for energy harvesting; however, discussion on this subject continues. The intent of this letter is to provide an answer for this question through a simple criterion which can be used in routine material evaluation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A novel method for characterization of piezoelectric material parameters by simulated annealing optimization

    Page(s): 2613 - 2615
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel, accurate characterization method for piezoelectric materials, based upon a simulated annealing optimization algorithm, is developed. The theoretically calculated complex material constants of lossy piezoelectric materials with precisely fitted electrical impedance resonant characteristics by this method are reported. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-performance DDFS design using the equi-section division method

    Page(s): 2616 - 2626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an equi-section division method utilizing the symmetry property and amplitude approximation of a sinusoidal waveform to design a direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) is proposed. The sinusoidal phase of a one-quarter period is divided into equi-sections. The error value between each line segment value and the sinusoidal amplitude value is stored in a read-only memory (ROM) to reconstruct the real sinusoidal waveform. The upper/lower bound of the maximum error value stored in error-compensation ROM will be derived to determine the minimum required memory wordlength relative to the bit number of the equi-sections. In addition, the minimum size of the total ROMs can be computed according to the bit number of the equi-sections. Thus, the equi-section division method is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. As a result, the total compression ratio of the DDFS using the equisection division method is superior to that of the DDFS using the traditional compression methods. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed ROM compression method can effectively achieve a better compression ratio and lower complexity, compared with the DDFS using the traditional compression methods, without affecting the spectrum performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computational models of distributed aberration in ultrasound breast imaging

    Page(s): 2627 - 2636
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two methods for simulation of ultrasound wavefront distortion are introduced and compared with aberration produced in simulations using digitized breast tissue specimens and a conventional multiple time-shift screen model. In the first method, aberrators are generated using a computational model of breast anatomy. In the second method, 10 to 12 irregularly shaped, strongly scattering inclusions are superimposed on the multiple-screen model to create a screen-inclusion model. Linear 2-D propagation of a 7.5-MHz planar, pulsed wavefront through each aberrator is computed using a first-order k-space method. The anatomical and screen-inclusion models reproduce two characteristics of arrival-time fluctuations observed in simulations using the digitized specimens that are not represented in simulations using the multiple-screen model: non-Gaussian first-order statistics and sharp changes in the rms arrival-time fluctuation as a function of propagation distance. The anatomical and screen-inclusion models both produce energy- level fluctuations similar to the digitized specimens, but the anatomical model more closely matches the pulse-shape distortion produced by the specimens. Both aberration models can readily be extended to 3-D, and the screen-inclusion model has the advantage of simplicity of implementation. Both models should enable more rigorous evaluation of adaptive focusing algorithms than is possible using conventional time-shift screen models. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Numerical study of a simple transcranial focused ultrasound system applied to blood-brain barrier opening

    Page(s): 2637 - 2653
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the focalization properties of single-element transducers at low frequencies (300 to 1000 kHz) through primate and human skulls. The study addresses the transcranial targeting involved in ultrasound- induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening with clinically relevant targets such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A finite-difference, timedomain simulation platform is used to solve the 3-D linear acoustic wave equation with CT-based acoustic maps of the skulls. The targeted brain structures were extracted from 3-D brain atlases registered with the skulls and used to virtually position and orient the transducers. The effect of frequency is first investigated and the targeting of the different structures is then tested. The frequency of 500 kHz provided the best tradeoff between phase aberrations and standing wave effects in the human case, whereas the frequency of 800 kHz was most suitable in the case of the primate skull. A fast periodic linear chirp method was developed and found capable of reducing the standing wave effects. Such a simple, affordable, and convenient system is concluded to be feasible for BBB opening in primates and humans and could thus allow for its broader impact and applications. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A consistent tissue attenuation coefficient estimator using bubble harmonic echoes

    Page(s): 2654 - 2661
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ultrasonic property of soft tissue can be quantified by its attenuation coefficient α. Traditionally the backscattering signal of tissue is used to estimate α. To improve precision, a large number of spatially independent samples of tissue echoes are required for averaging. In this paper, we propose a new estimation method, which makes use of microbubbles to provide temporally independent samples for averaging. It is easier for temporal sampling to maintain ergodicity and provide a large number of independent samples for statistical averaging. A stochastic model for the harmonic signals of an ideal bubble attenuated by tissue is derived based on Kuc's and Miller's works. An estimator of α is then presented. This estimator is consistent and could be biased because of the unknown squarelaw relation between the second and fundamental harmonics for non-ideal bubble oscillation. In experimental works, we design a simplified phantom for demonstrating the performance of the proposed estimator. It is shown that both first and second harmonics can estimate α consistently. However, the interference of the tissue backscattering signal may cause additional estimation error using the first harmonic. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Robust estimation of time-of-flight shear wave speed using a radon sum transformation

    Page(s): 2662 - 2670
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (906 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time-of-flight methods allow quantitative measurement of shear wave speed (SWS) from ultrasonically tracked displacements following impulsive excitation in tissue. However, application of these methods to in vivo data are challenging because of the presence of gross outlier data resulting from sources such as physiological motion or spatial inhomogeneities. This paper describes a new method for estimating SWS by considering a solution space of trajectories and evaluating each trajectory using a metric that characterizes wave motion along the entire trajectory. The metric used here is found by summing displacement data along the trajectory as in the calculation of projection data in the Radon transformation. The algorithm is evaluated using data acquired in calibrated phantoms and in vivo human liver. Results are compared with SWS estimates using a random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm described by Wang et al. Good agreement is found between the Radon sum and RANSAC SWS estimates with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.99 for phantom data and 0.91 for in vivo liver data. The Radon sum transformation is suitable for use in situations requiring real-time feedback and is comparably robust to the RANSAC algorithm with respect to outlier data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Noninvasive thermometry assisted by a dual-function ultrasound transducer for mild hyperthermia

    Page(s): 2671 - 2684
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mild hyperthermia is increasingly important for the activation of temperature-sensitive drug delivery vehicles. Noninvasive ultrasound thermometry based on a 2-D speckle tracking algorithm was examined in this study. Here, a commercial ultrasound scanner, a customized co-linear array transducer, and a controlling PC system were used to generate mild hyperthermia. Because the co-linear array transducer is capable of both therapy and imaging at widely separated frequencies, RF image frames were acquired during therapeutic insonation and then exported for off-line analysis. For in vivo studies in a mouse model, before temperature estimation, motion correction was applied between a reference RF frame and subsequent RF frames. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were examined; in the in vitro and in vivo studies, the average temperature error had a standard deviation of 0.7°C and 0.8°C, respectively. The application of motion correction improved the accuracy of temperature estimation, where the error range was -1.9 to 4.5°C without correction compared with -1.1 to 1.0°C following correction. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining therapy and monitoring using a commercial system. In the future, real-time temperature estimation will be incorporated into this system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A real-time controller for sustaining thermally relevant acoustic cavitation during ultrasound therapy

    Page(s): 2685 - 2694
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel method for sustaining inertial cavitation during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure in an agar-based tissue-mimicking material is presented. Inertial cavitation occurs during HIFU therapy when the local rarefaction pressure exceeds the inertial cavitation threshold of the insonated medium, and is characterized by broadband acoustic emissions which can be easily detected non-invasively using a passive cavitation detector (PCD). Under the right conditions, inertial cavitation has been previously shown to greatly enhance the rate of heat deposition by redistributing part of the energy carried at the fundamental HIFU frequency to higher frequencies, which are more readily absorbed by visco-elastic media such as soft tissue. However, in the absence of any cavitation control, inertial cavitation activity at the focus decays rapidly over a few seconds of exposure because of the combined effects of cavitation nuclei depletion, bubble dissolution, bubble-bubble interactions, increased vapor pressure caused by heating, and focal shielding caused by pre-focal bubble activity. The present work describes the design, validation, and testing of a real-time adaptive controller, with integrated passive localization capabilities, for sustaining inertial cavitation within the focal region of a HIFU transducer by modulation of the HIFU amplitude. Use of the controller in agar gel, originally at room temperature, has enabled therapeutically relevant temperatures in excess of 55°C to be maintained continuously in the focal region for more than 20 s using significantly less acoustic energy than is required to achieve the same temperature rise in the absence of cavitation control. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Lateral blood flow velocity estimation based on ultrasound speckle size change with scan velocity

    Page(s): 2695 - 2703
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional (Doppler-based) blood flow velocity measurement methods using ultrasound are capable of resolving the axial component (i.e., that aligned with the ultrasound propagation direction) of the blood flow velocity vector. However, these methods are incapable of detecting blood flow in the direction normal to the ultrasound beam. In addition, these methods require repeated pulse-echo interrogation at the same spatial location. A new method has been introduced which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame using the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is smeared) if the blood is moving in the same direction as the electronically-controlled transducer line selection in a 2-D image. The situation is analogous to the observed distortion of a subject photographed with a moving camera. The results of previous research showed a linear relationship between the stretch factor (increase in lateral speckle size) and blood flow velocity. However, errors exist in the estimation when used to measure blood flow velocity. In this paper, the relationship between speckle size and blood flow velocity is investigated further with both simulated flow data and measurements from a blood flow phantom. It can be seen that: 1) when the blood flow velocity is much greater than the scan velocity (spatial rate of A-line acquisition), the velocity will be significantly underestimated because of speckle decorrelation caused by quick blood movement out of the ultrasound beam; 2) modeled flow gradients increase the average estimation error from a range between 1.4% and 4.4%, to a range between 4.4% and 6.8%; and 3) estimation performance in a blood flow phantom with both flow gradients and random motion of scatterers increases the average estimation error to between 6.1% and 7.8%. Initial attempts at a multiple-scan strategy for estimating flow by a least-squares model suggest the- possibility of increased accuracy using multiple scan velocities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ultrasonic sensing of temperature of liquids using inexpensive narrowband piezoelectric transducers

    Page(s): 2704 - 2711
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigated the possibility of substantially reducing the cost of minimally invasive ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of liquids, in particular, temperature sensing, using inexpensive narrowband transducers. Although designed for operation in air, ultrasonic transducers enclosed in an aluminum case could be submerged in water and were found to be suitable for this application; however, their responses changed substantially when submerged. The test cell developed was complemented by an amplifier to operate as an oscillator and some other support electronics to supervise the sensor's operation. The sensor was tested in temperatures ranging from 26 to 32°C at a nominal central frequency of 330 kHz and showed a sensitivity of around 280 Hz/K. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adaptive beamforming for array imaging of plate structures using lamb waves

    Page(s): 2712 - 2724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1075 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lamb waves are considered a promising tool for the monitoring of plate structures. Large areas of plate structures can be monitored using active arrays employing beamforming techniques. Dispersion and multiple propagating modes are issues that need to be addressed when working with Lamb waves. Previous work has mainly focused on standard delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming while reducing the effects of multiple modes through frequency selectivity and transducer design. This paper presents a minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) approach for Lamb waves using a uniform rectangular array (URA) and a single transmitter. Theoretically calculated dispersion curves are used to compensate for dispersion. The combination of the MVDR approach and the two-dimensional array improves the suppression of interfering Lamb modes. The proposed approach is evaluated on simulated and experimental data and compared with the standard DAS beamformer. It is shown that the MVDR algorithm performs better in terms of higher resolution and better side lobe and mode suppression capabilities. Known issues of the MVDR approach, such as signal cancellation in highly correlated environments and poor robustness, are addressed using methods that have proven effective for the purpose in other fields of active imaging. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Minimizing influence of multi-modes and dispersion of electromagnetic ultrasonic lamb waves

    Page(s): 2725 - 2733
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic ultrasonic (EMU) Lamb waves excited by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) possess many advantages in NDT. However, their characteristic multi-modes and dispersion are disadvantageous for inspection and restrict further improvements in their real applications. By deducing the excitation equation of EMU Lamb waves, the primary design parameters of EMATs and the characteristic equation of Lamb waves are combined, and excitation curves based on the excitation equation are plotted to aid the design of EMATs. The excitation characteristic of EMU Lamb waves on different thickness of plates is analyzed according to the excitation curves. The influence of multi-modes of EMU Lamb waves is minimized by choosing reasonable operating points and operating zones to excite a single-mode Lamb wave or multi-mode Lamb waves with identical or approximate propagation velocities. The influence of dispersion is minimized by searching corresponding points whose slope of group velocity tends to zero. The validity of the proposed method is verified by experiments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Warped basis pursuit for damage detection using lamb waves

    Page(s): 2734 - 2741
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel time-frequency procedure based on the warped frequency transform (WFT) to process multi-mode and dispersive Lamb waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The proposed signal processing technique is applied to time waveforms recorded at an array of scan points after waveguide excitation. The WFT is combined with a basis pursuit algorithm to extract the distance traveled by the ultrasonic waves even in the case of multi-modal dispersive propagation associated with broadband excitation of the waveguide. This is obtained through a decomposition of the acquired signals using dictionaries composed by optimized atomic functions which are designed to match the spectro-temporal structure of the various propagating modes. The warped basis pursuit (W-BP) analysis of several acquired waveforms results in distance signals that can be combined through classical beamforming techniques for acoustical source imaging purposes. A masking procedure is also proposed to suppress imaging noise. This approach is tested on experimental data obtained by broadband guided wave excitation in a 1-mm-thick aluminum plate with an artificially introduced through crack and tiny holes, followed by multiple waveguide displacement recording through a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Dispersion compensation, high-resolution source, and defect imaging are demonstrated even in domain regions that are not directly accessible for measurement. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The inspection of anisotropic single-crystal components using a 2-D ultrasonic array

    Page(s): 2742 - 2752
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single-crystal metal alloys are used extensively in the manufacture of jet engine components for their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The inspection of these components using 2-D ultrasonic arrays potentially allows the detection of subsurface defects in three-dimensions from one inspection location. Such methods are not currently suitable for the inspection of single-crystal components because the high elastic anisotropy of single-crystal materials causes directional variation in ultrasonic waves. In this paper, a model of wave propagation in anisotropic material is used to correct an ultrasonic imaging algorithm and is applied to a single-crystal test specimen. For this corrected-algorithm, the orientation of the crystal in a specimen must be known before the inspection. Using the same ultrasonic array to measure the orientation and perform the defect inspection offers the most practical solution. Therefore, potential crystallographic orientation methods using 2-D ultrasonic arrays are also developed and evaluated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimized reflector stacks for solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonators

    Page(s): 2753 - 2763
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (953 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality factor (Q) of a solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, because the acoustic mirror is traditionally optimized to reflect longitudinal waves only. We propose two different design approaches derived from optics to tailor the acoustic mirror for effective reflection of both longitudinal and shear waves. The first one employs the stopband theory in optics; the second one takes advantage of the periodic nature of reflection spectra in a Bragg reflector: the diffraction grating design approach. The optimized design using stopband theory reaches a calculated minimum transmission of -25 dB and -20 dB at resonance frequency for longitudinal and shear waves, respectively, for various practical reflector material combinations. Using the diffraction grating approach, a near quarter-wave performance is maintained for longitudinal waves, whereas shear waves reach minimum transmission below -26 dB. However, this design does necessitate relatively thick layers. The experimental results show good agreement with finite element models (FEM). The extracted 1-D Q for the realized shear optimized devices was increased to around 3300. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer

    Page(s): 2764 - 2771
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Identification of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants in piezoceramic disks

    Page(s): 2772 - 2783
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric devices requires a precise knowledge of piezoelectric material parameters. The commonly used piezoelectric materials belong to the 6mm symmetry class, which have ten independent constants. In this work, a methodology to obtain precise material constants over a wide frequency band through finite element analysis of a piezoceramic disk is presented. Given an experimental electrical impedance curve and a first estimate for the piezoelectric material properties, the objective is to find the material properties that minimize the difference between the electrical impedance calculated by the finite element method and that obtained experimentally by an electrical impedance analyzer. The methodology consists of four basic steps: experimental measurement, identification of vibration modes and their sensitivity to material constants, a preliminary identification algorithm, and final refinement of the material constants using an optimization algorithm. The application of the methodology is exemplified using a hard lead zirconate titanate piezoceramic. The same methodology is applied to a soft piezoceramic. The errors in the identification of each parameter are statistically estimated in both cases, and are less than 0.6% for elastic constants, and less than 6.3% for dielectric and piezoelectric constants. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Input impedance matching of acoustic transducers operating at off-resonant frequencies

    Page(s): 2784 - 2794
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The input impedance matching technique of acoustic transducers at off-resonant frequencies is reported. It uses an inherent impedance property of transducers and thus does not need an external electric matching circuit or extra acoustic matching section. The input electrical equivalent circuit includes a radiation component and a dielectric capacitor. The radiation component consists of a radiation resistance and a radiation reactance. The total reactance is the sum of the radiation reactance and the dielectric capacitive reactance. This reactance becomes zero at two frequencies where the impedance is real. The transducer size can be properly chosen so that the impedance at one of the zero-crossing frequencies is close to 50 Ω, the output impedance of signal generators. At this off-resonant operating frequency, the reflection coefficient of the transducer is minimized without using any matching circuit. Other than the size, the impedance can also be fine tuned by adjusting the thickness of material that bonds the transducer plate to the substrates. The acoustic impedance of the substrate and that of the bonding material can also be used as design elements in the transducer structure to achieve better transducer matching. Lead titanate piezoelectric plates were bonded on Lucite, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), and bismuth (Bi) substrates to produce various transducer structures. Their input impedance was simulated using a transducer model and compared with measured values to illustrate the matching principle. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk