By Topic

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2010

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (46 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A Low-Power Shoe-Embedded Radar for Aiding Pedestrian Inertial Navigation

    Page(s): 2521 - 2528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Navigation in global positioning system (GPS)-denied or GPS-inhibited environments such as urban canyons, mountain areas, and indoors is often accomplished with an inertial measurement unit (IMU). For portable navigation, miniaturized IMUs suffer from poor accuracy due to bias, bias drift, and noise. We propose to use a low-power shoe-embedded radar as an aiding sensor to identify zero velocity periods during which the individual IMU sensor biases can be observed. The proposed radar sensor can also be used to detect the vertical position and velocity of the IMU relative to the ground in real time, which provides additional independent information for sensor fusion. The impacts of the noise and interference on the system performance have been analyzed analytically. A prototype sensor has been constructed to demonstrate the concept, and experimental results show that the proposed sensor is promising for position and velocity sensing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A 5.5-mW {+} 9.4-dBm IIP3 1.8-dB NF CMOS LNA Employing Multiple Gated Transistors With Capacitance Desensitization

    Page(s): 2529 - 2537
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (898 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A capacitance desensitization technique is proposed for a multiple gated transistors amplifier with source degeneration to relax second-order distortion contribution to a third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3), as well as an induced-gate noise contribution to noise figure. An extra capacitance, which is added between gate and source nodes of input transistors in a parallel manner, can desensitize the contribution of second-order harmonic feedback to IMD3. The capacitance is useful for optimizing noise figure, as well by controlling the input matching network quality factor (Q), which can desensitize the induced-gate noise contribution to noise figure. The low-noise amplifier is implemented with the proposed technique using 1P6M 0.18-μm CMOS technology for 900-MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) receivers. It shows a third-order intercept point of +9.4 dBm and noise figure of 1.8 dB while consuming 5.5 mW at 1.5 V. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Jitter-Optimized Differential 40-Gbit/s Transimpedance Amplifier in SiGe BiCMOS

    Page(s): 2538 - 2548
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies the jitter performance at the input of the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) in a communication system based on multimode optical fibers. A method is shown to analyze and effectively reduce data-dependent jitter by proper choice of the TIA input resistance and the use of multiple feedback techniques. A 40-Gbit/s TIA in 0.25-μm BiCMOS with fT of up to 180 GHz is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the jitter analysis. It shows 6 kΩ (75.5 dBΩ) transimpedance gain, 37.6-GHz bandwidth, open eyes, and less than 0.6-ps root mean square jitter at 40 Gbit/s, as well as best-in-class power consumption and noise performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 2-D Electrical Interferometer: A Novel High-Speed Quantizer

    Page(s): 2549 - 2561
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a 2-D electrical interferometer as a means of high-speed data conversion. The structure is based on wave propagation in 2-D LC lattices. We will discuss the principle behind this technique, which exploits wave propagation and medium manipulation in order to take advantage of different interference patterns. This method of quantization is based on passive LC lattices that can operate at very high frequencies on a conventional CMOS process. We analyze different properties of the structure and propose the design methodology. To show the feasibility of this approach, we design a 20-GS/s 4-bit quantizer consuming 194 mW for quanization and 943 mW for an analog memory. There is good agreement between analysis and simulation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimized Design of a Highly Efficient Three-Stage Doherty PA Using Gate Adaptation

    Page(s): 2562 - 2574
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate an optimized design of a highly efficient three-stage Doherty power amplifier (PA) for the 802.16e mobile world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) application at 2.655 GHz. The “three-stage” Doherty PA is the most efficient architecture among the various Doherty PAs for achieving a high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) signal. However, it has a problem in that the carrier PA has to maintain a saturated state with constant output power when the other peaking PAs are turned on. We solved the problem using a gate envelope tracking (ET) technique. For the proper load modulation, the gate biases of the peaking PAs were adaptively controlled, and the peak power and maximum efficiency characteristics along the backed-off output power region were successfully achieved. Using Agilent's Advanced Design System and Matlab simulations, the overall behavior of the three-stage Doherty PA with the ET technique employed was fully analyzed, and the optimum design procedure is suggested. For the WiMAX signal with a 7.8-dB PAPR, the measured drain efficiency of the proposed three-stage Doherty PA is 55.4% at an average output power of 42.54 dBm, which is an 8-dB backed-off output power. Digital predistortion was used to linearize the proposed PA. After linearization, a -33.15 dB relative constellation error performance was achieved, satisfying the system specifications. This is the best performance of any 2.655-GHz WiMAX application ever reported, and it clearly shows that the proposed three-stage Doherty PA is suitable as a highly efficient and linear transmitter. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Compact 0.1–14-GHz Ultra-Wideband Low-Noise Amplifier in 0.13- \mu{\hbox {m}} CMOS

    Page(s): 2575 - 2581
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A compact ultra-wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) with a 12.4-dB maximum gain, a 2.7-dB minimum noise figure (NF), and a bandwidth over 0.1-14 GHz is realized in a 0.13-μm CMOS technology. The circuit is basically an inductorless configuration using the resistive-feedback and current-reuse techniques for wideband and high-gain characteristics. It was found that a small inductor of only 0.4 nH can greatly improve the circuit performance, which enhances the bandwidth by 23%, and reduces the NF by 0.94 dB (at 10.6 GHz), while only consuming an additional area of 80 × 80 μm2. The LNA only occupies a core area of 0.031 mm , and consumes 14.4 mW from a 1.8-V supply. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimization of a Photonically Controlled Microwave Switch and Attenuator

    Page(s): 2582 - 2588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A silicon-based photoconductive switch and attenuator for microwave signals has been demonstrated and optimized for low insertion loss and high attenuation response upon illumination from a standard infrared LED. This device is fabricated within a coplanar waveguide for easy integration into a planar antenna for photonic control of an array. A general tradeoff exists between the goals of low insertion loss and high attenuation range. However, design and process enhancements are found to improve the device performance. A device that offers up to 20-dB attenuation with insertion loss of only 0.6 dB at 2.0 GHz is demonstrated. These devices show a frequency range where the insertion phase shift upon attenuation is significantly less than 1°/dB. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Modulated Scattering Antenna Array for Mobile Terminal Applications

    Page(s): 2589 - 2597
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of the modulated scattering antenna array (MSAA) for mobile terminals is investigated in this paper. The electromagnetic scattering of the modulated scattering elements (MSEs) loaded with Schottky diode is analyzed by using the Volterra series method in conjunction with the method of moments, which rigorously includes the mutual couplings among the MSAA elements. By virtue of closed-form analytical expression of Volterra analysis, useful physical insights and guidelines are provided to find optimum parameters of the MSEs in order to improve the performance of the MSAA for wireless communications. Parametrical studies are carried out for the purpose of enhancing the scattered power level of the second-order intermodulation caused by the nonlinear load in the MSEs. Both numerical simulations and experiments validate the proposed theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Multimode/Multiband Power Amplifier With a Boosted Supply Modulator

    Page(s): 2598 - 2608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multimode/multiband power amplifier (PA) with a boosted supply modulator is developed for handset applications. A linear broadband class-F amplifier is designed to have a constant fundamental impedance across 1.7-2 GHz and its second and third harmonic impedances are located at the high-efficiency area. To reduce the circuit size for handset application, the harmonic control circuits are merged into the broadband output matching circuit for the fundamental frequency. An envelope-tracking operation delivers high efficiency for the overall power. The linearity is improved by envelope tracking (ET) through intermodulation-distortion sweet-spot tracking at the maximum output power level. The efficiency and bandwidth (BW) are enhanced by a boosted supply modulator. Multimode operation is achieved by an ET technique with a programmable hysteresis control and automatic switching current adaptation of the hybrid supply modulator. For demonstration purpose, the PA and supply modulator are implemented using an InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor and a 65-nm CMOS process. For a long-term evolution signal, the envelope-tracking (ET) PA delivers a power-added efficiency (PAE) and an error vector magnitude of 33.3%-39% and 2.5%-3.5%, respectively, at an average power of 27.8 dBm across 1.7-2 GHz. For a wideband code-division multiple-access signal across 1.7-2 GHz, the ET PA performs a PAE, an ACLR1, and an ACLR2 of 40%-46.3%, from -39 to -42.5 dBc, and -51 to -58 dBc, respectively, at an average output power of 30.1 dBm. The ET PA with an EDGE signal delivers a PAE, an ACPR1, and an ACPR2 of 37%-42%, from -56.5 to -59.3 dBc, and -63.5 to -69.5 dBc, respectively, at an average power of 28 dBm across the 300-MHz BW. These results show that the proposed design achieves highly efficient and linear power amplification for multimode/multiband wireless communication applications. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Space-Charge Plane-Wave Interaction at Semiconductor Substrate Boundary

    Page(s): 2609 - 2618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical investigation of space-charge plane-wave interaction at dielectric-semiconductor interfaces is presented. A full-wave and charge transport formulation is applied to the analysis of the fundamental mode of propagation in a semiconductor substrate backed with a ground plane. Closed-form expressions for the field components, charge carrier density, and current density are obtained. The reflection coefficients for both H- and E-polarized incident waves were then derived from the field solutions. The interaction between the fields and charge carriers causes a charge accumulation at the semiconductor surface in the case of H-polarization. The effects of the charge accumulation on the reflection coefficient are accounted for. Results indicate that the space charge exerts a weak effect on the reflection coefficient and a strong screening effect on the normal component of the electric field. The tangential component, however, is mainly governed by energy dissipation effect resulting from the conduction current. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full-Space Scanning Periodic Phase-Reversal Leaky-Wave Antenna

    Page(s): 2619 - 2632
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel full-space scanning periodic phase-reversal leaky-wave antenna array is proposed, designed in offset parallel stripline technology, and demonstrated experimentally. This antenna radiates from its small phase-reversing cross-overs, which leads to a small leakage factor and subsequently a large directivity. The operation principle of the antenna is explained from the Brillouin diagram, which shows how single-beam scanning, using the m = -1 space harmonic, is achieved as a result of the π lateral shift of the dispersion curves due to phase reversal. One of the benefits of phase reversal is to permit this radiation performance with relatively small permittivity substrates (εe,min = 4 compared to εe,min = 9 for antennas without phase reversal). An unitcell matching technique is applied to avoid reflections, and thereby prevent the presence of an open stopband so as to permit continuous space scanning with efficient broadside radiation. An efficient array synthesis procedure, based on a transmission line modeling of the structure, is utilized for the design of the antenna following specifications in terms of frequency, scanning, directivity, radiation efficiency, and sidelobe level. A uniform-aperture antenna prototype, including a balun-transformer input transition, is presented, featuring experimental beamwidth and gain at the broadside frequency (25 GHz) of 4° and 15.7 dBi, respectively. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Eliminating the Low-Frequency Breakdown Problem in 3-D Full-Wave Finite-Element-Based Analysis of Integrated Circuits

    Page(s): 2633 - 2645
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An effective method is developed in this work to extend the validity of a full-wave finite-element-based solution down to dc for general 3-D problems. In this method, we accurately decompose the Maxwell's system at low frequencies into two subsystems in the framework of a full-wave-based solution. One has an analytical frequency dependence, whereas the other can be solved at frequencies as low as dc. Thus, we bypass the numerical difficulty of solving a highly ill-conditioned and even singular system at low frequencies. In addition, we provide a theoretical analysis on the conditioning of the matrices of the original coupled Maxwell's system and the decomposed system. We show that the decomposed system is well conditioned, and also positive definite at dc. The validity and accuracy of the proposed method have been demonstrated by extraction of state-of-the-art on-chip integrated circuits at frequencies as low as dc. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Unique Extraction of Metamaterial Parameters Based on Kramers–Kronig Relationship

    Page(s): 2646 - 2653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an improved algorithm for extracting the effective constitutive parameters of a metamaterial is derived. The procedure invokes the Kramers-Kronig relations to ensure the uniqueness of the solution. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by retrieving the effective material parameters of a homogeneous slab. This study reveals under which conditions the calculation of the refractive index involves more than one branch of the complex logarithmic function. A metamaterial built up from wires and split-ring resonators is then investigated. The applicability and limits of the presented algorithm are explored by observing how the effective parameters of a metamaterial slab converge as its thickness is increased. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Substrate-Integrated Evanescent-Mode Waveguide Filter With Nonresonating Node in Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic

    Page(s): 2654 - 2662
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A cross-coupled substrate-integrated evanescent-mode waveguide filter is proposed with a quasi-elliptic frequency response. It is realized with a coplanar waveguide as a nonresonating node to provide an equivalent negative coupling coefficient. The filter prototype is developed with folded and ridge substrate-integrated waveguides (SIWs) in low-temperature co-fired ceramic. Since evanescent-mode and cross-coupling techniques are used in the design of filters, about 90% area reduction and more than 60% volume reduction are achieved, in comparison with conventional planar cavity-coupled SIW filters. Their unloaded Q factor is also improved. In particular, the spurious suppression characteristic of the direct-coupled evanescent-mode waveguide filter is kept by the cross-coupled filter with the nonresonating node structure. All these merits are demonstrated numerically, as well as experimentally, with good agreement obtained between the measured and simulated S-parameters. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • De-Embedding Method Using an Electromagnetic Simulator for Characterization of Transistors in the Millimeter-Wave Band

    Page(s): 2663 - 2672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A de-embedding method using an electromagnetic (EM) simulator is proposed to extract field-effect transistor (FET) characteristics from FET test-pattern measurements. In the proposed method, the S-parameters of the parasitic circuit are analyzed using the EM simulator. Hybrid S/Z-parameters, converted from S-parameters, are used for the parasitic circuit to express waveguide ports with S-parameters and lumped-element ports with Z-parameters. The proposed method requires a high accuracy of the EM simulator; this method was verified by comparing calculated and measured frequency characteristics of the S-parameters of an open/short-pattern. It was shown numerically that the proposed de-embedding method has a better accuracy than the conventional method, which uses the open/short-pattern. For example, the extraction error is below 5% up to 75 GHz for the proposed method and a 5% error is exceeded around 30 GHz for the conventional method. The dominant error factor in the conventional de-embedding method using the open/short-pattern was investigated. It was established that the approximation of the parasitic circuit by an equivalent circuit topology is the cause of the error. The extraction of the FET characteristics by measured data is demonstrated and it is shown that the proposed method can be applied to extract active devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Temperature Dependence of Resonances in Metamaterials

    Page(s): 2673 - 2681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Metamaterials are increasingly being proposed for many different microwave applications. Metamaterials are highly resonant structures and metamaterial device design is based on the resonance frequency for both civilian and military applications. These applications are often in a high-temperature environment. In this paper, we have performed an experimental study of the shift in resonance frequency of selected metamaterials (split-ring resonators and thin wires) in the 25°C -400°C range using FR4 and low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrates. We have provided a theoretical explanation for the observed shift in resonance frequency by calculating the shift in frequency resulting from the temperature dependence of the substrate permittivity and electrical conductivity of the metal, as well as thermal expansion of the metallo-dielectric structures comprising the metamaterial. The measured downward shift of the resonance frequency with increasing temperature agrees very well with full-wave finite-element simulation. It is found that the change of permittivity of the substrate is the primary effect, while the thermal expansion of the metallic structure is a secondary effect. The reducing resonance strength is due to the decrease in electrical conductivity with rising temperature. This study can be applied to other metamaterial metallo-dielectric structures or other planar microwave resonators printed on dielectric substrates. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Whispering Gallery Mode Hemisphere Dielectric Resonators With Impedance Plane

    Page(s): 2682 - 2691
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrodynamic characteristics of a high-Q dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator in the form of a hemisphere positioned on an impedance plane were studied. The analysis of the anisotropic resonator was modeled using Maxwell equations and the impedance Leontovich boundary condition. The interaction coefficient ASj of the conductor and microwave field was determined using a frequency and field distribution of the j-type mode in the hemisphere resonator considering a perfect conducting plane. Results of the theoretical study and experimental measurements of the Teflon resonator frequency spectrum and Q factor are in good agreement. The results obtained are confirmed by calculations using Microwave Studio CST 2008. In the case of the sapphire hemispherical resonator with an impedance plane, comparison of the experimental and simulation results allows us to identify the H -type modes in the resonator and their electromagnetic field distribution. In such anisotropic hemisphere resonators, the quasi-TE modes are revealed. The modes are excited together with TE modes inherent to the isotropic resonator and they have an identical distribution of electromagnetic field. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • High-Reliability RF-MEMS Switched Capacitors With Digital and Analog Tuning Characteristics

    Page(s): 2692 - 2701
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an RF microelectromechanical system switched-capacitor suitable for tunable filters and reconfigurable networks. The switched-capacitor results in a digital capacitance ratio of 5 and an analog capacitance ratio of 5-9. The analog tuning of the down-state capacitance is enhanced by a positive vertical stress gradient in the the beam, making it ideal for applications that require precision tuning. A thick electroplated beam (4-4.5 μm) results in Q greater than 100 at C-X-band frequencies, switching times of 30-50 μs, and power handling of 0.6-1.1 W. The design also minimizes charging in the dielectric, resulting in excellent reliability performance even under hot-switched and high-power (1 W) conditions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Considerations for Developing an RF Exposure System: A Review for in vitro Biological Experiments

    Page(s): 2702 - 2714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a detailed review and classification of exposure systems used in RF in vitro research from 1999 up to 2009. Since different endpoints and protocols are used in bioelectromagnetics studies, exposure systems cannot be standardized. However, a standardized procedure to achieve the optimum design of the exposure system is suggested. Following this procedure will lead to a known dose distribution within the biological sample and allow a better comparison with other in vitro studies. In addition, the quality of the study will be such that it will be more likely to be included in assessment procedures such as health-risk assessments. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Information for authors

    Page(s): 2715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on radio-frequency nanoelectronics

    Page(s): 2716
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Information

    Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org