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Semiconductor Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Wafer Sort Bitmap Data Analysis Using the PCA-Based Approach for Yield Analysis and Optimization

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 493 - 502
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1998 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Yield analysis is one of the most important subjects in IC companies. During the initial stage of new process development, several factors can greatly impact the yield simultaneously. Traditionally, several learning cycle iterations are required to solve yield loss issues. This paper describes a novel way to diagnose yield loss issues in less iteration. First, the failure classification of bitmap data is transferred to a new basis using principal component analysis. Second, the defective rates are calculated and the original bitmap data is reconstructed in the principal basis, allowing the yield loss space to be generated by Cluster Analysis. Third, physical failure analysis samples can be selected to solve yield loss issues. Furthermore, the new yield loss basis can be used to monitor the progress of yield improvement as a discriminate analysis measure for reducing failure patterns (bitmap failures). View full abstract»

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  • A General Procedure for Process Yield With Multiple Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 503 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (111 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a general procedure for evaluating the process yield with multiple characteristics in semiconductor manufacturing processes. The proposed process yield indices can be applied for multivariate normal distribution data or multivariate non-normal distribution data. These indices provide an exact measure of the overall process yield. Also, we show how to calculate the approximate lower confidence bound for the true process yield by using the one-to-one correspondence between the proposed process yield index and the overall process yield. Three examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that our procedure for evaluating the process yield with multiple characteristics is an effective approach. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Simulation of Static Noise Margin Variability in Static Random Access Memory

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 509 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we examine the impact of random-dopant-fluctuation (RDF), process-variation-effect (PVE), and workfunction-fluctuation (WKF), on 16-nm-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) static random access memory (SRAM) cells. For planar MOSFETs with a threshold voltage of 140 mV, the nominal static noise margin (SNM) of six-transistor (6T)-SRAM with unitary cell ratio (CR) is only 20 mV; and the normalized SNM fluctuations (SNM) induced by RDF, PVE, and WKF are 80%, 31%, and 48%, respectively, which may damage SRAM's operation. Two improvement approaches are further implemented; first, eight-transistor (8T)-SRAM and 6T-SRAM with increased CR are examined. Compared with the conventional 6T-SRAM, under the same , the SNM of 8T-SRAM is enlarged to 233 mV and the corresponding RDF, PVE, and WKF-induced SNM are reduced to 9.5%, 6.4%, and 7%, respectively, at a cost of 30% extra chip area. Without increasing chip area, device with raised , doping profile engineering and using silicon-on-insulator fin-type field-effect transistors (SOI FinFETs) are further advanced. The 6T SOI FinFETs SRAM exhibits the smallest , with merely 5.3%, 1.2%, and 2.3%, resulting from RDF, PVE, and WKF, respectively, where the value of SNM is equal to 125 mV. View full abstract»

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  • Generating Cycle Time-Throughput Curves Using Effective Process Time Based Aggregate Modeling

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 517 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In semiconductor manufacturing, cycle time-throughput (CT-TH) curves are often used for planning purposes. To generate CT-TH curves, detailed simulation models or analytical queueing approximations may be used. Detailed models require much development time and computational effort. On the contrary, analytical models, such as the popular closed-form queueing expression, may not be sufficiently accurate, in particular, for integrated processing equipment that have wafers of more than one lot in process. Recently, an aggregate simulation model representation of workstations with integrated processing equipment has been proposed. This aggregate model is a type of system with a workload-dependent process time distribution, which is obtained from lot arrival and departure events. This paper presents a first proof of concept of the method in semiconductor practice. We develop the required extensions to generate CT-TH curves for workstations in a semiconductor manufacturing environment where usually only a limited amount of arrival and departure data is available. We present a simulation and an industry case to illustrate the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • An Interval-Based Metamodeling Approach to Simulate Material Handling in Semiconductor Wafer Fabs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 527 - 537
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new efficient metamodeling approach as a simulation platform to estimate the performance of automated material handling systems (AMHS) in a much shorter execution time. Our new mechanism is based on imprecise probabilities, in which the simulation model parameters are represented as intervals to incorporate unknown dependency relationships as total uncertainties. The interval-based metamodel provides reasonably accurate and fast estimates of the performance measures of interest. The performance measures from the interval-based simulation are represented as intervals that enclose the traditional real-valued simulation estimates. Using the SEMATECH virtual fab as a test bed, the metamodel of the wafer fab AMHS is implemented in JSim, a java-based discrete-event simulation environment, and the results are compared to the detailed large-scale simulation model to investigate the validity of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Stress Analysis and Junction Leakage of Sub-Melt Laser Annealed SiGe Epitaxial Layers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 538 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the different post-epi process steps on the stress behavior of epitaxially grown Si1-x-Gex layers on Si substrates and the subsequent defectivity and device leakage. Stress measurements were performed by the in-line monitoring laser reflectance method to further investigate the intrinsic film stress dependence on the ion implantation conditions (atom size, depth of the implant, and dose) and the laser scan energy beam conditions during dopant activation (temperature, dwell time, and power). Moreover, the role of the millisecond laser anneal conditions on the area leakage current of embedded SiGe source/drain junctions is discussed. The analysis is complemented with structural characterization based on Nomarski microscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Pre-Amorphized Layer Thickness and Interface Quality of High-Dose Shallow Implanted Silicon by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 545 - 552
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have applied spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) to measure pre-amorphized layer thickness and interface quality of high-dose shallow implanted silicon as a non-destructive, in line implant monitoring technique. The thickness of pre-amorphized layers formed under various ion implantation conditions was estimated by SE, high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and the values from the different techniques were compared. The amorphized layer thickness measured by SE showed larger thickness values than those from other techniques, implying the thickness estimated by SE includes the thickness of the heavily-damaged region near the amorphous-crystal interface where “end of range” defects exist. The thickness of the amorphous layer and heavily-damaged interface layer formed by helium in plasma doping and shallow junction implantation can be monitored by in line SE. View full abstract»

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  • Al–Cu Pattern Wafer Study on Metal Corrosion Due to Chloride Ion Contaminants

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 553 - 558
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chloride ions in the cleanroom environment induce metal corrosion of integrated circuits, and cause wafer scrap events. In this paper, pattern wafers were designed to monitor critical concentration which leads to metal corrosion effects in a simulated airborne molecular contamination (AMC) environment. The simulated contamination environment was established by placing different numbers of preventive maintenance (PM) wipers in wafer pods and monitored simultaneously by ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) and chromatography (IC) instruments. The exposed Al-Cu pattern wafers were analyzed by the KLA surface scanner and the scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyzer. The results indicate that the IMS and the instruments provide consistent HCl monitoring data. Furthermore, they suggest that pattern wafer exposure tests can be an effective method to monitor metal corrosion. The PM wipers are a simple and effective method to establish simulated source of HCl for studying the AMC effect in ppbv levels. The critical HCl concentration where particles could be found on the wafer surface is around 2.0-3.5 ppbv, and the critical HCl concentration that results in metal corrosion defects is around 4.1-6.4 ppbv. View full abstract»

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  • 41st IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC 2010)

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 559
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  • Call for Nominations 2011 IEEE EDS Masters Student Fellowship

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 560
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  • 2010 Index IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing Vol. 23

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 561 - 570
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  • IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing addresses the challenging problems of manufacturing complex microelectronic components.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief

Anthony Muscat
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Harshbarger Bldg., Room 134
1133 E. James Rogers Way
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ  85721