By Topic

Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 8 • Date October 2010

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Staff list]

    Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (66 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scaling The Internet Routing System: An Interim Report

    Page(s): 1233 - 1237
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Evolution of Internet Address Space Deaggregation: Myths and Reality

    Page(s): 1238 - 1249
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Internet routing table size growth and BGP update churn are two prominent Internet scaling issues. There is widespread belief in a high and fast growing number of ASs that deaggregate prefixes, e.g., due to multi-homing and for the purpose of traffic engineering. Moreover, researchers often blame specific classes of ASs for generating a disproportionate amount of BGP updates. Our primary objective is to challenge such widespread assumptions (“myths”) and not solely to confirm previous findings. Surprisingly, we find severe discrepancies between existing myths and reality. According to our results, there is no trend towards more aggressive prefix deaggregation or traffic engineering over time. With respect to update dynamics, we observe that deaggregated prefixes generally do not generate a disproportionate number of BGP updates, with respect to their share of the BGP routing table. On the other side, we observe much more widespread traffic engineering in the form of AS path prepending and scoped advertisements compared to previous studies. Overall, our work gives a far more positive picture compared to the alarming discourses typically heard: The impact of “bad guys” on routing table size growth and BGP churn has not changed for the worse in recent years. Rather, it increases at the same pace as the Internet itself. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the Scalability of BGP: The Role of Topology Growth

    Page(s): 1250 - 1261
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The scalability of BGP routing is a major concern for the Internet community. Scalability is an issue in two different aspects: increasing routing table size, and increasing rate of BGP updates. In this paper, we focus on the latter. Our objective is to characterize the churn increase experienced by ASes in different levels of the Internet hierarchy as the network grows. We look at several "what-if" growth scenarios that are either plausible directions in the evolution of the Internet or educational corner cases, and investigate their scalability implications and interaction with different failure types. Our findings explain the dramatically different impact of multihoming and peering on BGP scalability, highlight negative and positive effects of multihoming on churn and reachability, and identify which topological growth scenarios will lead to faster churn increase for different failure types. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Routing Scalability: An Operator's View

    Page(s): 1262 - 1270
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1649 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet and its associated global routing table continues to grow with time. Will the current routing infrastructure be able to scale itself to sustain such growth? Over the past several years, many efforts have been devoted to address this important question. This paper presents a unique view from a network operator's perspective. We first clarify the definition of the routing scaling problem in practical terms by providing the relevant background information. We point out several reality issues that, if overlooked, may impede the adoption and deployment of a solution. Based on our operational experiences, we identify several requirements for potential solutions, and provide brief comments on the existing solutions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Technique for Reducing BGP Update Announcements through Path Exploration Damping

    Page(s): 1271 - 1286
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper defines and evaluates Path Exploration Damping (PED) - a router-level mechanism for reducing the volume of propagation of likely transient update messages within a BGP network and decreasing average time to restore reachability compared to current BGP Update damping practices. PED selectively delays and suppresses the propagation of BGP updates that either lengthen an existing AS Path or vary an existing AS Path without shortening its length. We show how PED impacts on convergence time compared to currently deployed mechanisms like Route Flap Damping (RFD), Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) and Withdrawal Rate Limiting (WRATE). We replay Internet BGP update traffic captured at two Autonomous Systems to observe that a PED-enabled BGP speaker can reduce the total number of BGP announcements by up to 32% and reduce Path Exploration by 77% compared to conventional use of MRAI. We also describe how PED can be incrementally deployed in the Internet, as it interacts well with prevailing MRAI deployment, and enables restoration of reachability more quickly than MRAI. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rate Limiting in an Event-Driven BGP Speaker

    Page(s): 1287 - 1298
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Implementing BGP route processing in an event-driven manner appears to be advantageous in terms of scalability. However, the inter-domain routing system as a whole would be overwhelmed without some type of rate limiting on BGP update streams. At first glace, an event-driven, pipelined route processing model does not seem to fit well with the traditional timer-based way of implementing BGP rate-limiting. In this paper we present a lazy event-driven BGP route processing pipeline that easily accommodates rate limiting. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • BGP Add-Paths: The Scaling/Performance Tradeoffs

    Page(s): 1299 - 1307
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Internet Service Providers design their network with resiliency in mind, having multiple paths towards external IP subnets available at the borders of their network. However, with the current internal Border Gateway Protocol, BGP routers and route reflectors only propagate their (unique) best path over their iBGP sessions. As a result, at the BGP router level, path diversity tends to be poor. Such lack of path diversity can lead to MED oscillations, prevents an efficient use of multipath BGP and does not allow for a fast and local recovery upon nexthop failure. Advertising multiple paths over iBGP sessions with BGP Add-Paths solves those issues, depending on the way the additional paths are selected. In this paper, we analyze the various options for the selection mode of the paths to be advertised. We show that these modes differently fulfill the needs of Add-Paths applications such as fast recovery upon failure and MED oscillation avoidance. We also show in our analysis that the costs and benefits bound with these modes depend on the connectivity of the AS where it is deployed. To support the analysis, we developed a tool allowing to measure the scaling of these modes in a given network. We illustrate the utilization of this tool on synthetic Internet topologies, and provide some recommendations for the choice of an Add-Paths selection mode. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Keychain-Based Signatures for Securing BGP

    Page(s): 1308 - 1318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As a major component of Internet routing infrastructure, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is vulnerable to malicious attacks. While Secure BGP (S-BGP) provides a comprehensive framework to secure BGP, its high computational cost and low incremental deployment benefits seriously impede its wide usage in practice. Using a lightweight symmetric signature scheme, SPV is much faster than S-BGP. However, the speed boost comes at the price of prohibitively large signatures. Aggregated path authentication reduces the overhead of securing BGP in terms of both time and space, but the speed improvement is still limited by public key computation. In this paper, we propose a keychain-based signature scheme called KC-x. It has low CPU and memory overheads and provides strong incentive for incremental deployment on the Internet. As a generic framework, KC-x has the flexibility of using different signature algorithms, which can even co-exist in a hybrid deployment. We investigate two implementations of KC-x: KC-RSA based on RSA and KC-MT based on Merkle hash tree. Using real BGP workloads, our experimental results show that KC-RSA is as efficient as SAS-V (the most efficient software approach for aggregated path authentication), and KC-MT is even three times faster than SPV with 40% smaller signatures. Through the hybrid deployment of KC-MT and KC-RSA, KC-x can achieve both small signature and high processing rate for BGP speakers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evolving the Internet Architecture Through Naming

    Page(s): 1319 - 1325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Challenges face the Internet Architecture in order to scale to a greater number of users while providing a suite of increasingly essential functionality, such as multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security. Such functions have been designed and implemented mainly in isolation and retrofitted to the original Internet architecture. The resulting engineering complexity has caused some to think of 'clean slate' designs for the long-term future. Meanwhile, we take the position that an evolutionary approach is possible for a practical and scaleable interim solution, giving much of the functionality required, being backwards compatible with the currently deployed architecture, with incremental deployment capability, and which can reduce the current routing state overhead for the core network. By enhancing the way we use naming in the Internet Architecture, it is possible to provide a harmonised approach to multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security, including specific improvement to the scalability of inter-domain routing, and have these functions co-exist harmoniously with reduced engineering complexity. A set of proposed enhancements to the current Internet Architecture, based on naming, are described and analysed, both in terms of architectural changes and engineering practicalities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • FIRMS: A Mapping System for Future Internet Routing

    Page(s): 1326 - 1331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1690 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The locator/identifier split is a design principle for new routing architectures that make Internet routing more scalable. To find the location of a host, it requires a mapping system that returns appropriate locators in response to map-requests for specific identifiers. In this paper, we propose FIRMS, a "Future Internet Routing Mapping System". It is fast, scalable, reliable, secure, and it is able to relay initial packets. We introduce its design, show how it deals with partial failures, explain its security concept, and evaluate its scalability. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • LISP-TREE: A DNS Hierarchy to Support the LISP Mapping System

    Page(s): 1332 - 1343
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the last years, some operators have expressed concerns about the continued growth of the BGP routing tables in the default-free zone. Several proposed solutions for this issue are centered around the idea of separating the network node's identifier from its topological location. Among the existing proposals, the Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) has seen important development and implementation effort. LISP relies on a mapping system to provide bindings between locators and identifiers. The mapping system is a critical protocol component, and its design is still an open issue. In this paper we present a new mapping system: LISP-TREE. It is based on DNS and has a similar hierarchical topology: blocks of identifiers are assigned to the levels of the hierarchy by following the current IP address allocation policies. We also present measurement-driven simulations of mapping systems' performance, assuming a deployment of LISP in the current Internet. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • MILSA: A New Evolutionary Architecture for Scalability, Mobility, and Multihoming in the Future Internet

    Page(s): 1344 - 1362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2056 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many challenges to the Internet including global routing scalability have drawn significant attention from both industry and academia, and have generated several new ideas for the next generation. MILSA (Mobility and Multihoming supporting Identifier Locator Split Architecture) and related enhancements are designed to address the naming, addressing, and routing scalability challenges, provide mobility and multihoming support, and easy transition from the current Internet. In this paper, we synthesize our research into a multiple-tier realm-based framework and present the fundamental principles behind the architecture. Through detailed presentation of these principles and different aspects of our architecture, the underlying design rationale is justified. We also discuss how our proposal can meet the IRTF RRG design goals. As an evolutionary architecture, MILSA balances the high-level long-run architecture design with ease of transition considerations. Additionally, detailed evaluation of the current inter-domain routing system and the achievable improvements deploying our architecture is presented that reveals the roots of the current difficulties and helps to shape our deployment strategy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evolution Towards Global Routing Scalability

    Page(s): 1363 - 1375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Internet routing tables have been growing rapidly due to factors such as edge-site multihoming, traffic engineering, and disjoint address allocations. To address the routing scalability problems caused by this rapid growth, we propose an evolutionary approach that is incrementally deployable and provides immediate benefits to any adopting ASes. The basic premise of the approach is that route aggregation removes from routing tables the unnecessary topological details about remote portions of the Internet. We demonstrate that aggregation can be applied incrementally starting from local scopes within individual routers and individual ASes, and gradually expanded to the global Internet scope. The evaluation studies show that route aggregation is effective in addressing FIB scalability problems within a router and within a network. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Call for Papers

    Page(s): 1376
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Staff list]

    Page(s): c3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT