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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1678
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Toward High Net Velocities in AC Electroosmotic Micropumps Based on Asymmetric Coplanar Electrodes

    Page(s): 1679 - 1691
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The most frequently studied ac electroosmotic micropumps exploit the coplanar asymmetric arrangements of the forcing electrodes. We analyze these systems by means of the following two mathematical models: 1) the classical slip model, which is based on a capacitor-resistor representation of the spatial domain, and 2) the nonslip model, which is based on the Poisson-Navier-Stokes-Nernst-Planck approach to the entire domain, including the electric double layers. Both the models predict similar results in many low-amplitude regimes. However, the nonslip model gives us a much better insight on the high-amplitude (nonlinear) behavior of the micropumps. Our most important findings obtained by the nonslip model can be summarized as follows: 1) There are optimal values of the electrode and gap size ratios that are generally different from those obtained by the slip model; 2) the micropump performance is relatively insensitive with respect to the electrode size ratio; 3) there is an optimal vertical confinement that enables us to attain high net velocities; 4) flow reversals on frequency, amplitude, and certain geometry characteristics are observed; 5) the energy efficiency of these pumps is very low; and 6) the Joule heating effect is negligible. The nonslip model characteristics are also discussed to explain the observed differences between predictions of the models. Convergence analysis dealing with the precision of numerical results obtained by the nonslip model is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Additive Effect of Water on the Decomposition of VOCs in Nonthermal Plasma

    Page(s): 1692 - 1698
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    In the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with nonthermal plasma (NTP), the additive effect of water on VOC decomposition is an important issue to be solved since water is contained in VOC exhausts. Although there have been disputed discussions on the additive effect of water on the decomposition of VOCs in NTP, a unified mechanism has not been established yet. Therefore, the additive effect of water on the NTP decomposition of dichloromethane, toluene, and methanol was studied in the range of water content from 0.0% to 2.0% at 298 K and 373 K. Consequently, no rate-promoting effect of water has been observed in the conversion of dichloromethane, toluene, or methanol from 0.5% to 2.0% of water content, and water addition increased CO2 selectivity and improved carbon balance to different degrees, depending on the chemical structures of these VOCs at 298 K. These findings suggest that the precursors of CO and CO2 are different from each other, that their selectivities are affected by VOC chemical structure and reaction conditions, and that the direct enhancement of the chemical interaction between nonvolatile reaction intermediates and water promoted COx formation. Moreover, it has been shown that the VOC chemical structure affects the synergistic effects of water addition and temperature increase on CO2 selectivities. View full abstract»

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  • FEM–FCT-Based Dynamic Simulation of Corona Discharge in Point–Plane Configuration

    Page(s): 1699 - 1706
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    In this paper, a numerical algorithm for the simulation of the dynamic corona discharge in air is proposed assuming single-species charge carriers. The simulation results show the behavior of corona current and space-charge density under two waveforms of the applied voltage: step and pulse. The electric field is calculated by means of the finite-element method, and the flux-corrected transport technique is utilized for the space-charge-density calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Characteristics of Pilot-Scale Indirect Plasma and Chemical System Used for the Removal of \hbox {NO}_{\rm x} From Boiler Emission

    Page(s): 1707 - 1714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The process of removing NOx from the flue gas emitted from a smoke-tube boiler was investigated using an ozonizer, which is used for carrying out the indirect oxidation of NO, and a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. The flow rate of the flue gas was in the range of 410 - 1480 N·m3/h, its temperature was in the range of 185°C- 325°C, and the concentration of NOx was approximately 40 ppm during the combustion of city gas. Operational and performance data were obtained from the experiments. The efficiency of the NOx removal process was clearly dependent on the oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and it increased with a decrease in the ORP of the scrubbing solution. To effectively remove the requisite amount of NOx, it is essential to maintain the ORP by controlling the injection rates of the Na2SO3 solution and maintaining an ORP of less than 0 mV and the rate of change in ORP to less than 0 mV/min. More than 4 kg/h of Na2SO3 must be added to the scrubber in order to sustain the aforementioned ORP condition of the scrubbing solution. The amount of NOx emitted from the flue gas was maintained as less than 4 ppm at a flue gas flow rate of 410 N ·m3/ h during a 300-min continuous system operation by maintaining an ORP of -30 mV and a pH of more than 7.8 for the scrubbing solution. View full abstract»

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  • Preparation of PTFE Film With Adhesive Surface Treated by Atmospheric-Pressure Nonthermal Plasma Graft Polymerization

    Page(s): 1715 - 1721
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    A surface modification technique that improves the adhesion of fluorocarbon polymer films such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), perfluoroalkoxy fluoroplastics, and polychlorotrifluoroethylene is developed using argon at atmospheric pressure and acrylic acid vapor nonthermal plasma. The results of the T-type peeling test show that the peeling strength of the treated PTFE film is approximately 70 times greater than that of the untreated film. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope analyses, it is confirmed that chemical bonds with F atoms decrease greatly on the surface and that a hydrophilic layer is formed due to the plasma graft polymerization process. Using the present surface treatment apparatus, it is possible to bond A4-sized sheets of PTFE and metals without losing the excellent physical properties of PTFE. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement in \hbox {NO}_{\rm x} Removal Performance of the Pilot-Scale Boiler Emission Control System Using an Indirect Plasma–Chemical Process

    Page(s): 1722 - 1729
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NOx removal from the flue gas of a smoke tube boiler using an ozonizer for NO oxidation and a Na2SO3 aqueous solution scrubber (diameter: 0.6 m; height: 3.7 m) was investigated. In this paper, in order to determine the correlation NOx removal performance, the height of the packing material layer in the scrubber was varied from 2.1 to 0 m. The performance tests were carried out using both a compressed natural gas (CNG) and a heavy oil. The flue gas flow rates were in the range of 455-1440 Nm3/h under CNG firing and 675-1330 Nm3/h under heavy oil firing, and the boiler NOx emission concentrations were approximately 40 and 100 ppm, respectively. A total packing height of 0.75 m resulted in NOx removal efficiencies of 70% and 60% for CNG and heavy oil, respectively. Moreover, the Na2SO3 consumption rate at 0.75 m was 10%-20% less than that at 1.2 m, although the NOx removal efficiency was nearly the same. The correlation between the NOx removal performance and the gas retention time in the scrubber was obtained, providing the design information of the scrubber for industrial applications. View full abstract»

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  • Penta-Phase Series-Parallel LC_{s}{C}_{p} Resonant Inverter to Drive 1-kW HPS Lamps

    Page(s): 1730 - 1739
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    This paper presents the analysis and design of a new configuration of a resonant inverter suitable for high-pressure sodium lamp ballast applications. The proposed inverter is the result of the parallel connection of five class D LCsCp resonant inverters. Since the load current is shared among five equal sections, the circuit is able to drive lamps over 1 kW using low-cost power MOSFETs and achieves better efficiency than single class D solutions due to the reduction of the conduction losses. The regulation is implemented at constant frequency, modifying the phase displacement of the output voltage of one inverter section with respect to the others. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of the Emission of a High-Pressure Sodium Lamp Working at 50 Hz and at High Frequency

    Page(s): 1740 - 1745
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A spectroscopic study of the behavior of a high-pressure sodium (Na) lamp is performed in this paper. The lamp works at 50 Hz and high frequencies. The study includes the analysis of the detected spectra from 400 to 700 nm, the determination of the lamp stabilization time, the Na vapor pressure, and the electronic excitation temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • A New Flicker Contribution Tracing Method Based on Individual Reactive Current Components of Multiple EAFs at PCC

    Page(s): 1746 - 1754
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    In this paper, a new flicker contribution tracing method has been proposed to determine the individual flicker contributions of multiple-electric-arc-furnace (EAF) loads to the flicker measured at the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed method decouples the flicker contribution of the interconnected electricity system from the individual contributions of the loads connected to the measured PCC, using the individual current variations of the loads, and the estimated short-circuit system impedance. It has been shown that the individual flicker contributions of the loads are mainly caused by the variation of their reactive current components. Since the computational complexity of the proposed method is low, it is appropriate for online applications. The algorithm can easily be embedded on a power quality analyzer, which can be employed as a flicker contribution meter. Field data collected at a PCC supplying multi-EAF plants have been used to verify the validity of the proposed method in a successful manner. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Power Quality Measurements From a Conventional AC Dragline

    Page(s): 1755 - 1763
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A typical mining facility uses excavation machines like shovels, draglines, etc., for removing overburden and ores during the mining process. These machines are characterized by cyclic loads consisting of high peak power demands as well as regeneration phases. The peak power demand is often as high as 1.6 times the average demand. This kind of a load leads to voltage fluctuations, harmonics, power factor issues, etc., at the main substation. This paper shows that superior results are now achievable with Siemens AC mining drive control system for draglines. By utilizing staggered pulsewidth modulation pulsing and operating the drive with leading power factor, the voltage fluctuation and line-side harmonics are regulated. The data presented in this paper are from an actual operational ac dragline that is now under production. View full abstract»

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  • System for the Measurement of Cathodic Currents in Electrorefining Processes That Employ Multicircuital Technology

    Page(s): 1764 - 1768
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a measurement system of cathodic currents for copper electrorefining processes using multicircuital technology with optibar intercell bars. The proposed system is based on current estimation using 55 magnetic field sensors per intercell bar. Current values are sampled and stored every 5 min for seven days in a compatible SQL database. The method does not affect the normal operation of the process and does not require any structural modifications. The system for online measurement of 40 cells involving 2090 sensors is in operation in an electrorefinery site. View full abstract»

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  • Beyond IEEE Std 115 and API 546: Test Procedures for High-Speed Multimegawatt Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Page(s): 1769 - 1777
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    High-speed multimegawatt permanent-magnet (PM) machines have been proposed in the literature and offered for sale in a variety of petrochemical applications. Presently, the discussion of synchronous machines in both the IEEE Std 115 and American Petroleum Institute 546 excludes the consideration of PM synchronous machines. These machines pose special problems when attempting to apply the test procedures given for the wound-field synchronous machines in that many of the tests rely on the ability to adjust the field strength. In addition, a PM-rotor topology has different performance and robustness concerns than a wound-field machine, and those should be addressed. This paper attempts to outline a coherent method for evaluating high-speed PM machines by extending the test procedures outlined in IEEE Std 115 and presenting additional procedures specific to PM machines. Extended application guidelines will be discussed for high-speed multimegawatt machines. The differences between the risk profiles for the PM and wound-field machines will be highlighted with a particular emphasis on the risk mitigation via tests for the PM machine. View full abstract»

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  • The Second Electronic Revolution (It's All About Control)

    Page(s): 1778 - 1786
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    Systems for ships, offshore platforms, chemical plants, foundries, and utilities are rapidly changing as a result of the second electronic revolution. The first revolution was with integrated circuits which gave us the microprocessor, PCs, cell phones, and MP3 players. The second electronic revolution started with power electronics, which give us motor controllers, switching power supplies, hybrid cars, and electric ships. Just as the first electronic revolution changed our concepts of information, the second electronic revolution is redefining control. This paper discusses these changes and the opportunities enabled by new technologies and levels of control. Most notably, this paper provides a logical argument for future controller abilities to control any system to near perfection-accurately, precisely, reliably, and safely. This paper also proposes the use of building block concepts with modeling and simulation to create new tools and methods for designing and building power systems. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Thermal Network on Determining the Temperature Distribution Inside Electric Motors in Steady-State and Dynamic Conditions

    Page(s): 1787 - 1795
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper outlines a set of useful calculations and design guidelines for motor temperature rise prediction. The steady-state analysis is presented, allowing a general view about the expected temperature rise in the stator winding. For transient conditions, the starting and stall phenomena are modeled considering the factors that are often neglected: the skin effect and the heat exchange from the bars to the tooth. The end ring temperature rise is assessed. The accurate temperature rise calculation is critical for several reasons: to control the peak temperature for hazardous locations, to predict the fatigue under the heating-up and cooling-down processes, to calculate the number of consecutive starts, and to establish a safe stall time. View full abstract»

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  • Transient-Voltage Aspects of Grounding

    Page(s): 1796 - 1804
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Lightning damages millions of dollars of electrical equipment each year. With the protective devices currently available, this should not happen. Unfortunately, in most cases, little consideration is given to the effects of grounding on the effectiveness of surge suppression. When the surge suppression device cannot be directly connected at the terminals of the equipment to be protected, the impedance of the connecting means must be examined. High ground resistance and lead inductance greatly diminish the effectiveness of surge suppression. This paper describes a circuit approach to lightning protection starting with a discussion of infinite ground, ground resistance, and lead inductance. These concepts are then applied to various types of pole-top grounding. Normally, the grounding terminal of transformer secondary windings connects to the common terminal of the lightning arresters. This is demonstrated to be a central cause for much of the ensuing damage. Usually, several surge suppression devices are connected to a single ground wire, and the transient voltages on that wire not only reduce the effectiveness of the devices but, because of their bilateral characteristics, can also actually cause damage. Multiple ground wires terminating on a primary low-resistance ground have proven very effective in minimizing equipment damage. The integrity of ground bonding for personnel safety is still preserved. The only alteration is how and where ground wires are connected. This solution greatly increases the efficacy of lightning protection, without sacrificing safety or code compliance. View full abstract»

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  • Designing More Efficient Large Industrial Induction Motors by Utilizing the Advantages of Adjustable-Speed Drives

    Page(s): 1805 - 1809
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    The rotor of an induction motor is designed to provide adequate starting torque and limit starting current when the load is being accelerated by the motor. These starting requirements on the rotor force design engineers to employ special shape rotor bars or high-resistance bars and thereby reduce motor efficiency and increase motor temperature rise. In addition to the benefits provided by an adjustable-speed drive (ASD) in controlling operating speed, this paper evaluates the benefits of ASD in allowing engineers to design higher efficiency motors and, in turn, smaller size motors. View full abstract»

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  • DC-Arc Models and Incident-Energy Calculations

    Page(s): 1810 - 1819
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are many industrial applications of large-scale dc power systems, but only a limited amount of scientific literature addresses the modeling of dc arcs. Since the early dc-arc research focused on the arc as an illuminant, most of the early data was obtained from low-current dc systems. More recent publications provide a better understanding of the high-current dc arc. The dc-arc models reviewed in this paper cover a wide range of arcing situations and test conditions. Even with the test variations, a comparison of dc-arc resistance equations shows a fair degree of consistency in the formulations. A method for estimating incident energy for a dc arcing fault is developed based on a nonlinear arc resistance. Additional dc-arc testing is needed so that more accurate incident-energy models can be developed for dc arcs. View full abstract»

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  • Predicting Let-Through Arc-Flash Energy for Current-Limiting Circuit Breakers

    Page(s): 1820 - 1826
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE 1584, “Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Incident Energy Calculations,” provides a method to conservatively predict the incident energy let-through by over-current devices based on the device's time-current curve or tested transfer functions. Additional testing by various manufacturers has shown that current-limiting (CL) circuit breakers (CBs) operating in their instantaneous CL range perform significantly better than what the IEEE 1584 Time-Current Curve-based model predicts. The authors will present an analytical method to estimate the incident energy from published CB let-through curves. The method will provide a conservative, yet better, estimate of the actual performance when compared to test data. This method can be used as a part of hazard risk planning rather than the Time-Current Curve method described in IEEE 1584 or when the manufacturer does not provide an incident-energy transfer function based on tests. View full abstract»

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  • Flammable Mixture Analysis for Hazardous Area Classification

    Page(s): 1827 - 1835
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    The properties of flammable mixtures as they apply to a hazardous area classification analysis are discussed. Mathematical formulas and application rules of thumb are provided to help estimate the relative density, group classification, autoignition temperature, material flashpoint, and flammability of a mixture. Application guidelines are provided on how to apply the results in the context of a hazardous area classification analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Available Fault Current Variations on Arc-Flash Calculations

    Page(s): 1836 - 1842
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (722 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prior to the arrival of the arc-flash hazard analysis and the incident energy calculations, it was common practice to perform short-circuit studies assuming an infinite source on the primary of the service transformer. With the main goal of a short-circuit study being to compare the maximum calculated short-circuit current to the short-circuit rating of protective devices, using an infinite source resulted in the most conservative short-circuit current. However, since the amount of energy available in an arc-flash incident is not only dependent on the available short-circuit current but also on the clearing time of the protective device, the assumption of an infinite source on the transformer primary will not guarantee the most conservative results for the incident energy calculations downstream of the transformer. This paper examines the effect of the utility available fault current on the incident energy calculations and proposes a new method to calculate the conservative arc-flash results in the event that the actual utility fault information is not available. View full abstract»

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  • Ensuring Availability of a Large Adjustable-Speed Drive for Process Gas Compressor Application Rated 11 kV 15.5 MW (20 778 hp)

    Page(s): 1843 - 1849
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Voltage-source inverter (VSI) technology, suitable for synchronous-motor applications, now exists with high power ratings producing high output voltage (≥ 11 kV) with significant benefits over the widely used load-commutated-inverter drives. This paper covers an existing VSI technology applied for the first time at a higher operating voltage. This 15.5-MW 11-kV VSI adjustable-speed drive (ASD) installation is used to soft start three synchronous motors and speed control one of these for a process gas compressor application. Challenges faced during commissioning are described, and associated solutions are presented. A failure analysis of the ASD during commissioning is presented. An ASD design review was undertaken, which has resulted in an improved alternative to the conventional high-voltage busbar design. A protection-coordination study incorporating incoming switchgear and internal drive protection functions is presented. Improved protection schemes and settings are described to obtain faster coordinated fault clearance and improved ASD availability. This paper provides operating experience since the modified ASD has been placed in service in January 2006. Key recommendations are made to enhance the reliability, availability, and performance of medium-voltage drive systems. Also, suggestions are made for additions to the 2006 IEEE 1566 medium-voltage ASD standard. View full abstract»

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  • Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Safety Interlocks in Medium-Voltage Motor Starters

    Page(s): 1850 - 1855
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    This paper describes the benefits and techniques for performing maintenance on the electrical and mechanical interlocks in medium-voltage (MV) motor starters. These interlocks are safety features built into MV motor starters to prevent the isolation switch from being operated while the motor is running, which could result in a serious injury because the isolation switch is not rated to operate under a load. The electrical interlock is designed to open the contactor if an attempt is made to rack the isolation switch on or off the bus while the contactor is closed. The mechanical interlock is designed to prevent the isolation switch from physically being opened or closed if the motor is running or the contactor is closed. These interlocks are part of the equipment design and are defense mechanisms to prevent a potentially serious injury. During a maintenance turnaround, the operation of the mechanical and electrical interlocks was function tested. The interesting findings from these tests are outlined hereinafter. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Application of a Low-Ratio High-Accuracy Split-Core Core-Balance Current Transformer

    Page(s): 1856 - 1865
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    This paper describes the design and application of a split-core current transformer (CT) of large dimensions, specifically designed for mounting in a 13.8-kV switchgear cubical on the phase bus bars. Although split-core CTs of high current ratio are available, the authors believe that the core-balance CT described in this paper is unique, as no similar CT was readily available in the U.S./European market. Thus, there is no equivalent installation in the industry of the specifications described in this paper. The CT discussed in this paper was specifically designed to meet the requirements of dimensions and accuracy for sensitive ground fault and directional ground fault relaying. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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Carlton E. Speck