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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial: Message From the Outgoing Editors

    Page(s): 2317 - 2318
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  • Temperature-Dependent RF Small-Signal and Noise Characteristics of SOI Dynamic Threshold Voltage MOSFETs

    Page(s): 2319 - 2325
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, temperature-dependent RF small-signal and noise characteristics of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) dynamic threshold voltage (DT) MOSFETs are experimentally examined. In the low-voltage regime, both the cutoff and maximum oscillation frequencies (ft and fmax) tend to increase with temperature. In addition, the inherent body-related parasitics and the series resistance have much more impact on fmax than ft. Besides, we found that the noise stemmed from the body resistance (Rb) would contribute to the output noise current, and degrade the minimum noise figure (NFmin). Our study may provide insights for RF circuit design using advanced SOI DT MOSFETs. View full abstract»

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  • A Direct-Conversion CMOS RF Receiver Reconfigurable From 2 to 6 GHz

    Page(s): 2326 - 2333
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    A CMOS direct-conversion receiver with only one signal path is reconfigurable from 2 to 6 GHz in the RF band and from 3.6 to 54 MHz in the channel bandwidth. By employing a voltage feedback in a common-gate low-noise amplifier (LNA), the input matching of the LNA can be reconfigured for each RF band by simply changing the resonant frequency of the load network. The frequency characteristics of the active-RC channel selection filter with an R-2R ladder is automatically tuned by a one-shot tuning circuit. Implemented in 0.18- μm RF CMOS technology, the whole receive path shows 4.6-5.6-dB noise figure while consuming 65-75 mA from a 1.8-V supply depending on the mode of operation. View full abstract»

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  • A 20-Gs/s Track-and-Hold Amplifier in InP HBT Technology

    Page(s): 2334 - 2339
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    This paper presents a 20-Gs/s track-and-hold amplifier (THA) fabricated InP HBT technology. This THA is capable of operating under relatively high input voltages. The THA uses a fully differential architecture with a switched emitter-follower. To mitigate the pedestal error due to the feedthrough attenuation network, we added degeneration resistors in the feedthrough attenuation block. Measured total harmonic distortion is below -40 dB at low input frequencies, and -18 dB at frequency of 9.9 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Common-Gate CMOS LNA Employing Dual Negative Feedback With Simultaneous Noise, Gain, and Bandwidth Optimization

    Page(s): 2340 - 2351
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    This paper presents a wideband common-gate (CG) LNA architecture that overcomes the fundamental tradeoff between power and noise match without compromising its stability. The proposed architecture can achieve the minimum noise figure (NF) over the previously reported feedback amplifiers in a CG configuration. The proposed architecture achieves broadband impedance matching, low noise, large gain, enhanced linearity, and wide bandwidth concurrently by employing an efficient and reliable dual negative-feedback. An amplifier prototype was realized in 0.18-μm CMOS, operates from 1.05 to 3.05 GHz, and dissipates 12.6 mW from 1.8-V supply while occupying a 0.073-mm2 active area. The LNA provides 16.9-dB maximum voltage gain, 2.57-dB minimum NF, better than - 10-dB input matching, and - 0.7-dBm minimum IIP3 across the entire bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Power Limiting Devices Based on the Semiconductor–Metal Transition in Vanadium–Dioxide Thin Films

    Page(s): 2352 - 2361
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    We present a novel concept of microwave (MW) power-limiting devices based on reversible semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) of vanadium-dioxide thin films integrated on coplanar waveguides. We designed, simulated, and fabricated devices, which can be reversibly driven from a low-loss (<; 0.7 dB) transmission state into an attenuating state (> 20 dB) as the VO2 material is changing from semiconductor to the metal state when the incident MW power exceeds a threshold value. These devices are broadband and present a tunable threshold power value. They could be easily integrated as protection circuits from excess power in a large variety of MW components. View full abstract»

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  • Digitally Driven Antenna for HF Transmission

    Page(s): 2362 - 2367
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    An electrically small antenna connected directly to a complementary pair of switching transistors is driven with a pulsewidth modulated HF signal, eliminating the requirement for a frequency-dependent impedance-matching network. The intrinsic reactance of the transmit and receive antennas acts as a filter to recover the HF signal from the digital pulse train. This is defined here as the digitally driven antenna architecture. A circuit simulator with broadband equivalent-circuit models for the transmit and receive antennas is used to predict the received signal in the time domain, and the expected received spectrum is calculated using Maxwell's equations and the fast Fourier transform. The simulated circuit is realized using a highly capacitive electrically small dipole antenna driven at 1 MHz with a 10-MHz reference signal on the pulsewidth modulator as the transmitter and a highly inductive 470- μH ferrite-loaded loop as the receive antenna. The 1-MHz signal is clearly evident in the time-domain received signal on an oscilloscope, and also in the received spectrum, as observed on a spectrum analyzer. This demonstrates that indeed it may be possible to produce efficient radiation across a wide bandwidth from an electrically small antenna by driving the antenna directly with a digital pulse train. View full abstract»

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  • A Technique for Implementing Wide Dynamic-Range Polar Transmitters

    Page(s): 2368 - 2374
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    This paper presents a technique for implementing wide dynamic-range polar transmitters based on the envelope elimination and restoration technique. The fast-varying instantaneous output power level is controlled by a switch that modulates the input signal of the power amplifier (PA), whereas the slow-varying average power level is controlled by changing the dc voltage of the drain of the PA. A cellular band prototype transmitter system is constructed using commercially available components. Using a CDMA2000 1× signal with 4.5-dB peak-to-average power ratio at 836.5 MHz, the prototype transmitter achieved a dynamic range of over 80 dB while passing the adjacent and alternate channel power ratios for the CDMA2000 standard without the use of digital pre-distortion or calibration. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Bilateral Dual-Grid-FDTD Approach Applied to On-Body Transmission Analysis and Specific Absorption Rate Computation

    Page(s): 2375 - 2382
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    This paper presents a new simulation strategy based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This new approach aims at simulating efficiently a full-duplex link where both the transmitting and receiving antennas require a precise description, while their environment does not imply a particularly fine mesh. Typical application fields of the bilateral dual-grid-FDTD are the analysis of transmission between two on-body or implanted antennas. It can also be applied to the computation of specific absorption rate (SAR) in a precise location of the human body. The principle of this method consists in splitting the overall simulation into three FDTD simulations sequentially executed with an appropriate mesh. The radiator is first characterized using a fine mesh. All the elements of the problem are then represented using a coarse mesh. Finally, that element requiring a high resolution is finely described. This approach is applied to the analysis of a 2.4-GHz transmission between two on-body devices and to the computation of the SAR in the fetal brain of a pregnant woman at 900 MHz. The bilateral dual-grid-FDTD technique proves to be accurate compared to FDTD while being fast, stable, and simple to implement. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Miniaturization Method for Coupled-Line Bandpass Filters by Reactive Loading

    Page(s): 2383 - 2391
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    This paper presents a generalized miniaturization method for coupled-line bandpass filters by reactive loading, including the series-inductive loading method that is proposed in this work. It is shown that bandwidth reduction seen in the previous miniaturization method of shunt-capacitive loading is a special case. In fact, one can choose a coupled-line filter to be miniaturized with its bandwidth reduced, expanded, or maintained after miniaturization. The ratio of the bandwidths before and after miniaturization plays an important role in determining the even-/odd-mode impedance, as well as the reactance levels after miniaturization. Therefore, the freedom in choosing the bandwidth ratio provides a great flexibility in miniaturizing coupled-line filters since one can choose an appropriate bandwidth ratio to maintain the impedance and reactance at practical levels after miniaturization. The proposed generalized miniaturization method enables filter designs focused on size reduction, improved stopband response, low-cost fabrication, or a combination of these, which are verified by experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Group-Delay Engineered Noncommensurate Transmission Line All-Pass Network for Analog Signal Processing

    Page(s): 2392 - 2407
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    A group-delay engineered noncommensurate transmission line two-port all-pass network for analog signal-processing applications is presented, analytically modeled, and experimentally demonstrated. This network consists of transversally cascaded C-sections, which are distributed implementations of the bridged-T equalizer lumped circuit. It is obtained by interconnecting the alternate ports of adjacent lines of a 2N -port coupled transmission line network with transmission line sections, and it is modeled using multiconductor transmission line theory with per-unit-length capacitance matrix C and inductance matrix L. By allowing the different C-sections of the network to exhibit different lengths, a generalized group-delay engineering procedure is proposed, where quasi-arbitrary group-delay responses are achieved by combining the group-delay responses of C-sections with different lengths. A computer design approach based on genetic algorithms is applied for synthesis, which consists of determining the structural parameters of the different C-section groups. Using this approach, noncommensurate networks are group-delay engineered in edge-coupled stripline technology, and Gaussian, linear and quadratic group-delay responses are realized. The theoretical results are validated by experiment. Finally, two application examples of analog signal processing-a tunable impulse delay line and a real-time frequency discriminator-using the proposed dispersive noncommensurate all-pass networks are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Flip-Chip-Based Multichip Module for Low Phase-Noise V -Band Frequency Generation

    Page(s): 2408 - 2419
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on a flip-chip (FC)-based multichip module (MCM) for low phase-noise (PN) V-band frequency generation. A high-performance ×8 GaAs metamorphic high-electron mobility transistor monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) multiplier and a low PN 7-GHz GaAs InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) MMIC oscillator were used in the module. The microstrip MMICs were FC bonded to an Al2O3 carrier with patterns optimized for low-loss transitions. The FC-based module was experimentally characterized to have a PN of -88 dBc/Hz @ 100-kHz offset and -112 dBc/Hz @ 1-MHz offset with an output power of 11 dBm. For comparison, the MMICs were also FC bonded as individual chips and the performance was compared with the bare dies without FC bonding. It was verified that the FC bonding has no detrimental effect on the MMIC performance. The tests revealed that the FC module provided improved performance. To our best knowledge, this is the first FC-based module for millimeter-wave frequency generation. The module also presents one of the best PN reported for millimeter-wave frequency sources. View full abstract»

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  • A Waveguide to Unenclosed Coplanar Waveguide Transition

    Page(s): 2420 - 2425
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    A transition from rectangular waveguide to unenclosed coplanar waveguide (CPW) is designed and tested at W -band. Full-wave finite-element analysis is applied to the design and optimization trends are shown for the critical parameters. A stepped-impedance filter suppresses a parasitic mode, which is generated as the circuit emerges from the waveguide block, and a rejection of -20 dB is achieved. A back-to-back structure is used to characterize the performance of the transition and an insertion loss of 1.6 dB from 75 to 100 GHz is measured. Removing line losses, a single transition insertion loss of 0.46 dB is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • 65-, 45-, and 32-nm Aluminium and Copper Transmission-Line Model at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies

    Page(s): 2426 - 2433
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    An improved analytical model of the CMOS 65-, 45-, and 32-nm silicon technology integrated transmission line is proposed. This model is derived from previous classical ones used for printed circuits board lines. Improvements have been performed to take into account the size of integrated lines. The study is validated up to millimeter-wave frequencies for different linewidths realized with various metal levels. Accurate results allow the model to be implemented in commercial computer-aided design software commonly used for millimeter-wave designs. A comparison with commercial tools is carried out. View full abstract»

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  • Physics-Based Inductance Extraction for Via Arrays in Parallel Planes for Power Distribution Network Design

    Page(s): 2434 - 2447
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    A systematic approach for inductance extraction for via arrays between two parallel planes is presented. Both self and mutual inductance values are obtained based on a cavity model. The physics associated with the via inductances is analyzed, and a rigorous method is developed to derive an equivalent total inductance for multiple via arrays. Analytical equations for the equivalent total inductance are derived in closed forms for simple cases. The proposed method is corroborated with measurements, and application of the method for power distribution network designs is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A Methodology for Combined Modeling of Skin, Proximity, Edge, and Surface Roughness Effects

    Page(s): 2448 - 2455
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    A methodology is introduced for modeling resistive losses in planar transmission lines that support the transverse electromagnetic mode. The methodology aims to accurately and systematically account for these losses by modeling the skin, proximity, edge, and surface roughness effects in a combined way. The results show a correlation with three measurements within 5%, and offer insight into the different sources of resistive losses at high frequencies. Considering a printed coplanar line as an example, approximately 8% of the resistive loss come from surface roughness, and 30% from the edge effects at 60 GHz. However, for a line with a higher conductivity metallization, this increases to 38% and 30%, respectively, from surface roughness and edge effects at only 20 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • A Full Ku -Band Reduced-Height Waveguide-to-Microstrip Transition With a Short Transition Length

    Page(s): 2456 - 2462
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    A systematic design of a full Ku -band reduced-height waveguide-to-microstrip transition using commercial High Frequency Structure Simulator software is presented. The basic transition is composed of a shorted microstrip probe to a 50- Ω ridge waveguide. An impedance transformer necessary to adapt the 50-Ω ridge waveguide to a reduced-height waveguide was designed using multistage short-length ridge waveguides connected in cascade. The resulting transition length is 6.2 mm. The separately designed shorted microstrip probe transition and impedance transformer were combined and adjusted for full-Ku-band operation. The combined transition was fabricated and measured. The measured insertion and return losses are about 0.41 dB and below 15 dB for the full-Ku-band, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance-Transforming Symmetric and Asymmetric DC Blocks

    Page(s): 2463 - 2474
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    Design formulas of symmetric and asymmetric dc blocks are presented for achieving Chebyshev and Butterworth frequency responses. They can also be used for impedance transformers. Design formulas of symmetric dc blocks are first derived and those of asymmetric dc blocks are also computed based on the symmetric ones. For easy derivation of design formulas of the symmetric dc blocks, coupling coefficient, being proportional to bandwidth, is defined. It is then clarified that symmetric Chebyshev dc blocks are not possible for the impedance transforming. For the symmetric Butterworth dc blocks, three design methods are exploited. To verify the symmetric Butterworth dc blocks, a microstrip dc block with 50- and 25-Ω termination impedances designed at a center frequency of 2 GHz was fabricated. The measured S12 = S21 and S11 = S22 are - 0.19 and - 57 dB around 2 GHz, showing quite good agreement with simulation results. Based on synthesized symmetric dc blocks, the coefficients of transfer function |S12|2 are calculated and design formulas of the asymmetric dc blocks are derived based on the symmetric ones. Asymmetric Chebyshev dc blocks are verified by the measurements provided in a previously published paper and asymmetric Butterworth dc blocks by the symmetric Butterworth dc block measured in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Pole-Perturbation Theory for Nonlinear Noise Analysis of All-Pole RF MEMS Tunable Filters

    Page(s): 2475 - 2489
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a theoretical approach to predict the effect of nonlinear noise mechanisms in all-pole RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable filters. It is shown that both nonlinearity and noise can be expressed as perturbations of poles of the filter transfer function. Perturbations in the bandpass filter are mapped into its equivalent ladder network as perturbations in the prototype element values. Closed-form equations are derived to calculate pole-perturbations in Butterworth and Chebyshev filters using prototype perturbations. The proposed method is then used to calculate the effect of nonlinear noise phenomena due to Brownian motion in RF MEMS tunable filters for different input power levels. As a result, the filter phase noise is calculated as a function of input power, tuning state, fractional bandwidth, filter order, and frequency offset. The effect of filter nonidealities and their implications on phase noise are discussed. Finally, it is shown that signal-to-noise ratio degradation due to filter phase noise is most significant in MEMS tunable filters with low bandwidth, high order, and high quality factor. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of GaN HEMT Low-Frequency Dispersion Through a Multiharmonic Measurement System

    Page(s): 2490 - 2496
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    In this paper, the experimental characterization of low-frequency dispersion (i.e., long-term memory effects) affecting microwave GaN HEMTs is carried out by adopting a new nonlinear measurement system, which is based on low-frequency multiharmonic signal sources. The proposed setup, which has been fully automated by a control software procedure, enables given source/load device terminations at fundamental and harmonic frequencies to be synthesized. Different experimental results are provided to characterize well-known effects related to low-frequency dispersion (e.g., knee walkout and drain current collapse) and to demonstrate the validity of assumptions commonly adopted for electron device modeling. View full abstract»

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  • Accuracy Improvement for Line-Series-Shunt Calibration in Broadband Scattering-Parameter Measurements With Applications of On-Wafer Device Characterization

    Page(s): 2497 - 2503
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    In this paper, error analysis and accuracy improvement for on-wafer line-series-shunt calibration in broadband scattering parameter (S-parameter) measurements are presented with complete modeling of the resistive series/shunt standards, rather than the simple lumped assumptions that were basic requirements in previous studies. The associated parasitic effects in the models are estimated by the first-run results using lumped assumption. They are further updated iteratively, where higher order errors are analytically identified. Additionally, the de-embedded S -parameters are transformed for the reference impedance, based on the acquired characteristic impedance, which may differ from the measurement system in broadband operations. The proposed algorithm and calibration data are demonstrated by pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors with conductor-back coplanar waveguides built on GaAs substrates with verifications of the thru-reflect-line calibration results. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-Wideband Chip Attenuator for Precise Noise Measurements at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Page(s): 2504 - 2510
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    A 20-dB chip attenuator designed for cryogenic noise measurements from dc up to 40 GHz is presented. The chip is based on the use of temperature-stable tantalum-nitride thin-film resistors, a high thermal conductivity substrate such as crystal quartz (z-cut), and a suitable design that avoids inner conductor thermal heating, which is an important limiting factor for the precision of cryogenic noise measurements. A high-accuracy temperature sensor installed inside the attenuator module provides precise temperature characterization close to the chip location. The high thermal conductivity of the chip substrate in the designed attenuator assures a negligible temperature gradient between the resistive elements in the chip and the sensor, thus improving the measurement accuracy. The attenuator also shows an excellent electrical performance with insertion losses of 19.9 dB ± 0.65 dB and return losses better than 20.6 dB in the whole frequency range at 296 K. The insertion loss change when cooled to 15 K is less than 0.25 dB, which demonstrates its temperature stability. View full abstract»

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  • New CMOS-Compatible Micromachined Embedded Coplanar Waveguide

    Page(s): 2511 - 2516
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    This paper proposes a new robust micromachined embedded coplanar waveguide (CPW). The central and ground plates are partially bent and overlapped within the trench, and due to tight coupling of the E -field between the overlapped plates, the micromachined embedded CPW line is capable of a wide range characteristic impedance (17.9-92.3 Ω), in a compact size. Furthermore, the area in which the E -field radiates into the substrate of the micromachined embedded CPW is quite narrow compared to conventional CPWs, and therefore, the dielectric loss of the micromachined embedded CPW can be effectively suppressed. Compared with conventional CPW lines, the embedded CPW lines have shown a marked reduction in loss, especially in the low-impedance range. The micromachined embedded CPW lines on the high-resistivity silicon substrate (ρs = 15 000 Ω · cm) achieve a measured loss as low as 0.81 dB/cm at 50 GHz. Moreover, the fabrication process of the micromachined embedded CPW line is compatible with the CMOS process. These features make micromachined embedded CPW a promising transmission line for RF integrated circuit application. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org