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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1541 - 1542
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  • A Measure of Machine Intelligence [Point of View]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1543 - 1545
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  • RFID—A Unique Radio Innovation for the 21st Century [Scanning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1546 - 1549
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • Shunt Behavior in RFID UHF Tag According to ISO Standards and Manufacturer Requirements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1550 - 1554
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag modeling. Examples of electrical models and measurements of backscattering by load modulation in RFID systems can be found in scientific literature in far-field conditions. Load modulation and loading effect are based on the same physical phenomenon: the antenna current is modified by switching the load impedance between two impedances which are frequency dependent. All these models neglect the shunt resistance which can deeply affect the load impedance and may produce failures in the communication system. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Modeling of RFID-Modulated Scattering Mechanism. Application to Tag Performance Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1555 - 1569
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology relies on the modulated scattering technique (MST) as a means to convey the information from the tag to the reader. The interaction mechanism between the reader and the tag is described in a physically meaningful way by the reciprocity theorem which is deeply rooted into Maxwell equations. This approach provides a simple and yet complete formulation that allows to fully describe the interaction between the reader and the tag, even in complex environments. From this formulation, a clear understanding is derived on how the different design tradeoffs affect system performance. Based on this approach, the paper is focused on several issues of practical relevance for antenna tag design such as maximum power transfer, maximum sensitivity, and nonlinearity effects. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrawide Bandwidth RFID: The Next Generation?

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1570 - 1582
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future advanced radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems are expected to provide both identification and high-definition localization of objects with improved reliability and security while maintaining low power consumption and cost. Ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) technology is a promising solution for next generation RFID systems to overcome most of the limitations of the current narrow bandwidth RFID technology such as: reduced area coverage, insufficient ranging resolution for accurate localization, sensitivity to interference, and scarce multiple-access capability. In this paper, a survey of current progress in the application of the UWB technology for RFID systems is presented with particular attention to low-complexity solutions for high-definition tag localization. View full abstract»

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  • RFID: From Supply Chains to Sensor Nets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1583 - 1592
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The next generation internet will be the internet of things (and not just of computing devices like PCs, PDAs); this is presumed to be enabled by integrating simple computing plus communications capabilities into common objects of everyday use. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a compelling technology for creation of such pervasive sensor networks due to its potential for ubiquitous, low-cost/low-maintenance use. However, the current drivers for RFID deployment emphasize supply chain management using passive tags, implying that RFID sensor nets require advances beyond the components and system designs aimed at supply chain applications. This work provides a glimpse of how this may be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Cost, Ubiquitous RFID-Tag-Antenna-Based Sensing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1593 - 1600
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has been well established as an effective technology for track and trace applications. In this paper, we go beyond the ID in RFID, and discuss the potential for RFID tags to be used as low-cost sensors by mapping a change in some physical parameter of interest to a controlled change in RFID tag antenna electrical properties. We will also show that it is possible to design the tag antenna to suffer a permanent change in case of violation of a critical threshold in the parameter of interest thereby creating a low-cost threshold sensing mechanism. This can be achieved by inducing controlled changes to the tag antenna geometry parameters or to the antenna boundary conditions, in effect creating a nonelectric memory to monitor state. After identifying the application space for which this class of sensing is well suited, we present details into the design and testing of three different kinds of sensors based on this sensing paradigm. We demonstrate how we use this concept to sense displacements, temperature thresholds, and fluid levels. We will show that RFID-tag-antenna-based sensing has the potential to revolutionize application domains in which there is a need for low-cost, long-lasting, ubiquitous sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Progress Towards the First Wireless Sensor Networks Consisting of Inkjet-Printed, Paper-Based RFID-Enabled Sensor Tags

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1601 - 1609
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the evolution towards the first integrated radio-frequency identification (RFID)-enabled wireless sensor network infrastructure using ultra-high frequency/radio frequency (UHF/RF) RFID-enabled sensor nodes and inkjet-printed electronics technologies on flexible and paper substrates for the first time ever. The first sections highlight the unique capabilities of inkjet printed electronics as well as the benefits of using paper as the ultra-low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly substrate for the mass-scale ubiquitous implementation of the first RFID-enabled wireless sensing applications. Various inkjet-printed antenna configurations are presented for enhanced-range compact RFID-enabled sensing platforms in “rugged” environments up to 7 GHz, followed by the discussion of their 2-D integration with integrated circuit (IC) and sensors on paper. This integration is extended to a power-scavenging “smart-shoe” batteryless integrated RFID module on paper that could be used for autonomous wearable sensing applications with enhanced range. The paper concludes discussing the details for establishing for the first time an asynchronous wireless link between the aforementioned RFID-tags and a widely used commercial wireless sensor network (WSN) mote using a simplified protocol; a paramount step that could potentially create ubiquitous ultra-low-cost sensor networks and large-scale RFID implementations eliminating the need of expensive RFID reader infrastructure and linking RFIDs to the mature level of WSNs. View full abstract»

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  • The Effect of Conductive Ink Layer Thickness on the Functioning of Printed UHF RFID Antennas

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1610 - 1619
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1045 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, the effect of the conductive ink layer thickness on the performance of printed ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag antennas was investigated. A simple quarter wave dipole tag for European UHF RFID frequencies was designed to be tested in this study. All the tags were made by using screen-printing technique. Three different thicknesses for the ink layer were used. Performance of the tags was analyzed by the measurement of threshold and backscatter power. The results show that it is possible to produce RFID tag antennas by screen printing and it is possible to optimize the tag performance by adjusting the thickness of the electrically conductive layer. The results show how the performance characteristics deteriorated when the thickness of the printed ink layer was reduced. However, it was also shown that thin ink layers can be used in some applications and cost savings can be achieved in this way. It is therefore important to recognize these effects on the performance. View full abstract»

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  • Vibration Energy Harvesting for Disaster Asset Monitoring Using Active RFID Tags

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1620 - 1628
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper highlights the importance of energy harvesting in high-value asset monitoring applications involving use of active RFID tags. The paper begins by highlighting advantages of active tags including improved range and read rate in electromagnetically unfriendly environments. Although a battery can substantially improve performance, it limits maintenance-free operational life. Therefore, harvesting energy from sources such as vibration is shown to address this shortcoming but these sources must be adequate, available throughout the life of the application, and highly efficient. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting design procedures and components for such systems are identified. This includes three key components, namely, the energy harvesting transducer, power management circuit, and energy storage device. Each component of the energy harvesting system is described and important design criteria are highlighted. Finally, the paper concludes by analyzing vibration data from high value assets used during disaster relief, and describing preliminary results of an energy harvesting prototype with details on system form factors, efficiency, and life. View full abstract»

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  • Long Range Passive UHF RFID System Using HVAC Ducts

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1629 - 1635
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the use of hollow metal heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ducts as a potential communication channel between passive ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and tags is studied. HVAC ducts behave as electromagnetic waveguides with much lower signal attenuation compared to free-space propagation. This low-loss electromagnetic environment allows one to greatly increase the communication range of passive UHF RFID systems and build, for example, a long range passive sensor network spanning an entire infrastructure such as a large building. In this work, it is shown both theoretically and experimentally that the read range of passive UHF RFID systems can be increased by multiple times compared to operation in a free-space environment. View full abstract»

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  • Logical RFID Reader Using Hybrid Active–Passive Solution

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1636 - 1647
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has been applied widely in applications such as supply chain visibility, pharmaceutical track and trace, etc. The standards body EPCglobal defines various interfaces in the electronic product code (EPC) network architecture to facilitate the interoperability of different applications. Logical reader is a concept defined in the application level events (ALE) specification to shield applications from knowing the physical device infrastructure. This paper proposes a new approach to the logical reader abstraction, which is defined using spatial zones and implemented by combining mobile, passive RFID with positioning technologies, such as active RFID. This hybrid approach exploits the best benefits of passive and active RFID, while maintaining compatibility with EPC standards for accessing logical readers via ALE. An evaluation of competing approaches is presented. The study shows that this spatial-zone-based design enables fine grain tracking of assets at lower infrastructure cost as compared to existing techniques (e.g., using active RFID only). The study also analyzes the accuracy of the proposed approach using numerical simulation. The results show that it outperforms a widely used chokepoint-based solution under realistic operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Antennas and Propagation of Implanted RFIDs for Pervasive Healthcare Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1648 - 1655
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a growing technology, with the potential for reducing medical errors and improving the quality of healthcare in hospitals. The benefits include more secure and safe access in the healthcare environment (with the possibility, for example, to track patients, personnel, and equipment), as well as providing the means to easily identify patients and their medications with low risk of error. In this paper, we present an overview of the challenges faced in antenna design, electromagnetic modeling and wave propagation for RFID implants. The performance of ultra-high-frequency (UHF) subcutaneous tag antennas was investigated numerically and validated with measurements. Furthermore, the wave propagation between an off-body reader and an implanted tag was analyzed, in both free space and a scattered indoor environment. Results demonstrated that a passive tag solution allows a very limited communication range, due to the body losses, the electrically small size of the antenna, and nulls in the radiation pattern. In comparison, a maximum communication range of 10 m was predicted as achievable for an active tag operating indoors with a limited power (-20 dBm). View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Frequency Active RFID Solution for Tracking Patients in a Children's Hospital. Design Method, Test Procedure, Risk Analysis, and Technical Solution

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1656 - 1662
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work addresses the problem of reliable identification and tracking of children in an intensive care unit in a children's hospital. Tracking and identification of patients are critical for the clinical risk management process, particularly for a children's hospital intensive care unit where patients' identities can easily be confused. This work offers a multilayer approach to the design of the process of identification and tracking; it gives an active radio-frequency identification (RFID) solution that best fits all the given constraints. The paper is divided in the following sections: design (where a multilayer method is provided, including project aims, functional requirements, and technical constraints); risk analysis [a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) method is used to assess the risks of each stage of the process of patient management]; technical solution with a specific test phase and a review of the risk analysis results. As a result of the proposed approach, we got a strong coherence between the initial aims and the technical solution, improving patient safety and reducing the clinical risk in the process of tracking and identifying patients. View full abstract»

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  • Planetary-Scale RFID Services in an Age of Uberveillance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1663 - 1671
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has a great number of unfulfilled prospects. Part of the problem until now has been the value proposition behind the technology-it has been marketed as a replacement technique for the barcode when the reality is that it has far greater capability than simply non-line-of-sight identification, towards decision making in strategic management and reengineered business processes. The vision of the internet of things (IOT) has not eventuated but a world in which every object you can see around you carries the possibility of being connected to the internet is still within the realm of possibility. However incremental innovations may see RFID being sold as a service (much like photocopiers are maintained today) than a suite of technologies within a system that are sold as individual or bundled packaged components. This paper outlines the vision for such a product service system, what kinds of smart applications we are likely to see in the future as a result, and the importance of data management capabilities in planetary-scale systems. View full abstract»

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  • Unpacking the RFID Investment Decision

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1672 - 1680
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mandates aside, there are many reasons why firms decide to move forward with or delay investment in radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. In this paper, we use a theoretically-based, easy to implement methodology to empirically derive a relative importance scale of those factors that influence the decision to invest in RFID technology. More specifically, we compare the factors that matter most and least to a sample of firms that have adopted RFID technology with a sample of firms that have yet to embrace RFID technology. The theoretical and practical implications are that both RFID adopters and nonadopters are driven by the promise of greater data accuracy, improved information visibility, service quality, process innovation, and track-and-trace capabilities. What separates the adopters from the nonadopters is an opportunity to derive strategic benefits from RFID through improved decision making. Not surprisingly, the nonadopting firms are primarily concerned with the high acquisition and other ongoing costs associated with RFID technology. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Edward V. Appleton [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1681 - 1682
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In 1962, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) awarded its Medal of Honor to Edward V. Appleton. He was cited "for his distinguished pioneer work in investigating the ionosphere by means of radio waves." He spent most of his professional career in teaching and research at the University of London and at Cambridge University. He was the author of approximately 140 scientific papers, primarily on the physics of the upper atmosphere. An interesting footnote to his Medal of Honor award is that he had received the Nobel Prize in Physics 15 years earlier. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1683 - 1684
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  • Imagine a simple way to make an impact [advertisment]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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North Carolina State University