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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - 505
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Generalized Extreme-Value Distributions of Power Near a Boundary Inside Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 506 - 515
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation regarding the statistical distribution of the maximum field and analysis of statistical field inhomogeneities near a cavity wall inside a reverberation chamber. Measurements were performed for both undermoded and overmoded regimes. Departures from ideal isotropic random field behavior at relatively low frequencies were measured by placing a receiving antenna close to one cavity wall. The coexistence of field heterogeneity and anisotropy has been confirmed, together with departures from the ideal statistical distributions of field and energy. Empirical distributions of the maximum value were derived for hybrid (i.e., combined mechanical, frequency, and spatial) mode stirring. The maximum-value distribution is found to be of Fréchet type in undermoded regime and converges to a reverse Weibull distribution in highly overmoded operation, with a transit across the Gumbel distribution when the operation is weakly overmoded. Results exhibit good agreement with previous theoretical and numerical findings. View full abstract»

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  • A Double Inequality for the Equivalent Impulse Bandwidth

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 516 - 520
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    In this paper, we derive a double inequality that permits one to obtain a lower and an upper limit for the value of the impulse bandwidth of a measuring receiver. The limits are the reciprocal of the integral of the relative envelope of the impulse response (lower limit) and the integral of the relative frequency response (upper limit) of the intermediate frequency (IF) filter. Since the limits are relative quantities, their evaluation does not require the use of a calibrated generator, the only significant sources of error being receiver's vertical scale nonlinearity and noise proximity. Here, the deviation between the impulse bandwidth and its limits is quantified for practical IF filter configurations. The dominant contributions to measurement uncertainty are identified and suggestions for reducing their magnitude are also offered. View full abstract»

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  • WBAN Transmission Model for Coils at 10.8 MHz in Free Space and Near a Flat Conducting Medium

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 521 - 529
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the transmission between two small antenna coils for wireless body area networks (WBANs) operated at 10.8 MHz is characterized in free space and near a phantom filled with water. In order to investigate the influence of the flat conducting medium, measurements are performed at different separations between the coils and at different heights above the medium. The voltage ratio |V2/V1| of the received voltage to the input voltage is studied as a function of the distance between the coils. Also, the influence of the medium and the height of the coils above the medium is determined. Transmission models are derived for the voltage ratio in free space and near the flat conducting medium, and a physical explanation is given. The measurements and models agree very well. Circuit equivalent models representing the physical transmission between coupled coils are proposed. The measurement results are compared with simulations of the presented circuit model and excellent agreement is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Radio Frequency Noise From the Modulator of a Linac

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 530 - 536
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach to image-guided radiotherapy being undertaken by a few groups involves the integration of a linac with a magnetic resonance imager (MRI). In order to successfully combine a linac with a MRI, it is important to understand the characteristics and major sources of radio frequency (RF) noise from the pulse power modulator of a linac since these may interfere with the operation of the MRI. The RF noise power spectral density from the modulator of a linac, loaded separately with a magnetron and a resistive load, is measured. The RF fields emitted by the pulse-forming network (PFN) were determined by simulation and compared with measurements. Saturable reactors were introduced in the trigger circuits of the thyratron to reduce the injected voltage spikes into the trigger circuit to assess the impact of these spikes on the RF noise measurements. The results illustrate that the major source of RF noise from the modulator of a linac is the operation of a magnetron. It also eliminates the PFN coil and the grid voltage spikes of thyratron as possible major sources of RF noise. For linac-MRI systems the modulator of a linac should be housed in a separate RF cage from the MRI. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of Induced Current Densities in the Human Body at Low Frequencies Due to Contact Electrodes Using the ADI-FDTD Method

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 537 - 544
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report the use of the alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in a D-H formulation to compute induced current densities and recruitment volumes in the human body due to contact electrodes for human electromuscular incapacitation devices at frequencies below 200 kHz. A computational model resolution of 1 mm has been used for most of the human body model, including regions proximal to the electrode contact points, while a progressively coarser resolution up to 5 mm is utilized, according to an expanding grid scheme for body regions distant from the source, such as the lower extremities. Using quasi-static assumptions, discrete Fourier transforms have been used to average the electric field values at the desired frequencies for times much shorter than their time periods. The field values induced in the human body were then obtained as ratios with respect to the source, which can be scaled depending on the magnitude. This study suggests that the ADI-FDTD method can be used for the solution of low-frequency large-scale bioelectromagnetic problems. It is shown that, when used with quasi-static assumptions, Fourier series decomposition, and expanding grid, the D-H ADI-FDTD can be an effective computational bioelectromagnetics tool. View full abstract»

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  • Changes in Electromagnetic Field Absorption in the Presence of Subcutaneous Implanted Devices: Minimizing Increases in Absorption

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 545 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Changes in electromagnetic energy absorption were studied in the presence of subcutaneous antenna devices implanted for biotelemetry applications. We examined the influence on energy absorption of these devices as passive metallic implants when incoming RF energy is present. We aim to contribute to the optimization of the implant location in order to reduce a possible energy increase on tissues. The research was carried out using electromagnetic modeling based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The calculations were performed in terms of electric field and SAR distributions calculated for five different frequency bands (from 0.9 to 17 GHz) covering most current telecommunications standards. The focus was on both far-field and near-field exposure. The results lead us to propose the subcutaneous zone nearest to the surface of the skin as the most appropriate place to locate these devices. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Right-Handed Metamaterial Based on the Concept of “Autonomous Control System of Living Cells” and Its Absorber Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 556 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel right-handed metamaterial similar to an “autonomous control system of a living cell” and capable of responding to electromagnetic waves is proposed with its fundamental configurations. Using microwave absorbers as an example, the possibility of equivalently controlling their material constants are investigated both theoretically and empirically. These absorbers are composed of unit cells based on the concept of an autonomous controllable metamaterial (ACMM). The theoretical approaches used to obtain ACMM-based absorber design data are revealed. In order to improve the absorber matching characteristics, the principle of obtaining the broadband matching characteristics with an absorption band of 1.3 GHz at 4.25 GHz is clarified. In addition, the methods for improving the matching degradation of the oblique incidence of a TM wave are investigated. For the TM wave oblique incidence, a new ACMM-based absorber configuration comprising unit cells with inductive fins is proposed. At an incident angle of 45°, a matching characteristic of -30 dB is achieved in the case of the TM wave. These ACMMs are controlled by using only two bias feeder wirings for PIN diodes. View full abstract»

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  • Circuital Modeling and Measurement of Shielding Effectiveness Against Oblique Incident Plane Wave on Apertures in Multiple Sides of Rectangular Enclosure

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 566 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple circuital approach to evaluate the shielding effectiveness (SE) of rectangular enclosures with apertures is proposed, considering oblique incidence and polarization. The scope of the proposed model is extended beyond 1 GHz, including higher order modes of the cavity. Furthermore, apertures are not required to be on the front face of the enclosure. In the proposed model, the SE of the enclosure with apertures on multiple sides can be simply calculated by vector decomposition. The proposed model has been successfully verified by using a conventional full-wave simulation tool. We also measured the SE of a manufactured aluminum enclosure with apertures on multiple sides. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the Transformation Between Differential-Mode and Common-Mode Noises in an EMI Filter Due to Unbalance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 578 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the transformation between differential-mode and common-mode noises due to the unbalance of noise sources and electromagnetic interference filters in power electronics circuits. Both insertion gain and electromagnetic interference measurements prove the analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic Electromagnetic Interference Filter Design Based on Information From In-Circuit Impedance Measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 588 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2110 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on a two-probe measurement approach, the noise source and noise termination impedances of a switched-mode power supply (SMPS) under its normal operating condition are measured. With the accurate noise source and noise termination impedances, an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter can be optimally designed. A practical example of the design of an EMI filter to comply with a regulatory conducted EMI limit using the proposed procedure is demonstrated and compared with the cases, where the noise source and noise termination impedances are not taken into account, or coarse estimates of them are considered. Although all approaches allow filtered SMPS to pass the regulation limits, designing EMI filters with the accurate noise source and termination impedances leads to optimal component values and avoids overdesign. View full abstract»

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  • Susceptibility of an Electromagnetic BandGap Filter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 599 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a compact dual-planar electromagnetic (EM) bandgap (EBG) microstrip structure, patches are etched periodically in the ground plane to prohibit the propagation of EM waves in certain frequency bands so as to provide filtering functionality. However, the existence of the etched patches in the ground plane becomes a concern in terms of EM compatibility (EMC) and EM susceptibility (EMS). These structures might be prone to EM interference from nearby circuit components as compared to a microstrip filter with a perfect ground plane. In this paper, we study the EMS of a dual-planar EBG filter structure to a microstrip line in close proximity. This study examines the coupling effects of a nearby microstrip line on the performance of the EBG structure when the microstrip line is transmitting a signal and when it is not transmitting a signal. When the microstrip line is transmitting a signal, the effects of the working frequency and the direction of the signal on the coupling to the EBG structure are studied. Experimental and numerical work are presented, analyzed, and verified. The results obtained are useful for the applications and integrations of EBG microstrip structures to microwave circuits. They are useful for EMC and EMS studies of other patterned ground structures/defected ground structures. View full abstract»

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  • An Extended Hybrid Method for the Numerical Modeling of EMC Problems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 604 - 611
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To examine electromagnetic arrangements, we propose a new extended hybrid method. It consists of three calculation methods that work in frequency domain. These methods are the well-known moment method, the generalized multipole technique, and the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. By combining these methods, the range of application is extended with respect to every single method, and interesting electromagnetic arrangements may be examined very efficiently due to the specialized field description of every method. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Discrete Singular Convolution-Method of Moments Analysis of a 2-D Transverse Magnetic Reverberation Chamber

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 612 - 619
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new hybrid technique combining the discrete singular convolution (DSC) method and the method of moments (MoM) is proposed for efficient analysis of a 2-D transverse magnetic reverberation chamber. The metallic stirrer is viewed as a current sheet along whose surface the tangential electric field is forced to zero. The DSC method is used to model the cavity excited by the original source plus the current sheet, which are expressed on the grids of the DSC method using the regularization technique. The MoM is used to enforce the boundary condition along the stirrer. Solutions from the aforementioned two steps are coupled together with the aid of the equivalence principle. The validity and advantage of the proposed hybrid technique is shown through comparisons with results from alternative methods. Taking advantage of the high efficiency of the DSC method, the new hybrid technique is shown to be a lot more efficient than a pure MoM with approximately the same memory cost. View full abstract»

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  • E-Field, H-Field, and Combined-Field Based Nyström Method Analysis for Electromagnetic Scattering by Complex-Material Bodies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 620 - 628
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Nyström method (NM) is used to solve for electromagnetic scattering by 3-D composite objects based on surface integral equations (SIEs). These SIEs include both equivalent electric and magnetic currents as unknowns since composite media exist. In the method-of-moments (MoM) solution for these SIEs, one may encounter the problem of how to represent the magnetic current using an appropriate basis function if the electric current is represented by Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis function. Some choices like RWG, n̂ × RWG, or dual basis function in representing the magnetic current may have the instability, fictitious charge, or high-cost problems, respectively, and thus, are not ideal. Compared with the MoM, the NM is simpler to implement, and most importantly, it can get rid of these problems. We employ this method to solve the E-field, H-field, and combined-field SIEs with efficient local correction schemes. Numerical examples show that the NM can give stable and efficient solutions for both near and far fields, when away from the resonant frequencies in E-field and H-field formulations, even for relatively complicated structures. View full abstract»

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  • Block Analysis of a Voltage Supply Chain: Mixed Electromagnetic Modeling and Validation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 629 - 639
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    This paper describes an industry-oriented approach for the analysis of complex electronic systems. The typical constrains of an industry design flow such as limited time, limited computing resources, and the use of standard/commercial software tools are considered. The approach consists in partitioning the system in several functional blocks and studying each block separately. Different numerical techniques are employed, choosing the more appropriate, for characterizing each chain blocks. At the end, all the blocks are cascaded obtaining the overall system performances. The approach is applied to a voltage supply chain mounted on board of the SENTINEL 1-SAR satellite to verify the integrity of the voltage pulse propagating from the source to the high power amplifiers. The final results are validated by hardware measurements. View full abstract»

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  • A time-domain formula for the horizontal electric field at the earth surface in the vicinity of lightning

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 640 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a time-domain formula for the calculation of the horizontal electric field in the vicinity of the lightning channel. The formula is based on the incident azimuthal magnetic field, so that it does not depend on the assumptions considered in the calculation of the magnetic field, such as return stroke model or propagation effects. The application of the formula with the magnetic field calculated from perfectly conducting earth provided results that agreed very well with results from Sommerfeld integrals, even in the vicinity of the lightning channel, where the Cooray-Rubinstein formula does not hold. The deviations of the results of the formula with respect to the Sommerfeld integrals are on the order of a few percent, which is the same order of magnitude as the deviations involved in the numerical evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of a Lightning Channel Corona Sheath Using a Generalized Traveling-Current-Source Return Stroke Model—Theory and Calculations

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 646 - 656
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Abstract-A generalized lightning traveling-current-source return stroke model (GTCS) and the measurements of Miki et al. [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 107, no. D16, pp. ACL2.1-ACL2.11, 2002], are used to calculate the dynamics of a lightning channel corona sheath surrounding a thin channel core during the return stroke stage. The channel corona sheath model that predicts the charge motion in the corona sheath is used to determine the corona sheath dynamics. This model can be viewed as the generalization of the corona sheath model proposed by Maslowski and Rakov [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 111, D14110, pp. 1-16, 2006]. According to this model, the corona sheath surrounding the thin channel core consists of two zones containing charge, zone 1 (inner zone containing net positive charge) and zone 2 (zone containing negative charge surrounding zone 1), respectively, and an outer zone 3 surrounding zone 2 without charge. Theoretical expressions for the corona sheath radii and the velocities of both zones are derived. Using a theoretical expression for the radial electric field in the immediate vicinity of the channel core derived for the GTCS model and the measured electric field waveforms of Miki et al. [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 107, no. D16, pp. ACL2.1-ACL2.11, 2002], the channel discharge function versus time is calculated. Based on this function and the measured channel-base current function, the corona sheath radii of both zones and their velocities versus time in the bottom portion of the channel are calculated. It is shown that the maximum radii of zones 1 and 2 at 2 m above ground are less than 1.5 and 6 cm, respectively. Corresponding maximum radial corona sheath velocities are less than 6 × 104 m/s. Small values of the maximum radii of zones 1 and 2 can be explained by the small value of the channel line charge density of 6.7 μC/m, due to vicinity of perfect ground. Using measured channel-base current and the calculated channel discharge function,- - the line charge distribution versus height is calculated. The current reflections from the striking point are considered. For the ground current reflection factor R = 1 (the reflection from the perfectly conducting ground) the peak value of the channel line charge density is 0.75 mC/m at the height of about 12 m above ground and for R = 0 (no current reflections) the peak value is 1.3 mC/m, at about 17 m above ground. The corresponding calculated values of the return stroke velocities in the channel bottom are 1.29 × 108 m/s (0.43c) and 1.68 × 108 m/s (0.56c), respectively. The corona sheath expansion velocity is about three orders of magnitude less than the calculated lightning return stroke velocity. The result concerning the channel line charge distribution is in the agreement with the measurements of Crawford et al. [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 106, pp. 14909-14917, 2001], whereas the calculated return stroke velocities are in a good agreement with the optical measurements of Willet et al. [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 93, pp. 3867-3878, 1988] and [J. Geophys. Res., vol. 94, pp. 1327513286,1989]. View full abstract»

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  • Validity of Simplified Approaches for the Evaluation of Lightning Electromagnetic Fields Above a Horizontally Stratified Ground

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 657 - 663
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We review in this paper simplified analytical expressions derived by Wait using the concept of attenuation function for the analysis of the propagation of lightning radiated electromagnetic fields over a horizontally stratified ground. Considerations regarding the use of these formulations as well as their domain of applicability are given. For the case, where the upper ground layer has a lower conductivity than the lower layer, the magnitude of the attenuation function can take values greater than unity. Time-domain waveforms of the vertical electric field along a horizontally stratified ground, obtained using the simplified formulations feature, an oscillatory behavior in their early-time response. The peak value of the field is also found to be larger than that corresponding to the case of a perfect ground. The accuracy of the Wait's formulations is examined taking as reference full-wave simulations obtained using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique. FDTD simulations confirm the oscillatory waveform of the far field above a horizontally stratified ground (with an upper layer characterized by a lower conductivity than that of the lower layer), as well as the enhancement of the field peak compared to the case of a homogeneous, perfectly conducting ground. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of Substation Shielding Against Direct Lightning Strikes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 664 - 675
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper comprises the first application of the concept of upward leader inception and propagation to meet the downward negative leader in a final jump, to assess shielding of substations against direct lightning strikes. Expressions for the attractive radius of a slender mast and the lateral attractive distance of a shield wire are used to determine the respective protection zones. The analysis is extended to account for lightning protection provided by double masts as well as by four masts placed at the corners of a rectangular area. Lightning protection by double ground wires is also analyzed. The model takes into account not only the different lightning protection characteristics of masts and ground wires, but also distinguishes between rod-type and conductor-type protected objects. The model considers not only flashes descending on the substation from above, but also accounts for shielding against side flashes. A systematic approach is presented in sufficient detail to allow practical application to shielding design of substations. Extensive comparisons of the findings of the model to results obtained by the electrogeometric model and also to a practical empirical formula are included. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of a Nonlinear Channel Resistance on Lightning-Induced Voltages on Overhead Lines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 676 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a lightning return-stroke model proposed by the authors is used for investigating the effect of a nonlinear (current-dependent) channel resistance on lightning-induced voltages on an overhead wire. Lightning-induced voltages are shown to behave at early times as if they were calculated by assuming a lossy channel and at later times as if they were calculated by assuming a lossless channel, the transition between early and latter stages being smoothed by the continuous time decay of the channel resistance. Despite such a transitional behavior, it is argued that similar induced-voltage waveforms can be obtained if a channel resistance with constant value between the upper and lower limits associated to the leader and return-stroke channels is suitably selected. It is also shown that in the cases evaluated in this paper simple engineering return-stroke models are able to lead to lightning-induced voltages in relatively good agreement with those predicted by the considered nonlinear return-stroke model. Finally, lightning-induced voltages calculated using the nonlinear return-stroke model are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • A Case Study on Lightning Protection, Current Injection Measurements, and Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 684 - 690
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A newly built pharmaceutical plant has been investigated by measurements. Currents of 0.3 kA were injected in the lightning protection grid on the roof. Inside the building, test cables of 100 m length followed a path typical for cables belonging to the installation. We measured induced cable currents and voltages. A reduced model of the building incorporated most of the designed current paths. Measurements and model showed that the roof steel skeleton carried about 80% of the current and the intended lightning conductors 20%. The calculated current through a cable support was larger than measured. This is explained by also considering a nearby nonintended conductor. For three types of cables, we determined the transfer impedances. The measurements and model have been combined and extrapolated to actual lightning. View full abstract»

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  • On the Equivalence of a Conducting Plate in a Laboratory Experiment to a Real Earth

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 691 - 698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the validity and the application limit of experimental results on a scale model above a conducting plate, such as an aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu) plate, representing a real power system, which is too large for experimental measurements. The surge characteristics on a scale model of an overhead conductor above an Al plate are compared with that above a real earth. The experimental results are compared with analytical and numerical simulation results by the electromagnetic transients program and finite-difference time domain method. It is clear that the Al plate can represent the real earth only for an initial part of a surge waveform until reflection comes back from the other end of the conductor. The surge waveform on the Al plate noticeably deviates from that on the real earth as time passes. Correspondingly, the characteristic impedance of the Al plate differs from that on the real earth depending on the conductor height and the separation between the conductors. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Simultaneous Switching Noise Coupling in Multilayer Power/Ground Planes With Segmentation Method and Cavity Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 699 - 711
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An accurate power bus model is essential for predicting noise coupling in high-speed printed circuit board (PCB) and package designs. With a complex multilayer structure, the power bus is often modeled using numerical simulation methods. However, full-wave approaches are computationally inefficient, or even infeasible for extremely complicated geometries. Fortunately, the segmentation method makes it possible to combine different types of models together, and both simulation accuracy and efficiency can be obtained through this “divide-and-conquer” strategy. After segmentation, one of the fundamental blocks is a parallel plane pair. For this block, analytical expressions for the impedance (Z) matrix are available for a rectangular plane pair and some special triangular plane pairs. The combination of the cavity model with the segmentation technique has been known to be an efficient way to analyze irregularly shaped multilayer structures. In this paper, this approach is further extended to the general multilayer structures with overlapping planes. Noise-coupling mechanisms are then studied, and the two main coupling mechanisms, the plane edge coupling and the via coupling, are further characterized. Engineering implications on reducing noise coupling in a practical multilayer PCB are discussed through a series of simulation examples. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch