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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Editorial

    Page(s): 2073 - 2076
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  • A Low-Power Full-Band Low-Noise Amplifier for Ultra-Wideband Receivers

    Page(s): 2077 - 2083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (770 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a low-power full-band low-noise amplifier (FB-LNA) for ultra-wideband applications is presented. The proposed FB-LNA uses a stagger-tuning technique to extend the full bandwidth from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. A current-reused architecture is employed to decrease the power consumption. By using an input common-gate stage, the input resistance of 50 Ω can be obtained without an extra input-matching network. The output matching is achieved by cascading an output common-drain stage. FB-LNA was implemented with a TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process. On-wafer measurement shows an average power gain of 9.7 dB within the full operation band. The input reflection coefficient and the output reflection coefficient are both less than -10 dB over the entire band. The noise figure of the full band remained under 7 dB with a minimum value of 5.27 dB. The linearity of input third-order intercept point is -2.23 dBm. The power consumptions at 1.5-V supply voltage without an output buffer is 4.5 mW. The chip area occupies 1.17 × 0.88 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS Active Quasi-Circulator With Dual Transmission Gains Incorporating Feedforward Technique at K -Band

    Page(s): 2084 - 2091
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    This paper presents an innovative architecture for the active quasi-circulator to break the structural limitation on the leakage suppression. A practical prototype is implemented at K -band and fabricated by using standard 0.18- μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The comparisons between simulations and on-wafer measurements are reported in detail to confirm the feasibility and capability of the proposed active quasi-circulator. At 24 GHz, the prototype has dual transmission gains of 22.4 and 12.3 dB in the transmitting and receiving paths, respectively. The measured isolation, which is defined by the ratio of the forward transmission to reverse transmission coefficient in the same path, is higher than 50.0 dB at 24.0 GHz. By comparing the leakage phenomena between the prototype with and without feedforward cancellations, the leakage suppression can be improved with a maximum value of 44.7 dB at 23.63 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of a 1.6–28-GHz Compact Wideband LNA in 90-nm CMOS Using a  \pi -Match Input Network

    Page(s): 2092 - 2104
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    This paper presents a wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) based on the cascode configuration with resistive feedback. Wideband input-impedance matching was achieved using a shunt-shunt feedback resistor in conjunction with a preceding π -match network, while the wideband gain response was obtained using a post-cascode inductor (LP), which was inserted between the output of the cascoding transistor and the input of the shunt-shunt resistive feedback network to enhance the gain and suppress noise. Theoretical analysis shows that the frequency response of the power gain, as well as the noise figure (NF), can be described by second-order functions with quality factors or damping ratios as parameters. Implemented in 90-nm CMOS technology, the die area of this wideband LNA is only 0.139 mm2 including testing pads. It dissipates 21.6-mW power and achieves S11 below -10 dB, S22 below -10 dB, flat S21 of 9.6 ±1.1 dB, and flat NF of 3.68 ± 0.72 dB over the 1.6-28-GHz band. Besides, excellent input third-order inter-modulation point of +4 dBm is also achieved. The analytical, simulated, and measured results are mutually consistent. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Noise of Distributed Oscillators

    Page(s): 2105 - 2117
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    In distributed oscillators, a large or infinite number of voltage and current variables that represent an oscillating electromagnetic wave are perturbed by distributed noise sources to result in phase noise. Here we offer an explicit, physically intuitive analysis of the seemingly complex phase-noise process in distributed oscillators. This study, confirmed by experiments, shows how the phase noise varies with the shape and physical nature of the oscillating electromagnetic wave, providing design insights and physical understanding. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Modeling of Microwave Parametric Upconverters

    Page(s): 2118 - 2124
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    Parametric amplification is a well-studied phenomenon by which a nonlinear reactance mixes an RF large-signal (pump) with an IF small-signal (source) to generate mixing products with gain. In this paper, two analytical models are derived and validated that predict limitations in the gain and efficiency of a parametric upconverter associated with varactor tuning range and quality factor. The analytical models are validated by circuit simulations and by two breadboard upconverters. View full abstract»

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  • Poly-Harmonic Modeling and Predistortion Linearization for Software-Defined Radio Upconverters

    Page(s): 2125 - 2133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new predistortion linearization scheme for single-sideband mixers to be used for removing unwanted harmonics and intermodulation products of the digital IF in an heterodyne transmitter. The proposed algorithm, called poly-harmonic predistortion linearization, relies on an orthogonal expansion in the frequency domain of the nonlinearities for the mixer modeling. It takes into account memory effects that are piece-wise quasi-memoryless and enables the independent cancellation of unwanted spurious sidebands of the digital IF harmonics. The poly-harmonic predistortion linearization scheme for the weak-nonlinear regime was implemented in a field-programmable gate array and experimentally investigated for the linearization of a four-path polyphase single-sideband upconverter. The ability of the poly-harmonic predistortion algorithm to linearize the four-path polyphase mixer for input signals with high envelope fluctuation is demonstrated. -70-dBc/-62-dBc/-60-dBc spurious rejection and 18-dB/10-dB/8-dB linearization improvement of the third-order distortions are achieved for a two-tone RF signal, a 64-tone 10-MHz bandwidth multisine signal and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signal, respectively. The combination of the polyphase multipath technique and the poly-harmonic predistortion linearization technique offers an attractive filterless approach for the development of multimode broadband software-defined radio. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Doherty Power Amplifiers for Handset Applications

    Page(s): 2134 - 2142
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    In this paper, we analyze the power drive of a Doherty power amplifier (PA), and introduce a technique for proper input dividing without a coupler. For the proper Doherty operation, we place a phase compensation circuit at the input of the carrier amplifier. We also propose an output matching of Doherty PA to reduce the number of matching components, and to match the output impedances to enhance efficiency and linearity in consideration of the uneven input drive. The PA circuit is fabricated using a 2-μm InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor process and combined for Doherty operation using merged lumped components. For the IEEE 802.16e m-WiMAX signal, which has a 9.54-dB crest factor and 8.75-MHz bandwidth, the PA has an error vector magnitude of 3% and a power-added efficiency of 40.2% at an output power of 26 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • A CMOS Wideband RF Front-End With Mismatch Calibrated Harmonic Rejection Mixer for Terrestrial Digital TV Tuner Applications

    Page(s): 2143 - 2151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wideband direct-conversion RF front-end for Advanced Television Systems Committee terrestrial digital TV (DTV) tuner applications is realized in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. In order to effectively solve the critical local oscillator (LO) harmonic mixing problem in an ultra-wideband frequency environment of 48-860 MHz, the combination of a mismatch calibrated harmonic rejection mixer (HRM) and a simple preceding integrated third-order passive RF tracking filter with an external inductor is utilized to obtain 60-80 dB of harmonic rejection for all odd-order harmonic mixing within the DTV spectrum. In addition, an efficient novel calibration algorithm for the HRM is proposed in order to simplify the compensation process. The RF front-end also includes a broadband noise-canceling low-noise amplifier, an attenuator to cover the wide dynamic range, an LO multiphase generator, and peripheral circuits such as an I2C serial interface for digital control. The implemented CMOS RF front-end achieves a total gain of 40 dB, output third-order intercept point of 30 dBm, and noise figure of 5.5 dB while consuming a low power of 140 mW from a 1.8-V supply voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Waves in a Semiconductor Periodic Layered Resonator

    Page(s): 2152 - 2157
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    A study is made of the TM- and TE-wave propagation in a periodic layered resonator composed of alternating layers of two different semiconductors. The dispersion dependence for a finite medium and field distributions are obtained. The effect of the dissipation processes on the wave dispersion is considered. The influence of dielectric permittivities of uniform half-spaces on the dispersion dependence of the waves is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Fields at a Finite Conducting Wedge and Applications in Interconnect Modeling

    Page(s): 2158 - 2165
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    The fields at a finite conducting 2-D wedge are studied by means of the surface admittance operator, and compared to the case of a perfect conductor. This technique, applied to a number of numerical examples, allows a thorough investigation of the singular behavior of the fields near the edge, including nonsingular fields such as the longitudinal current distribution. Special attention is devoted to the validity of the quasi-TM approximations, when edge singularities are taken into account. The studied field properties lead to the formulation of an approximative local surface impedance for conductors, and are finally used to show how some differences in the resistive and inductive behavior of conductors with a different geometry are due to edge effects. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Trust-Region Space-Mapping Algorithms for Microwave Design Optimization

    Page(s): 2166 - 2174
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Convergence is a well-known issue for standard space-mapping optimization algorithms. It is heavily dependent on the choice of coarse model, as well as the space-mapping transformations employed in the optimization process. One possible convergence safeguard is the trust region approach where a surrogate model is optimized in a restricted neighborhood of the current iteration point. In this paper, we demonstrate that although formal conditions for applying trust regions are not strictly satisfied for space-mapping surrogate models, the approach improves the overall performance of the space-mapping optimization process. Further improvement can be realized when approximate fine model Jacobian information is exploited in the construction of the space-mapping surrogate. A comprehensive numerical comparison between standard and trust-region-enhanced space mapping is provided using several examples of microwave design problems. View full abstract»

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  • Large Overlapping Subdomain Method of Moments for the Analysis of Frequency Selective Surfaces

    Page(s): 2175 - 2187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new set of basis functions is presented for the analysis of frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) by the method of moments (MoM). Each of the separate patches in the unit cell of an FSS is covered with some large overlapping sub-patches. Each sub-patch has a shape that is simple enough for obtaining an appropriate set of basis functions analytically from an eigenvalue problem. This technique is called the large overlapping subdomain MoM. It is shown that the proposed method has a better convergence than the standard MoM with rooftop basis functions in terms of both required basis functions and Fourier modes. Furthermore, this approach offers a much easier way to model patches with curved boundaries. The extraction of the proposed basis functions involves mostly analytical procedures. Therefore, this kind of moment method is computationally more efficient than versions with entire domain basis functions, in which the basis is obtained from the boundary integral resonant mode expansion technique. Nonetheless, this is accompanied by a small decay in the convergence rate, i.e., the large overlapping subdomain is clearly placed between the standard subdomain and entire domain versions of the MoM. It is shown that the developed method is advantageous for usual FSSs and unit cell configurations with several patches. View full abstract»

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  • Theory of Coupled Resonator Microwave Bandpass Filters of Arbitrary Bandwidth

    Page(s): 2188 - 2203
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a new theory of coupled resonator bandpass microwave filters of arbitrary bandwidth. Constraints on the scattering parameters of lossless, time-invariant, and reciprocal two-port networks, expressed as rational functions of the physical frequency, are presented. Filtering functions exhibiting arbitrarily positioned transmission zeros and locally symmetric or asymmetric responses with respect to the center of the passband, and satisfying these constraints are then introduced. A direct synthesis technique to extract the elements of the transversal equivalent circuit to yield a prescribed response is presented. Response-preserving similarity transformations are then applied to the circuit to force a desired topology. As opposed to the prevailing narrowband approximation, any topology other than the transversal will have off-diagonal elements that depend on frequency. Interesting features that are not found in the narrowband approximation are reported. Examples demonstrating the soundness of the theory are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Band and Wide-Stopband Single-Band Balanced Bandpass Filters With High Selectivity and Common-Mode Suppression

    Page(s): 2204 - 2212
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    Novel dual-band and wide-stopband single-band balanced bandpass filters with high selectivity and common-mode suppression are presented in this paper. Stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs) are usually used for designing dual-band bandpass filters; however, they have a strong common-mode response when designing a balanced filter. To suppress the common-mode signal, a half-wavelength SIR loaded by a capacitor or a resistor has been introduced and theoretically analyzed. It is found that the capacitor can minimize the common-mode external quality factor, and the resistor can reduce the common-mode unloaded quality factor. With the use of this property, the common-mode response can be suppressed, whereas the differential-mode response is almost unaffected. This property can be easily verified by comparing the results of the balanced bandpass filters with and without loaded elements. To demonstrate the design idea, one balanced dual-band bandpass filter operating at 2.4 and 5 GHz and another balanced single-band bandpass filter with a wide stopband are designed. It was found that the common-mode suppression level of both filters can be greatly improved, and high selectivity is obtained by giving two differential-mode coupling paths. View full abstract»

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  • Varactor-Tuned Dual-Mode Bandpass Filters

    Page(s): 2213 - 2219
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    This paper presents a new type of varactor-tuned dual-mode bandpass filter. Since the two operating modes (i.e., the odd and even modes) in a dual-mode microstrip open-loop resonator do not couple to each other, the tuning of the passband frequency becomes simple with a single dc-bias circuit while keeping nearly constant absolute bandwidth. Design equations and procedures are derived, and two two-pole tunable bandpass filters of this type are demonstrated experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Synthesis and Design of Wideband and Inhomogeneous Inductive Waveguide Filters

    Page(s): 2220 - 2230
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    In this paper, a new synthesis and design methodology is presented and applied for the fast and accurate design of inductive rectangular waveguide filters. By using this technique, the dimensions of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous filters can be successfully synthesized for almost any practical filter bandwidth, return loss, or filter order. This novel technique is based on a prototype with additional degrees of freedom, able to match the response of the different filter components in a wideband frequency range, and an elaborated design procedure that fully exploits this flexibility. During the design procedure, the prototype and the real structure are continuously aligned in order to have the same electromagnetic behavior and jointly evolve to obtain an equiripple response. Once the final prototype has been synthesized, excellent filter dimensions can be extracted that, in most cases, do not require further optimization. Examples will show the outstanding performance of the proposed design technique in terms of versatility, accuracy, and CPU time. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Measurement of a Time-Varying Matching Scheme for Pulse-Based Receivers With High- Q Sources

    Page(s): 2231 - 2243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A time-varying matching scheme designed for pulse- based high-quality factor (Q) receiving systems is introduced and analyzed. The proposed technique takes advantage of the time-domain characteristics of the short-duration pulses in a way that the matching network is optimized for absorbing energy from the pulse within its duration, and is reconfigured after the pulse so that the captured energy is efficiently delivered to the load. Particularly, this paper extends the authors' earlier work by providing a comprehensive analysis of the capability of the proposed design in achieving exceptional voltage gain and width compression. Measurements in the VHF range are provided to show the performance of the proposed design versus the conventional ones. The proposed technique is applied to the matching design for electrically small antennas, which achieves output signals with ten times narrower pulsewidths compared to original pulses, 3-4 times larger amplitudes, and 0.3-3-dB energy gains compared to conventional matching designs. New results also demonstrate the effects of timing/synchronization, which show that accurate synchronization (with typical error smaller than 10% of the original pulsewidth) is required to maintain large output amplitude (e.g., higher than 90% of the maximum achievable level). The proposed technique is particularly suitable for receiving systems using common modulation schemes including pulse amplitude modulation and on-off keying. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Flip-Chip Interconnect Using Epoxy-Based Underfill Up to V -Band Frequencies With Excellent Reliability

    Page(s): 2244 - 2250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study demonstrates a flip-chip interconnect with epoxy-based underfill (εr = 3.5 and tan δ = 0.02 at 10 MHz) for packaging applications up to V-band frequencies. To achieve the best interconnect performance, both the matching designs on GaAs chip and Al2O3 substrate were adopted with the underfill effects taken into consideration. The optimized flip-chip interconnect showed excellent performance from dc to 67 GHz with return loss below -20 dB and insertion loss less than 0.6 dB. Furthermore, the dielectric loss induced by the underfill was extracted from measurement and compared with the simulation results. The reliability tests including 85°C/85 % relative humidity test, thermal cycling test, and shear force test were performed. For the first time, the S-parameters measurement was performed to check the flip-chip reliability, and no performance decay was observed after 1000 thermal cycles. Moreover, the mechanical strength was improved about 12 times after the underfill was applied. The results show that the proposed flip-chip architecture has excellent reliability and can be applied for commercial applications. View full abstract»

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  • An Intrinsic Circuit Model for Multiple Vias in an Irregular Plate Pair Through Rigorous Electromagnetic Analysis

    Page(s): 2251 - 2265
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    An irregular plate pair with multiple vias is analyzed by the segmentation method that divides the plate pair into a plate domain and via domains. In the via domains, all the parallel-plate modes are considered, while in the plate domain, only the propagating modes are included to account for the coupling among vias and the reflection from plate edges. Boundary conditions at both vias and plate edges are enforced and all parasitic components of via circuit are expressed analytically in terms of parallel-plate modes. The work presented in this paper indicates that a previous physics-based via circuit model from intuition is a low-frequency approximation. Analytical and numerical simulations, as well as measurements, have been used to validate the intrinsic via circuit model. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturized Coupled-Line Couplers Using Uniplanar Synthesized Coplanar Waveguides

    Page(s): 2266 - 2276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel slow-wave synthesized coplanar waveguide (CPW), namely, the uniplanar synthesized CPW, is investigated in this paper. Quasi-lumped CPW inductors and capacitors are used in synthesizing the new slow-wave structure. The synthesis method, lumped equivalent-circuit model, and simulated and experimental results are discussed. The synthesized line, featuring excellent miniaturization capabilities, has a moderate quality factor. The slow wave factor is 7.5, while the unloaded quality factor is 30-60. By utilizing the synthesized CPW, three novel miniaturized coupled-line directional couplers are proposed and experimentally verified. With the help of even/odd-mode analysis, design charts are summarized for understanding of the developed miniaturized couplers. When compared with previous designs, the miniaturized couplers show comparable performance, but significantly reduced sizes. Additionally, they have quasi-square appearances, which are suitable for circuit integration in cascade connection. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Miniaturized Forward-Wave Directional Coupler With Periodical Mushroom-Shaped Ground Plane

    Page(s): 2277 - 2283
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    A novel miniaturized forward-wave directional coupler with periodical mushroom-shaped ground plane is proposed. The coupler can be designed with identical characteristic impedances for even and odd mode and enhanced the difference of propagation constants between the even and odd mode. These distinct propagation characteristics can be predicted by the equivalent-circuit model of a unit-cell using the Bloch-Floquet theorem. A tested sample is designed and fabricated on the FR4 substrate. We designed a 0-dB coupler with the length about 1.28 λg, and 1.0-dB coupling is measured at 2.9 GHz due to the loss. Compared with previously studies, the proposed coupler can be implemented to attain the highest coupling level with a smaller size. View full abstract»

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  • Extraction of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters in Electroabsorption Modulators

    Page(s): 2284 - 2291
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method is presented for extracting the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) from measurements of their electrical to optical and optical to electrical responses over frequency. The method is analytically described and experimentally verified with the use of an electrical vector network analyzer. It is shown that the use of EAMs as both modulators and receivers allows the extraction of the parameters, which govern their intrinsic frequency response while removing the effect of the interconnect/package used and the need for an accurately calibrated optical modulator and receiver pair used to do the measurements. A set of S-parameters accounting for the effect of the interconnect/package is also calculated and used along with the intrinsic parameters to reproduce the measured frequency response of the EAM. Good agreement is obtained between calculated and measured results, thus confirming the validity of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

Editor-in-Chief
Jenshan Lin
jenshan@ieee.org