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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2909
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 2910
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  • Design of an SRM Speed Control Strategy for a Wide Range of Operating Speeds

    Page(s): 2911 - 2921
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a speed control strategy for a switched reluctance machine (SRM). Two control strategies are compared to select the most appropriate control that allows the SRM to operate in wide-speed-range operation. The proposed strategy is first designed to control the speed in discontinuous conduction mode and is then extended to operate in continuous conduction mode as well. In this paper, the transition from three different operating modes is detailed, and the experimental results validate the proposed strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Gain-Scheduling Regulator for High-Performance Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Page(s): 2922 - 2931
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of high-precision position control in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives is investigated in this paper. Advanced proportional-integral and proportional-differential controllers for speed and position controls, respectively, are adopted. A gain-scheduling technique is adopted in the speed controller design for providing high dynamic performance and precise position control. In order to improve the set-point tracking, a low-pass filter is included in the position controller. The proposed four-quadrant control scheme is based on the average torque control method. The turn-on and turn-off angles are online determined through simple formulas so as to reduce the torque ripple at an acceptable level over a wide speed range. This is important since the position precision is highly influenced from the motor torque ripple. Experimental results of the SRM dynamic response are presented to verify the theoretical considerations and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • State-Switching Control Technique for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives: Theory and Implementation

    Page(s): 2932 - 2938
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    Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) exhibit advantageous features such as low inertia, fault tolerance, high efficiency, and simple design. However, its control is fairly complex due to nonlinear characteristics of the magnetic flux linkage seen on the stator windings. Several memory and/or processor intensive solutions have been proposed to deal with the control problem, constraining the use of the motor to high-cost and high-performance applications. The focus of this paper is to develop a simple controller for the SRM based on state-switching digital control. The concept of state-switching digital control is to control the motor state (speed) by applying a high or a low energy pulse-above and below the desired steady state of the motor. Such a controller can be implemented in low-complexity analog circuitry. This paper presents two methods of motor control: one for single-speed applications and another for variable speed applications. In addition, this paper derives the control equations and disturbance rejection response. Simulation and experimental results for various operating modes are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Calculation of the Acoustic Noise Spectrum of SRM Using Modal Superposition

    Page(s): 2939 - 2945
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to calculate the harmonic content of stator vibrations and acoustic noise resulting from radial force excitations in switched reluctance machines (SRM). The method is based on a thin cylinder approximation of the stator. The eigen modes are represented by their transmission impedance. The spectral composition of the vibrations can be calculated using superposition of the eigen modes and vibrations caused by all phases of the SRM. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic Simulation of a Special Switched Reluctance Drive by Means of Field–Circuit Coupling and Multiphysics Simulation

    Page(s): 2946 - 2953
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    The approach presented in this paper consists of an energy-based field-circuit coupling in combination with multiphysics simulation of the acoustic radiation of electrical machines. The proposed method is applied to a special switched reluctance motor with asymmetric pole geometry to improve the start-up torque. The pole shape has been optimized, subject to low torque ripple, in a previous study. The proposed approach here is used to analyze the impact of the optimization on the overall acoustic behavior. The field-circuit coupling is based on a temporary lumped-parameter model of the magnetic part incorporated into a circuit simulation based on the modified nodal analysis. The harmonic force excitation is calculated by means of stress tensor computation, and it is transformed to a mechanical mesh by mapping techniques. The structural dynamic problem is solved in the frequency domain using a finite-element modal analysis and superposition. The radiation characteristic is obtained from boundary element acoustic simulation. Simulation results of both rotor types are compared, and measurements of the drive are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Rotor-Position Estimation of Switched Reluctance Motors Based on Damped Voltage Resonance

    Page(s): 2954 - 2960
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method to obtain the rotor position of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) by means of voltage measurements. It is shown that the combination of a motor and a power-electronic converter defines a resonant circuit, comprising the motor phase inductances and the parasitic capacitance of converter switches, power cables, and motor phase windings. For salient machines, in general, the associated resonance frequency of the circuit depends on the rotor position. In the position-estimation method, an initial voltage distribution is imposed over the impedances of the resonant circuit after which the circuit is let to oscillate freely. During this phase of free oscillation, the induced voltage over a phase winding exhibits a damped oscillatory behavior, from which position information can be retrieved. An overview is given of the different possibilities to trigger the voltage resonance. It is shown that the proposed position-estimation method has favorable characteristics such as measurement of large-amplitude voltages, robustness against temperature deviations of motor and power semiconductors, very high update rates for the estimated position, and absence of sound and disturbance torque. Experimental results are given for a sensorless commutation scheme of an SRM under small load. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Passive Boost Power Converter for Three-Phase SR Drive

    Page(s): 2961 - 2971
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel passive boost power converter and its analysis for a three-phase switched reluctance (SR) drive. The proposed simple passive circuit adds three diodes and one capacitor to the front end of a conventional asymmetric converter in order to obtain a high negative bias. Based on this passive power network, the terminal voltage of the converter side is at general dc-link voltage level in parallel mode and is up to a double dc-link voltage level in series mode. As a result, it can suppress the negative torque generation from the tail current and improve the output power. Combining a passive circuit with a three-phase asymmetric converter without phase-current overlap, the phase winding obtains the dc-link voltage in the excitation mode and the negative double dc-link voltage in the demagnetization mode. With the phase-current overlap, the dc-link voltage or the double dc-link voltage is dependent on the overlap current. The operation modes of the proposed converter are analyzed with a three-phase SR motor. The selection of the boost capacitor is considered, and a detailed analysis of current-overlap modes is presented. The compared simulation and experiments are done. The results verify the performance of the proposed converter. View full abstract»

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  • An Accurate Inductance Profile Measurement Technique for Switched Reluctance Machines

    Page(s): 2972 - 2979
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machines (SRMs) is necessary in order to achieve satisfactory control performance. Due to their highly nonlinear characteristics, the exact inductance profile for SRMs in one electrical period ought to be obtained. The purpose of this paper is to propose an accurate method to model the SRM magnetization characteristic, representing the accurate inductance profile, in order to achieve higher control performance. Furthermore, the innovative method proposed in this paper addresses a diverse way to minimize overall losses, compared to conventional methods. Instead of using a specific apparatus for measurement, the proposed method directly uses the saturation feature of the phase inductance. This paper discusses the advantages and improvements of the proposed method compared to conventional methods. Finally, the results computed by finite-element analysis are compared with the experimental results in terms of SRM magnetization characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Objective Optimization Design of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motors in Electric Vehicles

    Page(s): 2980 - 2987
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The method of the optimization design with multi-objectives for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is proposed in this paper. It is desired that electric motors for EVs have high torque, high efficiency, and high torque density. Thus, the developed optimization function is selected as the correct compromise between the maximum average torque, maximum average torque per copper loss, and maximum average torque per motor lamination volume, by using three weight factors and three base values. The stator and rotor pole arc angles are selected as the optimized variables. Furthermore, the authors also discuss the design requirements and some constraints on the optimization design. The results of the optimization design show that the proposed method meets the requirements of EVs on electric motors well. A prototype of the optimally designed in-wheel SRM for EVs has been manufactured. This paper provides a valuable method to implement the optimal design of SRMs for EVs. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Optimization of a Switched Reluctance Motor Driving a Compressor for a PEM Fuel-Cell System for Automotive Applications

    Page(s): 2988 - 2997
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    This paper describes the design of a high-speed three-phase switched reluctance machine to drive a compressor for the air management of a fuel-cell system for automotive applications. The machine geometry is optimized by means of a finite-element method coupled to a genetic algorithm. The performance of the optimized machine is evaluated, taking into account the iron and air-friction losses. Some theoretical and numerical results are sustained by the measured ones in the same operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • On Real-Time Simulation for Harmonic and Flicker Assessment of an Industrial System With Bulk Nonlinear Loads

    Page(s): 2998 - 3009
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents application experiences of real-time simulation (RTS) techniques for harmonic and flicker studies of an industrial power system, where the system and nonlinear loads are properly modeled. A PC-cluster-based real-time parallel simulator is implemented under MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the studied system consists of an ac electric arc furnace, dc and ac motor-drive loads, and the static var compensator. Guidelines for model partition of the studied system and the solver settings under an RTS environment are reported. In addition, the most commonly used offline simulation with variable-step solver and the actual field measurements are included for comparison. Results indicate that the RTS achieves satisfactory solution accuracy within much less execution time and can be applied for more complicated studies such as installing new nonlinear loads with different levels of model complexities or designing/tuning mitigation devices of power-quality disturbances, where the repeated time-consuming analysis is required. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Simulation of Grid-Connected Wind Farms Using Physical Aggregation

    Page(s): 3010 - 3021
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2088 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation of a power system interconnected with wind farms involves such intensive computations that fully digital real-time simulators are among the effective tools for performing such simulations. To practically exploit real-time simulators for the simulation of wind farms with numerous wind turbines, the application of aggregation techniques is inevitable. In this paper, a detailed EMT model of a grid-connected wind farm with ten doubly-fed-induction-generator-based General Electric 1.5-MW wind turbines has been implemented on an advanced PC-Cluster-based real-time simulator. Three levels of physical aggregation methods are presented to reduce the computational efforts of the real-time simulation while maintaining adequate accuracy. A combination of these aggregation methods with parallel processing allowed the real-time simulation to be carried out with a fixed time step of 50 μs and high accuracy. Various fault transient results are provided for all the aggregation levels and compared against results from the detailed wind farm model. The validity of the proposed methods and real-time simulation results has also been confirmed by comparing with offline simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Design of Interphase Reactor With Double-Tap Changer Applied to Multipulse Diode Rectifier

    Page(s): 3022 - 3029
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the optimum turns ratio of an interphase reactor (IPR) with a double-tap changer is presented with mathematical analysis. The relation between the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current and the turns ratio is introduced, and based on the relation, the optimum turns ratio when the THD is minimal is obtained. Via another relation between the ripple coefficients of the output voltage and the turns ratio, the optimum turns ratio is derived when the ripple coefficient is minimal. Meanwhile, using the optimum turns ratio, a new formula to calculate the critical value of IPR is written. Some computer simulation results and experiments are included to support the theoretical analysis of optimum design. View full abstract»

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  • A Generalized Half-Wave Symmetry SHE-PWM Formulation for Multilevel Voltage Inverters

    Page(s): 3030 - 3038
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    Half-cycle symmetry selective-harmonic-elimination pulsewidth-modulation (SHE-PWM) problems may have a large number of valid solutions, which are beneficial to the optimization design. This paper proposes a novel generalized formulation of half-cycle symmetry SHE-PWM problems for multilevel inverters. The advantages of the proposed formulation include simplicity in format, flexibility in PWM waveforms, and a broad solution space. A method to obtain initial values for the SHE-PWM equations according to the reference modulation index M and the initial phase angle of output fundamental voltage is proposed and investigated thoroughly. Take a five-level inverter with M = 0.75 as an example; six sets of solutions for two typical initial phase angles of 0° and 90° are presented. Simulations and experiments are carried out. It is demonstrated that the experimental results agree well with simulated ones, which proves the validity and practicability of the new method proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Control Strategies for Variable-Speed Pump-Turbine Units by Using a Simplified Model of the Converters

    Page(s): 3039 - 3049
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    This paper presents the modeling, simulation, and analysis of the dynamic behavior of a fictitious 2 × 320 MW variable-speed pump-turbine power plant, including a hydraulic system, electrical equipment, rotating inertias, and control systems. The modeling of the hydraulic and electrical components of the power plant is presented. The dynamic performances of a control strategy in generating mode and one in pumping mode are investigated by the simulation of the complete models in the case of change of active power set points. Then, a pseudocontinuous model of the converters feeding the rotor circuits is described. Due to this simplification, the simulation time can be reduced drastically (approximately factor 60). A first validation of the simplified model of the converters is obtained by comparison of the simulated results coming from the simplified and complete models for different modes of operation of the power plant. Experimental results performed on a 2.2-kW low-power test bench are also compared with the simulated results coming from both complete and simplified models related to this case and confirm the validity of the proposed simplified approach for the converters. View full abstract»

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  • Parasitic Effects of Grounding Paths on Common-Mode EMI Filter's Performance in Power Electronics Systems

    Page(s): 3050 - 3059
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    High-frequency common-mode (CM) electromagnetic-interference (EMI) noise is difficult to suppress in electronics systems. EMI filters are used to suppress CM noise, but their performance is greatly affected by the parasitic effects of the grounding paths. In this paper, the parasitic effects of the grounding paths on an EMI filter's performance are investigated in a motor-drive system. The effects of the mutual inductance between two grounding paths are explored. Guidelines for the grounding of CM EMI filters are derived. Simulations and experiments are finally carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Tap Chopping Stabilizer With Subcyclic AC Soft Switching

    Page(s): 3060 - 3074
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    AC voltage and phase regulators based on tap changers implemented with silicon-controlled rectifiers and triacs are widely used due to their robustness. Tap changing is achieved under natural commutation of semiconductors during the zero crossing of current, so that the response time exceeds the half cycle of the mains. High-power transistors and gate turn-off thyristor switches make new and faster tap commutation techniques possible to achieve several tap changes in one half cycle. This paper analyzes and synthesizes a dual-tap chopping stabilizer with a compensating transformer, with a pulsewidth-modulation frequency of about 5 kHz and a new soft-switching technique achieved by two auxiliary small-power branches. Unlike other supercyclic ac soft-switching solutions, the new commutating method allows zero current turn-off, several times in a half cycle, for any sign combination of voltage and current, thus reducing the electrical stress in the switches and the electromagnetic emission. Zero-crossing current detection is not needed. A technical study and an evaluation of the power of the required components are done on the commutation techniques that extend the application field of tap changers to the reduction of the fast perturbations of the mains as flicker, voltage harmonics, voltage oscillations, etc. Experimental results with insulated-gate bipolar transistor switches are obtained in a 1 kVA prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Snubberless Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With New CLLC Resonant Tank Featuring Minimized Switching Loss

    Page(s): 3075 - 3086
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A bidirectional DC-DC converter (BDC) with a new CLLC-type resonant tank, which features zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the input inverting choppers and zero-current switching (ZCS) for the output rectifier switches, regardless of the direction of the power flow, is proposed in this paper. Possessing the very optimal ZVS +ZCS soft-switching feature, this proposed converter will have a minimized switching loss if all of the main switches are implemented with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and thereby, the proposed converter is fully soft switched and totally snubberless. The detail operation principles, as well as the design considerations, are presented. The methodologies to develop a unidirectional ZVS+ZCS dc-dc converter for the corresponding pulsewidth modulation and frequency modulation converters are proposed. The approach on how to construct a fully soft-switched BDC has also been proposed and analyzed. Finally, a topology extension is made, and another fully soft-switched BDC is derived. A prototype, which interfaces the 400-48-V dc buses for the uninterrupted power supply system with a power rating of 500 VA, was developed to verify the validity and applicability of this proposed converter. The highest applicable conversion efficiencies for the bidirectional operational modes are exceeding 96%. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance Feedback Control of Electromagnetic Vibratory Feeder

    Page(s): 3087 - 3094
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a high-performance feedback controller for an electromagnetic vibratory feeder is proposed. An electromagnetic actuator is driven by a switching circuit with pulsewidth as the control variable. The controller structure consists of a proportional-integral controller combined with a state observer. The controlled variable is the resonant frequency vibration amplitude obtained in real time from the state observer. The use of the state observer allows fast disturbance rejection and reference tracking in both directions (amplitude increase and decrease). Simulations and experimental results from the real device are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Nonresonant and Resonant Frequency-Selectable Induction-Heating Targets

    Page(s): 3095 - 3108
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    This paper examines a scheme for developing frequency-selectable induction-heating targets for stimulating temperature-sensitive polymer gels. The phrase “frequency selectable” implies that each target has a frequency at which it heats preferentially in the presence of other targets. Targets using both nonresonant and resonant designs are discussed. In the case of nonresonant targets, single-turn conductors whose critical dimensions are small compared to their associated skin depth (over the frequency range of interest) are examined. One way to achieve frequency selectivity with these nonresonant targets is by designing each to have the same self-inductance while forcing the resistance of each target to differ from the previous one by a specified factor (α). In this way, a target driven at its R/L break-point frequency will heat by at least a factor of (α2 + 1)/(2 α) more than the remaining targets. In the resonant-target case, RLC circuits that are inductively coupled to a primary induction coil are examined. Frequency selectivity in resonant targets is achieved by designing each target to have a different resonant frequency. When such a target is driven at its resonant frequency, it will heat preferentially compared to the remaining targets. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Applications of Parasitic Capacitance Cancellation Techniques for EMI Suppression

    Page(s): 3109 - 3117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews and analyzes five parasitic capacitance cancellation methods. Critical parameters and constraints determining the cancellation frequency ranges are identified, and the effective frequency range for each cancellation method is derived based on these constraints. Due to these constraints, each method has specific advantages for certain applications. The cancellation techniques, which all make use of either mutual capacitance or mutual inductance, are applied to different applications based on their advantages, and the experiments are carried out to verify the analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Efficient Single-Phase Transformerless Inverters for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Page(s): 3118 - 3128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Driven by worldwide demand for renewable sources, the photovoltaic market saw in the last years a considerable amount of innovations regarding the construction and operation of inverters connected to the grid. One significant advance, among some that will be here discussed is, for example, the abolition of the galvanic isolation in inverters installed in Germany. There, transformerless topologies, like the H5 and Heric, can reach very high levels of efficiency and allow the best cost-benefit ratio for low-power grid-tied systems. This paper will follow this direction and propose a single-phase transformerless inverter circuit being composed of the association of two step-down converters. Each one modulates a half-wave of the output current, as the correct polarity of the connection to the grid is provided by low-frequency switches. Due to its straightforward design, reduced amount of semiconductors, and simple operation, it is possible to achieve a high level of efficiency and reliability. These and some other characteristics will be benchmarked against other existing circuits, being followed by a theoretical analysis on the properties of the proposed solution. The project of a laboratory prototype will be presented, along with a discussion about the obtained experimental results. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411