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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 701 - 702
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Biophotonics—Part 2

    Page(s): 703 - 705
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB)  

    This Part 2 of the special issue on biophotonics contains 27 papers, including 18 invited and 19 contributed papers. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography

    Page(s): 706 - 714
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Understanding the etiology and evolution of the vulnerable coronary plaque is important for the early detection, treatment, and prevention of coronary artery disease. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables imaging of the coronary arteries in vivo with sufficient resolution to accurately differentiate arterial pathology, however, the clinical utility of this technology has been limited due to slow image acquisition rates. The development of high-speed Fourier-domain OCT techniques, including optical frequency-domain imaging, enables comprehensive microstructural imaging of long coronary artery segments. Other OCT advancements, including polarization sensitive OCT provide complementary birefringence information that is related to tissue composition. Together with new image processing, acquisition, and display techniques, these advances have enhanced the usability and utility of intracoronary OCT, bringing it closer to becoming a mainstream imaging modality in interventional cardiology. View full abstract»

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  • Alternative Transrectal Prostate Imaging: A Diffuse Optical Tomography Method

    Page(s): 715 - 729
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a transrectal dual-modality near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography technique coupled with ultrasonography that provides an integrated method for detecting prostate cancer (PCa). The study that provides an alternative transrectal prostate imaging system stems from the perceived inadequacy of conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in PCa imaging. The transrectally applied diffuse optical tomography aims to characterize the spatially resolved optical properties of the intact prostate that are known to have intraorgan and intersubject heterogeneities. A canine model of PCa using canine transmissible venereal tumor was used to demonstrate the utility of this technology in detecting PCa. Tumors in the pelvic canal, including tumors in the prostate, were found to be detectable at 2-week postinjection based upon the NIR absorption contrast, which was detected a few weeks earlier than using NIR-reduced scattering and effective attenuation contrasts, as well as TRUS. Transrectal optical tomography detection of cancerous tissues in vivo in intact canine prostate based upon NIR contrasts may prove useful for diagnostic imaging of PCa and potentially aid in pretreatment planning for phototherapy applications. View full abstract»

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  • Photoacoustic Imaging of the Breast Using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: Present Status and Future Perspectives

    Page(s): 730 - 739
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (645 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM) uses pulsed light at 1064 nm to excite PA signals. Detection is using a planar 590-element ultrasound (US) sensor matrix. Image reconstruction uses a delay-and-sum beamforming algorithm. Measurements are performed in the forward mode, with mild compression of the breast against the detector with US coupling gel. We consolidate the most important specifications of the system. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the results of imaging two cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and one case of a cyst. We critically discuss the features of the present embodiment and present plans for its improvement. View full abstract»

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  • Confocal Imaging of Thermal Lensing Induced by Near-IR Laser Radiation in an Artificial Eye

    Page(s): 740 - 747
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A custom confocal imaging system was built and used to record a probe beam's spatiotemporal response to a thermal lens induced by a near-IR laser radiation source in a water-filled artificial eye. The IR laser radiation input power levels were varied between 150 and 890 mW at wavelengths of 1110, 1130, 1150 and 1318 nm in order to determine the strength of the resulting thermal lens as a function of time, input power, and wavelength. A high-frame-rate camera captured the probe beam's logarithmic excitation and exponential decay caused by the thermal lens (supplemental video data are provided). Data showed that for equivalent input powers and beam geometries, thermal lensing was strongest for the 1150-nm laser radiation wavelength followed by 1130, 1318 and 1110 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum Dot Superluminescent Diodes for Optical Coherence Tomography: Skin Imaging

    Page(s): 748 - 754
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a high-power (18 mW continuous wave exiting a single-mode fiber and 35 mW exiting the facet), broadband (85 nm full-width at half-maximum) quantum dot-based superluminescent diode, and apply it to a time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) setup. First, we test its performance with increasing optical feedback. Then we demonstrate its imaging properties on tissue-engineered (TE) skin and in vivo skin. OCT allows the tracking of epidermal development in TE skin, while the higher power source allows better sensitivity and depth penetration for imaging of in vivo skin layers. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Fluorescence Laminar Optical Tomography (FLOT)

    Page(s): 755 - 766
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimodal imaging represents one of the current trends in the development of biophotonics imaging technologies. This paper briefly reviews current multimodal biophotonics imaging platforms in macroscopic, microscopic, and mesoscopic (or millimeter) scales. We also present a combined optical coherence tomography and line-scan fluorescence laminar optical tomography system for co-registered structural and molecular imaging with millimeter-scale imaging depth. Experimental results using a capillary phantom filled with the fluorescence dye Cy5.5 and a human breast cancer xenograft model are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy Employing Octave Spanning Pulses

    Page(s): 767 - 780
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews and discusses the concept of nonlinear optical spectroscopy (NLOS) and microscopy employing ultra-broadband laser pulses. A spectral phase modulation technique of the ultra-broadband pulses, which allows the control of nonlinear optical processes, enables multimodal imaging in nonlinear optical microscopy. This technique uses the difference of the excitation spectra of molecules of interest. A spectroscopic technique combining NLOS with a Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy provides a broadband excitation spectrum with the bandwidth of the ultra-broadband pulse and a high spectral resolution in a single measurement. FT-NLOS can also be applied directly to multispectral microspectroscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Endoscopic Functional Fourier Domain Common-Path Optical Coherence Tomography for Microsurgery

    Page(s): 781 - 792
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A single-arm interferometer-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system known as common-path OCT (CP-OCT) is rapidly progressing towards practical application. Due in part to the simplicity and robustness of its design, Fourier domain CP-OCT (FD-CP-OCT) offers advantages in many endoscopic sensing and imaging applications. FD-CP-OCT uses simple, interchangeable fiber optic probes that are easily integrated into small and delicate surgical tools. The system is capable of providing not only high-resolution imaging but also optical sensing. Here, we report progress towards practical application of FD-CP-OCT in the setting of delicate microsurgical procedures such as intraocular retinal surgery. To meet the challenges presented by the microsurgical requirements of these procedures, we have developed and initiated the validation of applicable fiber optic probes. By integrating these probes into our developing imaging system, we have obtained high-resolution OCT images and have also completed a demonstration of their potential sensing capabilities. Specifically, we utilize multiple superluminescent diodes to demonstrate sub-3-μm axial resolution in water; we propose a technique to quantitatively evaluate the spatial distribution of oxygen saturation levels in tissue; and we present evidence supportive of the technology's surface sensing and tool guidance potential by demonstrating topological and motion compensation capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • PDE-Constrained Fluorescence Tomography With the Frequency-Domain Equation of Radiative Transfer

    Page(s): 793 - 803
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the first fluorescence tomography algorithm that is based on a partial differential equation (PDE) constrained approach. PDE methods have been increasingly employed in many numerical applications, as they often lead to faster and more robust solutions of many inverse problems. In particular, we use a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method, which allows solving the two forward problems in fluorescence tomography (one for the excitation and one for the emission radiances) and one inverse problem (for recovering the spatial distribution of the fluorescent sources) simultaneously by updating both forward and inverse variables in simultaneously at each of iteration of the optimization process. We evaluate the performance of this approach with numerical and experimental data using a transport-theory frequency-domain algorithm as forward model for light propagation in tissue. The results show that the PDE-constrained approach is computationally stable and accelerates the image reconstruction process up to a factor of 15 when compared to commonly employed unconstrained methods. View full abstract»

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  • MEMS-Based Dual-Axes Confocal Microendoscopy

    Page(s): 804 - 814
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature, near-infrared microscope (λ = 785 nm) that uses a novel dual-axes confocal architecture. Scalability is achieved with postobjective scanning, and a microelectromechanical systems mirror provide real-time (>4 Hz) in vivo imaging. This instrument can achieve subcellular resolution with deep tissue penetration and large field of view. An endoscope-compatible version can image digestive tract epithelium to guide tissue biopsy and monitor therapy. View full abstract»

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  • Back-directional Gated Spectroscopic Imaging for Diffuse Light Suppression in High Anisotropic Media and Its Preclinical Applications for Microvascular Imaging

    Page(s): 815 - 823
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is emerging evidence that microvascular alterations may occur early, even at early stages of carcinogenesis, as indispensable participants in tumor growth. However, the exact spatial extents of such alterations remain unclear, in part, because detailed microvascular alterations in relatively deep tissue over a relative large area are not easily visualized. Due to the heterogeneous nature of tissue microvasculature, microscopic evaluations with a small field of view often fail to provide a representative assessment. On the other hand, conventional whole-body small-animal optical imaging techniques suffer from unwanted diffuse light, which would otherwise deteriorate image contrast and resolution. To fill such a gap, we take advantage of the high anisotropic property of biological tissue by implementing back-directional gating into an imaging platform to suppress unwanted diffuse light. We further combine a spectral analysis of microvascular hemoglobin (Hb) absorption with back-directional gated imaging to improve image resolution, contrast, and penetration depth that are required for subcutaneous mouse xenograft models. In tissue phantom and pilot animal studies, we demonstrate that our diffuse-light-suppressed spectroscopic imaging platform can be a simple, yet effective, imaging setup to visualize subcutaneous microvascular Hb content over a relatively large area. View full abstract»

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  • High-Speed Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging of Biological Tissue With Comparison to Raman Microscopy

    Page(s): 824 - 832
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vibrational contrast imaging of the distribution of complex biological molecules requires the use of techniques that provide broadband spectra with sufficient resolution. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is currently limited in meeting these requirements due to the presence of a nonresonant background and its inability to target multiple resonances simultaneously. We present nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging (NIVI), a technique based on CARS that uses femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses to retrieve broadband vibrational spectra over 200 cm-1 (full-width at half maximum). By chirping the pump and performing spectral interferometric detection, the anti-Stokes pulses are resolved in time. This phase-sensitive detection allows suppression of not only the nonresonant background, but also of the real part of the nonlinear susceptibility χ(3), improving the spectral resolution and features to make them comparable to those acquired with spontaneous Raman microscopy, as shown for a material sample and mammary tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy

    Page(s): 833 - 840
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital holographic microscope (DHM) has been employed in the retrieval and analysis of morphological images of bovine's sperm cells. Digital holography is a noncontact technique capable of investigating the shape of the sample without altering its characteristics and has been used for the first time in retrieving quantitative morphological information of sperm cells. Different spermatozoa have been analyzed by means of this technique allowing us to obtain 3-D images with precise topographical details and valuable information about morphological defects, provided with biological considerations. Moreover, by making use of a microfluidic system, the digital holographic technique has been employed to analyze unstained spermatozoa in their natural physiological surroundings. Detailed information on morphological images of spermatozoa acquired by DHM is expected to provide a better understanding of various reproductive pathways, which, in turn, can help in improving infertility management. This could constitute the basis of an alternative method for the zoothecnic industry aimed at the investigation of morphological features and the sorting of the motile sperm cells. View full abstract»

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  • Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy of Brain Tumors

    Page(s): 841 - 853
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Malignant gliomas are associated with poor prognosis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), relying on light-activated toxicity of a photosensitizer, has been investigated as a means for improving patient survival. This review presents a summary of clinical results obtained with PDT using different photosensitizers for treating brain malignancies. Particular emphasis is on the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PpIX is a potent photosensitizer that displays good tumor-selective uptake and characteristic fluorescence. Here, we present clinical data on PpIX biodistribution and PpIX photobleaching kinetics, indicating high tumor selectivity and rapid photobleaching. These data provide the motivation for the use of a dosimetry model aiming at a complete consumption of PpIX during PDT. This dosimetry model, referred to as the advanced photobleaching model, has been implemented for interstitial PDT (iPDT) relying on stereotactic positioning of radial light diffusers within the tumor volume. A summary of preliminary results from our clinical trial on ALA-mediated brain-iPDT is presented. Finally, recent developments of brain-PDT are discussed with respect to their potential to improve treatment efficacy. We have identified individualized dosimetry, the use of multiple photosensitizers and the combination of photosensitizer and immune response modifiers as the most promising strategies for further preclinical and clinical research. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Spectroscopy to Guide Photodynamic Therapy of Head and Neck Tumors

    Page(s): 854 - 862
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In contrast to other interstitial applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT), optical guidance or monitoring in the head and neck is at a very early stage of development. The present paper reviews the use of optical approaches, in particular optical spectroscopy, that have been used or have the potential to guide the application of PDT. When considering the usefulness of these methods, it is important to consider the volume over which these measurements are acquired, the influence of differences in and changes to the background optical properties, the implications for these effects on the measured parameters and the difficulty of incorporating these types of measurements in clinical practice in head and neck PDT. To illustrate these considerations, we present an application of a recently developed technique, which we term fluorescence differential path length spectroscopy for monitoring meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)-chlorin or Foscan-PDT of interstitial head and neck cancer. View full abstract»

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  • Robust High-Resolution Fine OCT Needle for Side-Viewing Interstitial Tissue Imaging

    Page(s): 863 - 869
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fine optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging needles that can be integrated with a standard biopsy needle have been developed with a new optics design to improve the optical quality and mechanical robustness, where a fiber-optic lens (that is spliced to a single-mode fiber) and a microreflector are encased within a microglass tube. The design also minimizes the cylindrical lens effect induced by the glass tube and eases the needle assembly process. Real-time cross-sectional OCT imaging of various tissue samples were performed ex vivo using the miniature-imaging needle along with a 1300-nm swept-source OCT system. The preliminary results demonstrate the improved mechanical and optical performance and suggest the potential of the fine OCT needle for minimally invasive interstitial imaging and image-guided biopsy. View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography

    Page(s): 870 - 876
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anticaries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10 μm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper, a review of the use of polarization-sensitive-OCT for the measurement of tooth demineralization is provided along with some recent results regarding improved methods for the detection of caries lesions in the earliest stages of development. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using simulated caries models that emulate demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross-polarization-OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis Methods for Disease Detection

    Page(s): 877 - 885
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements of biological tissue provide chemical and structural information useful for detecting subtle disease processes, including cancers originating in mucosal tissues. A number of techniques for analyzing such TRF measurements exist, but they have not yet been compared to determine which of them can provide the greatest sensitivity to differences between a TRF measurement from nondiseased tissue and one from diseased tissue. We have evaluated four TRF analysis methods in this study: biexponential curve fitting, monoexponential curve fitting, Laguerre function representation, and computing the area under the decay curve (AUDC). We performed this study on a large dataset of computer-generated TRF decay curves based on colonic mucosa and typical measurement instrumentation. We statistically determined the minimum detectable change (MDC) in the relative contribution of each mucosal layer to the total TRF signal with each analysis method. We also determined the MDC in fluorescence lifetime of the upper mucosal layer. These two types of changes are due to the structural and biochemical changes expected in mucosa with onset of neoplasia. Under a wide range of baseline conditions, the monoexponential, AUDC, and Laguerre analysis methods all yield dramatically superior sensitivity and robustness over the standard biexponential method, with several caveats. View full abstract»

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  • Narrow-Band Frequency Analysis for White-Light Spectroscopy Diagnostics

    Page(s): 886 - 892
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Precancerous conditions in tissue are often characterized by a slight increase in the nuclei size of epithelium cells. There has been research in the determination of precancerous tissue using white-light spectroscopy as an optical biopsy. In this paper, we investigate white light scattering off of tissue phantoms, created with polystyrene microspheres. When analyzing scattered white light, it is well known that the size of the scatterer contributes to a specific spatial oscillation pattern as a function of the wavelength. However, when examining a mixture of two or more different sized scatterers, it is difficult to relate this oscillation pattern to the specific scatterer sizes composing the mixture. To overcome this challenge, we convert this spatial oscillation pattern into the Fourier domain, which emphasizes a signature frequency peak for each particular component of the mixture. To improve our results, we use a narrow bandpass optical filter when interrogating the sample. This reduces noise in the frequency domain and isolates a single signature frequency for each scatterer in the mixture. View full abstract»

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  • Distinguishing Cancer and Normal Breast Tissue Autofluorescence Using Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Page(s): 893 - 899
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study the spectral features of the polarized fluorescence spectra of normal and cancerous human breast tissues through continuous wavelet transform, which clearly identifies distinguishing features between the tissue types. After pinpointing these robust features in the wavelet scalogram, we systematically study the autocorrelation property of the wavelet coefficients of the fluorescence spectra, which is found to differentiate normal and malignant tissues with high sensitivity. The intensity difference of parallel and perpendicularly polarized fluorescence spectra is subjected to investigation, since the same is relatively free of the diffusive background. View full abstract»

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  • Review of the Application of T-Matrix Calculations for Determining the Structure of Cell Nuclei With Angle-Resolved Light Scattering Measurements

    Page(s): 900 - 908
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (923 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biomedical applications of light scattering have traditionally relied on Mie theory as a theoretical basis for analyzing experimental measurements. While this approach is computationally accessible, the use of Mie theory cannot always account for the spheroidal nature of biological scatterers such as cell nuclei. As an alternative, we have developed light scattering codes based on the T-matrix formalism to analyze angle-resolved light scattering measurements. In this paper, we discuss the development of computer codes to create a database of scattering profiles, validation of the database using experimental measurements of tissue phantoms containing spheroidal scatterers, and recent applications of the approach to analyze the structure of cell nuclei. The reviewed studies show that while the T-matrix approach adds important information for some light scattering studies, the additional computational cost may not always be justified when compared to the Mie theory. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University