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Robotics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • The Actuator With Mechanically Adjustable Series Compliance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 597 - 606
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (602 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Running is a complex dynamic task that places strict requirements on both the physical components and software-control systems of a robot. This paper explores some of those requirements and, in particular, explores how a variable-compliance actuation system can satisfy many of them. We present the mechanical design and software-control system for such an actuator system. We analyze its performance through simulation and bench-top experimental validation of a prototype version. In conclusion, we demonstrate, through simulation, the application of our proof-of-concept actuator to the problem of biped running. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Differential Rheological Actuator for High-Performance Physical Robotic Interaction

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 607 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today's robotic systems are mostly rigid and position-controlled machines designed to operate in structured environments. To extend their application domains to partially unknown, dynamic, or anthropic environments, improved physical-interaction capabilities are required. In this new context, to blend the requirements for safety, robustness, and versatility is often a challenge, in part, because commonly available actuator technologies are inadequate. This paper presents our solution with the introduction of the dual-differential rheological actuator (DDRA) concept, which is based on the synergistic combination of an electromagnetic (EM) motor and two differentially coupled magnetorheological (MR) brakes. This paper describes the approach and the prototype design. It then discusses performances in force, motion, and interaction control. View full abstract»

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  • Evolutionary Trajectory Planner for Multiple UAVs in Realistic Scenarios

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 619 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a path planner for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for realistic scenarios. The paths returned by the algorithm fulfill and optimize multiple criteria that 1) are calculated based on the properties of real UAVs, terrains, radars, and missiles and 2) are structured in different levels of priority according to the selected mission. The paths of all the UAVs are obtained with the multiple coordinated agents coevolution EA (MCACEA), which is a general framework that uses an EA per agent (i.e., UAV) that share their optimal solutions to coordinate the evolutions of the EAs populations using cooperation objectives. This planner works offline and online by means of recalculating parts of the original path to avoid unexpected risks while the UAV is flying. Its search space and computation time have been reduced using some special operators in the EAs. The successful results of the paths obtained in multiple scenarios, which are statistically analyzed in the paper, and tested against a simulator that incorporates complex models of the UAVs, radars, and missiles, make us believe that this planner could be used for real-flight missions. View full abstract»

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  • Sampling-Based Path Planning on Configuration-Space Costmaps

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 635 - 646
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1039 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses path planning to consider a cost function defined over the configuration space. The proposed planner computes low-cost paths that follow valleys and saddle points of the configuration-space costmap. It combines the exploratory strength of the Rapidly exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm with transition tests used in stochastic optimization methods to accept or to reject new potential states. The planner is analyzed and shown to compute low-cost solutions with respect to a path-quality criterion based on the notion of mechanical work. A large set of experimental results is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Current limitations and possible extensions are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Vector Fields for Robot Navigation Along Time-Varying Curves in n -Dimensions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 647 - 659
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a methodology for computation of artificial vector fields that allows a robot to converge to and circulate around generic curves specified in n -dimensional spaces. These vector fields may be directly applied to solve several robot-navigation problems such as border monitoring, surveillance, target tracking, and multirobot pattern generation, with special application to fixed-wing aerial robots, which must keep a positive forward velocity and cannot converge to a single point. Unlike previous solutions found in the literature, the approach is based on fully continuous vector fields and is generalized to time-varying curves defined in n -dimensional spaces. We provide mathematical proofs and present simulation and experimental results that illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. We also present a methodology for construction of the target curve based on a given set of its samples. View full abstract»

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  • General-Weighted Least-Norm Control for Redundant Manipulators

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 660 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the general-weighted least-norm (GWLN) method for the control of redundant manipulators by a new concept of virtual joints, which consist of the performance function of subtasks. The GWLN method enables the redundant manipulator to perform multiple subtasks with the assumption that all the subtasks can be represented by the inequalities as the joint limits avoidance subtask. The number of subtasks to be coped with might be even larger than the number of joints if they do not happen simultaneously. The simulations in contrast to the traditional gradient projection method (GPM) and the recent directional GPM have been made to manifest the advantages of the proposed method. An experiment on the seven-degree-of-freedom redundant manipulator illustrates the good performance for tracking a given trajectory of end-effector position, while both guaranteeing the obstacle free and not violating the joint limits. View full abstract»

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  • Proxy-Based Sliding Mode Control: A Safer Extension of PID Position Control

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 670 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-gain proportional-integral-derivative (PID) position control involves some risk of unsafe behaviors in cases of abnormal events, such as unexpected environment contacts and temporary power failures. This paper proposes a new position-control method that is as accurate as conventional PID control during normal operation, but is capable of slow, overdamped resuming motion without overshoots from large positional errors that result in actuator-force saturation. The proposed method, which we call proxy-based sliding mode control (PSMC), is an alternative approximation of a simplest type of sliding mode control (SMC), and also is an extension of the PID control. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through stability analysis and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Decoupled Image-Based Visual Servoing for Cameras Obeying the Unified Projection Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 684 - 697
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a generic decoupled image-based control scheme for cameras obeying the unified projection model. The scheme is based on the spherical projection model. Invariants to rotational motion are computed from this projection and used to control the translational degrees of freedom (DOFs). Importantly, we form invariants that decrease the sensitivity of the interaction matrix to object-depth variation. Finally, the proposed results are validated with experiments using a classical perspective camera as well as a fisheye camera mounted on a 6-DOF robotic platform. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated System for User-Adaptive Robotic Grasping

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 698 - 709
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an integrated system that combines learning, a natural-language interface, and robotic grasping to enable the transfer of grasping skills from nontechnical users to robots. The system consists of two parts: a natural-language interface for grasping commands and a learning system. This paper focuses on the learning system and testing of the entire system in a small usability study. The learning system presented consists of two phases. In the first phase, the system learns to predict the next command, which the user is planning to issue based on command sequences recorded during previous grasping sessions. In the second phase, the system predicts the user's current state and moves the robot's gripper to the intended target endpoint to attempt to grasp the object. Using eight nontechnical users and a 5-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot arm, a usability study was conducted to observe the impact of the learning system on user performance and satisfaction during a grasping operation. Experimental results show that the system was effective in learning users' grasping intentions, which allowed it to reduce the average time to grasp an object. In addition, participants' feedback from the usability study was generally positive toward having an adaptive robotics system that learns from their commands. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of a Parallel Shoulder Mechanism to Achieve a High-Force, Low-Mass, Robotic-Arm Exoskeleton

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 710 - 715
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a robotic-arm exoskeleton that uses a parallel mechanism inspired by the human forearm to allow naturalistic shoulder movements. The mechanism can produce large forces through a substantial portion of the range of motion (RoM) of the human arm while remaining lightweight. This paper describes the optimization of the exoskeleton's torque capabilities by the modification of the key geometric design parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting Region Transitions for Human-Augmented Mapping

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 715 - 720
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe a concise method for the feature-based representation of regions in an indoor environment and show how it can also be applied for door-passage-independent detection of transitions between regions to improve communication with a human user. View full abstract»

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  • Task Selection for Control of Active-Vision Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 720 - 725
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the problem of task selection in active-vision systems. It is shown that optimization of motion perceptibility does not work as the primary task. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that optimization of motion perceptibility under target tracking produces reasonable camera motion. The perceptibility measure is induced by a certain Jacobian matrix and not by the interaction matrix. The interaction matrix does not produce cooperative behavior of multiple active cameras. View full abstract»

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  • Robot Positioning Using Camera-Space Manipulation With a Linear Camera Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 726 - 733
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new version of the camera-space-manipulation method (CSM). The set of nonlinear view parameters of the classic CSM is replaced with a linear model. Simulations and experiments show a similar precision error for the two methods. However, the new approach is simpler to implement and is faster. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Task-Space Tracking Control of Robots Without Task-Space- and Joint-Space-Velocity Measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 733 - 742
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The task-space tracking control of robots without the exact knowledge of kinematics and dynamics has been studied before with the assumption that the joint velocities are available for controller designs. However, the velocity measurements can be contaminated by noises, thereby resulting in poor system performance, or even leading to instability problems. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new tracking controller for robots in the task space without the use of both task-space and joint-space-velocity measurements, under the condition that both the robot kinematics and dynamics are unknown. To overcome these incapacities without the velocity measurements, we introduce the well-known sliding-observer-design techniques to estimate the joint velocities for the purpose of our controller design. Our main concern, i.e., the stability analysis of our controller design incorporated with the siding observer, is presented with the help of Lyapunov-analysis methodology and the sliding-patch concept. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of our controller-observer designs. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative Load Transport: A Formation-Control Perspective

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 742 - 750
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider a group of agents collaboratively transporting a flexible payload. The contact forces between the agents and the payload are modeled as gradients of nonlinear potentials that describe the deformations of the payload. The load-transport problem is then treated in a similar fashion to the formation-control problem. Decentralized control laws are developed such that without explicit communication, the agents and the payload converge to the same constant velocity; meanwhile, the contact forces are regulated. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of our designs. View full abstract»

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  • Sliding-Mode Velocity Control of Mobile-Wheeled Inverted-Pendulum Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 750 - 758
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There has been increasing interest in a type of underactuated mechanical systems, mobile-wheeled inverted-pendulum (MWIP) models, which are widely used in the field of autonomous robotics and intelligent vehicles. Robust-velocity-tracking problem of the MWIP systems is investigated in this study. In the velocity-control problem, model uncertainties accompany uncertain equilibriums, which make the controller design become more difficult. Two sliding-mode-control (SMC) methods are proposed for the systems, both of which are capable of handling both parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The asymptotical stabilities of the corresponding closed-loop systems are achieved through the selection of sliding-surface parameters, which are based on some rules. There is still a steady tracking error when the first SMC controller is used. By assuming a novel sliding surface, the second SMC controller is designed to solve this problem. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is finally confirmed by the numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Invariant Trajectory Tracking With a Full-Size Autonomous Road Vehicle

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 758 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Safe handling of dynamic inner-city scenarios with autonomous road vehicles involves the problem of stabilization of precalculated state trajectories. In order to account for the practical requirements of the holistic autonomous system, we propose two complementary nonlinear Lyapunov-based tracking-control laws to solve the problem for speeds between ±6 m/s. Their designs are based on an extended kinematic one-track model, and they provide a smooth, singularity-free stopping transient. With regard to autonomous test applications, the proposed tracking law without orientation control performs much better with respect to control effort and steering-input saturation than the one with orientation control but needs to be prudently combined with the latter for backward driving. The controller performance is illustrated with a full-size test vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2011)

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 766
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 767 - 768
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  • IEEE Robotics and Automation Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Robotics covers both theory and applications on topics including: kinematics, dynamics, control, and simulation of robots and intelligent machines and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Frank Park
Seoul National University