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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7  Part 2 • Date July 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial—Terahertz Technology: Bridging the Microwave-to-Photonics Gap

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1901 - 1902
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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  • A 10-mW Submillimeter-Wave Solid-State Power-Amplifier Module

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1903 - 1909
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we demonstrate a packaged sub-millimeter wave solid-state power amplifier (SSPA). The SSPA is implemented in coplanar waveguide (CPW) and uses an advanced high fMAX InP HEMT transistor with a sub 50-nm gate. A monolithically integrated CPW dipole-to-waveguide transition eliminates the need for wirebonding and additional substrates. On-chip compact tandem couplers are used for power combining. The amplifier demonstrates 15-dB small-signal gain at 340 GHz. Peak saturated output power of 10 mW at 338 GHz is obtained at the waveguide flange out-put for the SSPA module. View full abstract»

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  • 68–110-GHz-Band Low-Noise Amplifier Using Current Reuse Topology

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1910 - 1916
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new topology for a broadband low-noise-amplifier (LNA). A common-gate (CG) amplifier with a matching inductor composes a unit cell, and the unit cells are cascaded to increase gain. As both the input and output impedances of the unit cell are matched to 50 Ω for a wide frequency range, it is possible to increase the gain while maintaining wide bandwidth. Thus, high-gain and broadband performance can be obtained using this topology. The other features of the amplifier are its small size, low power consumption, and current reuse topology. This paper presents the design methodology of a multistage CG amplifier with a matching inductor. Fabricated in an 80-nm InP HEMT process, we developed an ultra-broadband LNA. The LNA with a three-stage CG amplifier exhibited a gain of 18 dB and a noise figure of 3.5 dB from 68 to over 110 GHz. The power consumption was 12 mW under a power supply voltage of 3 V. The chip size is 0.55 × 0.75 mm2. Furthermore, we developed a receiver for passive millimeter-wave imagers by integrating a six-stage LNA with a power detector. The chip size of the receiver is 1.1 × 0.75 mm2. The sensitivity of the pre-amplified detector was more than 2 000 V/mW from 75 to 100 GHz. These results show that the topology is one of the best candidates for high-gain and broadband LNA with small size and low power consumption. View full abstract»

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  • A Broadband 835–900-GHz Fundamental Balanced Mixer Based on Monolithic GaAs Membrane Schottky Diodes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1917 - 1924
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of a 835-900-GHz biasable fundamental balanced mixer using planar GaAs Schottky diodes is presented. The monolithic microwave integrated circuit integrates two planar Schottky anodes in a balanced configuration, stripline filtering elements, and on-chip capacitor on a thin GaAs membrane. At 850 GHz, double side-band (DSB) mixer noise temperature of 2660 K and conversion loss of 9.25 dB are measured, respectively, at room temperature. When the mixer is cooled to 120 K, the DSB mixer noise temperature and conversion loss improve to 1910 K and 8.84 dB, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A Frequency-Multiplied Source With More Than 1 mW of Power Across the 840–900-GHz Band

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1925 - 1932
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an 840-900-GHz frequency multiplier chain that delivers more than 1 mW across the band at room temperature with a record peak power of 1.4 mW at 875 GHz. When cooled to 120 K, the chain delivers up to 2 mW at 882 GHz. The chain consists of a power amplifier module that drives two cascaded frequency triplers. This unprecedented output power from an electronic source is achieved by utilizing in-phase power-combining techniques. The first stage tripler uses four power-combined chips while the last stage tripler utilizes two power-combined chips. The source output was analyzed with a Fourrer transform spectrometer to verify signal purity. View full abstract»

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  • Physics-Based Design and Optimization of Schottky Diode Frequency Multipliers for Terahertz Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1933 - 1942
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planar Schottky diode frequency multipliers are by far the most employed devices for local oscillator (LO) power generation at terahertz frequencies. In order to push up to the limit the available LO power at terahertz frequencies, the use of accurate physics-based simulation tools is highly necessary to develop multiplier circuits with the highest performance. This paper investigates the potential capabilities of Schottky multipliers for LO power generation up to 2.4 THz by means of an in-house computer-aided design tool that combines harmonic balance techniques with an accurate physics-based numerical model of the semiconductor device. According to numerical simulation results, a 32-μW LO power could be theoretically achieved with a 2.4-THz LO chain at room temperature from a 150-mW W-band solid-state LO source. This demonstrates that there is still a broad margin for the improvement of state-of-the-art terahertz LO power sources. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated 585-GHz Hot-Electron Mixer Focal-Plane Arrays Based on Annular Slot Antennas for Imaging Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1943 - 1951
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed 585-GHz quasi-optical mixers and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) comprised of planar annular slot antennas (ASAs) with integrated niobium hot-electron bolometers for imaging applications. In order to optimize the single-element mixer design, the embedding impedance of the single ASA presented to the bolometer is analyzed using the induced electromotive force (EMF) method by including the antenna feed contribution. This approach has been further expanded to analyze the ASA self-impedance and mutual impedance in an array by utilizing the even-odd mode analysis. In addition, the far-field radiation patterns of the ASAs mounted to an extended hemispherical high-resistivity silicon lens have been calculated using the ray-tracing techniques. The details of circuit design and fabrication are presented in this study. Single mixer element measurement results have shown that a conversion gain of -11.9 dB and a double-sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature of ~650 K have been achieved. Initial array imaging experiment results are presented and show excellent agreement with theory and simulation data. A spatial resolution of ~2.75 mm has been demonstrated at 585 GHz for a 1-D mixer FPA that is capable of diffraction-limited imaging. Y-factor measurements show DSB mixer noise temperatures of 1675 and 3517 K with mixer conversion gains of -14.73 and -17.74 dB, respectively, have been obtained for two adjacent elements in a mixer array, which is comparable to the results reported in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • A Global Approach for Modeling and Analysis of Edge-Coupled Traveling-Wave Terahertz Photoconductive Sources

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1952 - 1966
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a global and geometry-independent approach is proposed for accurate analysis of edge-coupled continuous wave (CW) traveling-wave terahertz photomixer sources. All major physical phenomena involved in the operation of such devices are included in three interconnected solvers, which are combined as a unified analysis tool. A photonic solver is developed to find the optical intensity across the fast photoabsorbing region from which the carrier generation rate is determined. A semiconductor solver is used to study the charge carrier transport inside the photoconductive region through drift-diffusion model, and to predict the generated photocurrent with the beat frequency of two CW lasers. An electromagnetic solver is introduced to rigorously calculate the coupled terahertz signal into the guiding transmission line through a Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Theoretical formulation behind each solver is discussed in detail, and numerical results from each solver are presented. The proposed approach is a powerful tool for global optimization of the photoconductive sources, especially for maximizing the optical-to-terahertz power conversion. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable Subterahertz Wave Generation Based on Photonic Frequency Sextupling Using a Polarization Modulator and a Wavelength-Fixed Notch Filter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1967 - 1975
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical frequency multiplication based on electrooptical modulation is an effective way to generate high-spectral-purity and frequency-tunable subterahertz waves. The previously demonstrated frequency-doubling and quadrupling techniques based on a Mach-Zehnder modulator have a low multiplication factor and suffer from bias drift problem and residual chirp. In this paper, a novel approach to achieving frequency sextupling using a polarization modulator and a wavelength-fixed optical notch filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method is free from bias drift problem and residual chirp, which can be used to generate high-spectral-purity subterahertz wave signals using relatively low-frequency electrical and optical devices. By using a narrow-bandwidth fiber Bragg grating as a wavelength-fixed optical notch filter, a high-spectral-purity microwave signal tunable from 18 to 27.6 GHz is generated when a microwave drive signal from 3 to 4.6 GHz is applied to the polarization modulator. The phase noise of the generated signal is measured as low as -107.57 dBc/Hz at a 10-kHz offset frequency. By replacing the narrow-bandwidth notch filter by an optical interleaver, a subterahertz wave tunable from 66 to 114 GHz is generated when the drive signal is tuned from 11 to 19 GHz. The distribution of the generated signal over optical fiber is investigated. The results show that the quality of the distributed subterahertz wave signal is maintained after transmission over a 40-km standard single-mode fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic-Crystal-Based Polarization Converter for Terahertz Integrated Circuit

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1976 - 1984
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the fabrication and characterization of newly developed photonic crystal (PC) polarization-controlling devices on a silicon-on-insulator wafer for integrated terahertz applications are presented. The polarization converter is composed of periodic asymmetric loaded PC slab waveguide. Square- and circular-hole PC slab waveguides were studied using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain method. For a square-hole PC-based polarization rotator, polarization rotation efficiency higher than 90% was achieved within the normalized frequency band of a/ λ = 0.258-0.267 . In circular-hole PC polarization converter, the polarization conversion efficiency dropped to 70% for the aforementioned frequency band. Low polarization conversion efficiency of the circular-hole PC-based device is attributed to scattering loss at the top loaded layers. Thus, the square-hole PC structure is a better candidate for integrated terahertz polarization-controlling devices. Planar terahertz integrated circuit technology was developed to implement the proposed device. Characterization setup was designed using rigorous numerical methods to use the newly introduced Agilent Millimeter-wave PNA-X network analyzer (up to 500 GHz) as a source. Scattering parameter characterizations provide a good measure of polarization extinction ratio. For the devices designed for the central frequency of f = 200 GHz, it was observed that, within the frequency band of 198-208 GHz (α/λ = 0.26-0.272), the ratio of S21 to S11 was higher than 15 dB. The bandwidth is in good agreement with our preliminary design presented before. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Mode Terahertz Bragg Fiber Design Using a Modal Filtering Approach

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1985 - 1992
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a single-mode Bragg fiber design method based on a modal filtering technique and applies it to the design of a hollow-core single-mode Bragg fiber, which can achieve low loss by avoiding material loss. The proposed method exploits the Brewster phenomenon to filter out the TM01 mode so that only the fundamental HE11 mode exists. Consequently, this proposed method maintains a balance between single-mode propagation and low-loss propagation so that it is specially suitable for terahertz single-mode Bragg fiber design. An explicit relationship between the first bandgap width and the layer thickness is derived. As a result, for a certain design bandwidth requirement, the Bragg fiber parameters can be determined. The proposed design strategy is applied to a hollow-core single HE11-mode Bragg fiber operating in the 0.65-1.35-THz range with a calculated loss ranging from 0.2 to 1 dB/m. View full abstract»

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  • A 2-D Artificial Dielectric With {0 \leq n < 1} for the Terahertz Region

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1993 - 1998
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (810 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a 2-D artificial dielectric medium suitable for the terahertz region by exploiting the characteristic frequency dependence in the phase velocity of the lowest order transverse-electric (TE1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG). This artificial medium exhibits a plasma-like behavior having a frequency-dependent refractive index that varies between zero and unity. Using this medium, we demonstrate the optical phenomena of total internal reflection and Brewster's effect, and also demonstrate a convergent PPWG-lens. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Delay Multiplexing of Two Beams in a Terahertz Imaging Radar

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1999 - 2007
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a time-delay multiplexing technique that doubles the frame rate of a 660-690-GHz imaging radar with minimal additional instrument complexity. This is done by simultaneously projecting two offset, orthogonally polarized radar beams generated and detected by a common source and receiver. Beam splitting and polarization rotation is accomplished with a custom designed waveguide hybrid coupler and twist. A relative time lag of approximately 2 ns between the beams' waveforms is introduced using a quasi-optical delay line, followed by spatial recombination using a selectively reflective wire grid. This delay is much longer than the approximately 20-ps time-of-flight resolution of the 30-GHz bandwidth radar, permitting the two beams' reflected signals from a compact target to be easily distinguished in digital post-processing of the single receiver channel. View full abstract»

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  • Illumination Aspects in Active Terahertz Imaging

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2008 - 2013
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1892 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Our paper focuses on illumination aspects in active terahertz imaging. First, we introduce our fast 620-GHz camera and discuss imaging with focused illumination. After that, we switch to global illumination and discuss its benefits and drawbacks. The loss in intensity-compared to focused illumination-does not fully come to bear on the dynamic range because losses at the beam-splitter and back-reflection by the optics into the detection path can be avoided. The adaptation to the angular range accepted by the detector optics is more difficult, but flexibility is gained with separated illumination and detection paths. An outlook is given on a 812-GHz camera currently being developed and exhibiting global illumination and a 32-pixel detector for improved frame rates. Furthermore, a concept for high-accuracy topography reconstruction from multiple terahertz images taken with several angles of illumination is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Approach for Improving Off-Axis Pixel Performance of Terahertz Focal Plane Arrays

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2014 - 2021
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an antenna engineering approach to significantly improve off-axis detection properties of terahertz focal plane arrays (FPAs) behind an extended-hemispherical lens. In particular, antennas in the off-axis pixels in a large FPA were redesigned to exhibit tilted receiving patterns. The new antenna structure corrects for beam distortions in off-axis sensors due to the small lens size. Specifically, this approach is well suited for monolithic antenna structures integrated with high-sensitivity heterostructure backward diodes. Although the approach is demonstrated for 100- and 500-GHz FPAs, the presented technique is equally applicable to other planar antenna topologies and sensor materials that operate well into the terahertz regime. In addition, standard RF impedance-matching techniques were used to improve responsivity performance of the diode-coupled FPAs. The beam-correction techniques allow for a factor-of-5 larger size FPA for a fixed lens size. We also note that a tradeoff between Gaussicity and directivity becomes necessary for larger lenses. Thus, increasing the size of the FPA, without resorting to increasing the lens size, enables improved coupling efficiencies (Gaussicity) as well as better pixel resolution (directivity). View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Continuous-Wave Demodulating Multipixel Terahertz Imaging Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2022 - 2026
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1011 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an electrooptic (EO) terahertz imaging technique providing a demodulating detector array for phase-sensitive multipixel terahertz detection. The terahertz radiation from a quartz-stabilized microelectronic emitter is mixed with the synchronized laser beat signal of a continuous-wave distributed-feedback diode laser pair. A fast laser current control loop provides stable phase locking between the terahertz emitter and the laser difference frequency, whereby a demodulating near-infrared photonic-mixer-device camera is used for depth-resolving EO terahertz imaging. Alternatively, a femtosecond laser is used for the EO read-out. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Imaging Systems With Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2027 - 2039
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the research and development of two terahertz imaging systems based on photonic and electronic principles, respectively. As part of this study, a survey of ongoing research in the field of terahertz imaging is provided focusing on security applications. Existing terahertz imaging systems are reviewed in terms of the employed architecture and data processing strategies. Active multichannel measurement method is found to be promising for real-time applications among the various terahertz imaging techniques and is chosen as a basis for the imaging instruments presented in this paper. An active system operation allows for a wide dynamic range, which is important for image quality. The described instruments employ a multichannel high-sensitivity heterodyne architecture and aperture filling techniques, with close to real-time image acquisition time. In the case of the photonic imaging system, mechanical scanning is completely obsolete. We show 2-D images of simulated 3-D image data for both systems. The reconstruction algorithms are suitable for 3-D real-time operation, only limited by mechanical scanning. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Scanning Techniques for Characterization of Terahertz Photoconductive Antenna Arrays

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2040 - 2045
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical scanning techniques for characterizing radiation properties of terahertz photoconductive antenna arrays are proposed, and as an example, a 14-element equally spaced array structure made on low-temperature grown GaAs is characterized using the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Antenna Technology and Verification: Herschel and Planck - A Review

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2046 - 2063
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the aspects that the space and terrestrial terahertz imaging systems have in common is that they require state-of-the-art technology to achieve their ambitious goals. Although technology is advancing at a rapid pace in this frequency range, the requirements for these systems go well beyond what is currently available such that there are also no standards or calibration reference sources in this field. This paper describes the novel procedures that have been implemented to assess the “in-orbit” RF performance of two European Space Agency (ESA) satellites using on-ground verification procedures. These consisted of using several different measurement techniques at both ambient and cryo-temperatures and software model correlation to be able to predict the final performance. ESA's Herschel and Planck observatories are used as an example to highlight some of the hurdles that had to be overcome for the challenging task of flight-performance verification at (sub)millimeter-wave frequencies. Significant advances have been achieved despite the lack of internationally agreed procedures and practices pushing terahertz reflector and instrument technologies to new limits. This is a review paper and has been written on behalf of the large scientific, engineering, and management teams that were involved over many years in the development, production, testing, and operation of the two spacecraft. View full abstract»

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  • Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Pesticides With Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2064 - 2070
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper used the newly developed terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to detect pesticides, especially imidacloprid, qualitatively and quantitatively in the frequency range of 0.5-1.6 THz. All together, four pesticides and three food powders, as well as polyethylene, were investigated. Different weight ratios of imidacloprid in polyethylene and in sticky rice powder were detected and analyzed with the partial least squares (PLS) regression method. Results show that all four pesticides exhibit unique absorption peaks in the terahertz range, and can thus be easily discriminated between each other and from those food powders that show similar and featureless absorption coefficients. Differences in the refractive indices can also be observed between the pesticides and food powders. Imidacloprid can be identified with its absorption fingerprints in the imidacloprid and polyethylene and imidacloprid and sticky rice powder mixtures. We have achieved the relative error of less than 5% predicting the weight ratio of imidacloprid in these two mixtures with the PLS method, according to the linear relationship found between the absorption coefficient and the weight ratio. In all, the THz-TDS technique is quite promising for the nondestructive pesticide residual detection in food safety control in the near future. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2071
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on radio-frequency nanoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2072
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Dominique Schreurs
Dominique.Schreurs@ieee.org

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Jenshan Lin
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