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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - List staff

    Page(s): i
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Elected Administrative Committee

    Page(s): ii
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - iv
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 1485 - 1488
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 1489
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  • 2009 Rayleigh Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Lawrence W. Kessler

    Page(s): 1490
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  • 2009 Achievement Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Charles Maerfeld

    Page(s): 1491
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  • 2009 Distinguished Service Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society Reinhard Lerch

    Page(s): 1492
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  • 2008 Outstanding Paper Award of the IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society

    Page(s): 1493
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  • Anisotropic microstructured poly(vinyl alcohol) tissue-mimicking phantoms [Letters]

    Page(s): 1494 - 1496
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel microstructured PVA phantoms mimicking fibrous tissues have been developed using a simple freeze-casting process. Scanning electron micrographs reveal highly anisotropic microstructure with dimensions of the order of 5 to 100 μm. Characterization of an example phantom revealed acoustic properties consistent with those found in fibrous tissues. At 20 MHz, the velocity measured parallel to the microstructure orientation of 1555 ms-1 was significantly greater than that perpendicular to the microstructure of 1537 ms-1. The attenuation coefficient was measured to be 5 dB·mm-1 and proportional to the 1.6 power of frequency, which is in good agreement with that for normal human myocardium. View full abstract»

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  • Electromechanical properties of high- coupling (1-ξ)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(ξ)PbTiO3 single crystals for sound projectors

    Page(s): 1497 - 1504
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    Isothermal weak field frequency sweeps were conducted over the temperature range 30 to 140°C on multidomain, oriented, and poled (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals with x = 0.045, 0.06, 0.07, and 0.08 near the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric tetragonal (FT) morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The temperature dependencies of the small-signal 33-mode electromechanical properties were derived from the isothermal frequency sweeps. Morphotropic compositions with x = 0.06 and 0.07 PT were found to exhibit the largest electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric coefficient, with k33 > 0.90 and d33 ~2300 pC/N, and the lowest short-circuit Young's modulus of ~9 GPa. Reversible zero-field elastic instability attributable to a FR-FO transition was observed under isothermal compression-decompression of a 0.94PZN-0.06PT single crystal. The application of a dc bias field enhanced the FR stability under compression. The large-signal, dc biased, 33-mode electromechanical response was measured under mechanical compressions similar to those used in sound projectors. The remarkable small-signal electromechanical properties are in a good agreement with the large-signal response. The crystal response to thermal, electrical, and mechanical variable is discussed in terms of high-coupling single crystal models. View full abstract»

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  • Microstructure and dielectric tunable properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-Mg2SiO4-MgO composite

    Page(s): 1505 - 1512
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    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-Mg2SiO4-MgO composite ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction method and their dielectric tunable characteristics were investigated for the potential application as microwave tunable materials. The addition of Mg2SiO4-MgO into Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 forms ferroelectric (Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3)-dielectric (Mg2SiO4-MgO) composites and shifts the Curie temperature to a lower temperature. The dielectric constant and loss tangent of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-Mg2SiO4-MgO composites have been decreased and the overall tunability is maintained at a sufficiently high level. The microwave dielectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-Mg2SiO4-MgO composites were evaluated. Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-Mg2SiO4-MgO composites have tunability of 9.2 to 10.5% at 100 kHz under 2 kV/mm, indicating that it is a promising candidate material for tunable microwave applications requiring a low dielectric constant. View full abstract»

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  • Design and fabrication of bimorph transducer for optimal vibration energy harvesting

    Page(s): 1513 - 1523
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    High energy density piezoelectric composition corresponding to 0.9Pb(Zr0.56Ti0.44)O3¿0.1Pb[(Zn0.8/3Ni0.2/3) Nb2/3]O3 + 2 mol% MnO2/sub> (PZTZNN) and 0.8[Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3]¿0.2[Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3] (PZTPZN) were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing technique using three different sintering profiles. Plates of the sintered samples were used to fabricate the piezoelectric bimorphs with optimized dimensions to exhibit resonance in the loaded condition in the range of ~200 Hz. An analytical model for energy harvesting from bimorph transducer was developed which was confirmed by experimental measurements. The results of this study clearly show that power density of bimorph transducer can be enhanced by increasing the magnitude of product (d ¿ g), where d is the piezoelectric strain constant and g is the piezoelectric voltage constant. View full abstract»

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  • Medium-long term frequency stability of pulsed vapor cell clocks

    Page(s): 1524 - 1534
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    In this paper we report an analysis of the physical phenomena that can affect the frequency stability of optically pumped vapor cell clocks working in pulsed regime. It is well known that the pulsed approach allows a strong reduction of the light shift that is one of the main sources of frequency instability. However, other instability sources can degrade clock performance by limiting both short- and medium-term frequency stability. After recognizing the different noise sources and realizing how they are transferred to the clock transition, we propose some technical solutions to limit their effects, extending the region of white frequency noise up to integration times τ of the order of 104 s. View full abstract»

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  • A high-frame-rate ultrasound system for the study of tissue motions

    Page(s): 1535 - 1547
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    In this article, a technique for measuring fast periodic motion is proposed. The sequencing used in this technique is similar to the one used in conventional color Doppler systems. However, a phase correction algorithm is introduced which compensates for the acquisition delays. Criteria for the types of motion which could be detected correctly by the system are developed and presented. Effective frame rates of several hundred hertz to a few kilohertz have been achieved with the system. Applications of the system in tissue elastography are presented together with experimental results from tissue mimicking phantoms. View full abstract»

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  • A high-frequency, high frame rate duplex ultrasound linear array imaging system for small animal imaging

    Page(s): 1548 - 1557
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-frequency (HF) ultrasound imaging has been shown to be useful for non-invasively imaging anatomical structures of the eye and small animals in biological and pharmaceutical research, achieving superior spatial resolution. Cardiovascular research utilizing mice requires not only realtime B-scan imaging, but also ultrasound Doppler to evaluate both anatomy and blood flow of the mouse heart. This paper reports the development of an HF ultrasound duplex imaging system capable of both B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurements, using a 64-element linear array. The system included an HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, a 32-channel HF B-mode imaging module, a PC with a 200 MS/s 14-bit A/D card, and real-time Lab View software. A 50 dB SNR and a depth of penetration of larger than 12 mm were achieved using a 35-MHz linear array with 50 μm pitch. The two-way beam widths were determined to be 165 to 260 μm and the clutter-energy-to-total-energy ratio (CTR) were 9.1 to 12 dB when the array was electronically focused at different focal points at depths from 4.8 to 9.6 mm. The system is capable of acquiring real-time B-mode images at a rate greater than 400 frames per second (fps) for a 4.8 × 13 mm field of view, using a 30 MHz 64-element linear array with 100 μm pitch. Sample in vivo cardiac high frame rate images and duplex images of mouse hearts are shown to assess its current imaging capability and performance for small animals. View full abstract»

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  • Transient transmembrane release of green fluorescent proteins with sonoporation

    Page(s): 1558 - 1567
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    Microbubbles under ultrasound (US) activation are assumed to induce pore formation in the plasma membrane, causing its permeabilization and hence molecule incorporation from the extracellular environment. In this study, we investigated whether this permeabilization also engenders a transient release of small molecules from the cytosol of mammalian eukaryotic cells under the combined action of US and microbubbles. Using Hela cells stably expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene, the release of EGFP was evaluated by flow cytometry in terms of the percentage of EGFP-positive cells (EGFP + cells) and the mean cell fluorescence intensity (MFI). Sonoporation was performed at 1 MHz, with peak negative pressures ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 MPa, duty cycles of 40% and 75% and a repetition rate of 10 kHz. The results showed that the insonation of Hela-EGFP cells at the peak negative pressure 400 kPa and the 75% duty cycle for 2 min in the presence of microbubbles induced a 60% decrease in both EGFP+ cells percentage and MFI. Our results demonstrate that the reduction of cell fluorescence is attributed to the EGFP release. Most importantly, this EGFP release was not due to lethal effects of sonoporation because the EGFP expression was significantly recovered by 48-h post-insonation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time a transient release of intracellular molecules produced by the sonoporation process. This controlled release showed the possibility of extracting molecules from the cell cytoplasm through the membrane while preserving cell viability. Taken together, the results obtained in this study reinforce the hypothesis of the transient pore formation mechanism induced by sonoporation. View full abstract»

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  • ADS-based array design for 2-D and 3-D ultrasound imaging

    Page(s): 1568 - 1582
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    This paper describes a class of non-overlapping layouts based on almost difference sets (ADSs) for ultrasound applications. Thanks to the mathematical properties of ADSs, such arrays provide good radiation properties with far-field peak sidelobe levels belonging to an a priori predictable set of analytically-derived bounds. An extensive numerical analysis, including near-field simulations, is provided to assess the reliability and the features of the proposed design methodology for both linear and planar arrays. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes

    Page(s): 1583 - 1593
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time ultrasound image-monitored focal changes of the vascular function in rats by pulsed HIFU

    Page(s): 1594 - 1599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been shown that B-mode ultrasound can be useful for the real-time visualization of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the real-time ultrasound observation of functional changes when a vessel is exposed to pulsed-HIFU in the presence of preformed microbubbles. Using in vivo experiments, 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats were sonicated by 1-MHz pulsed-HIFU in the presence of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) at four doses (0, 150, 300, and 450 μL/kg). The microbubbles passing through the aorta can be discerned with B-mode imaging. The mean peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the blood flow, as measured by Doppler ultrasound imaging, increased in arteries when the low-dose UCA groups (0 and 150 μL/kg) were examined after pulsed-HIFU at 45 W, but decreased when the high-dose UCA groups (300 and 450 μL/ kg) were examined. Additionally, the normalized pulsatility index (PI) changes increased with the injected dose of UCA. The interactions between ultrasound and the microbubbles can be seen to change the tissue permeability of the drug. Thus, monitoring of PSV or PI might be useful as an online method to ensure the correct sonicated position and to indicate when drug delivery has occurred. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental investigation of traveling wave propagation on a several- millimeter-long cylindrical pipe driven by piezoelectric ceramic tubes

    Page(s): 1600 - 1611
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    A novel method is presented for investigation of the traveling wave propagation generated on a thin film pipe with a short length of several millimeters. As a bridge to connect two piezoelectric ceramic (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) tubes, a thin-film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe is fabricated by a new technique of rotating magnetron sputtering. The vibrator combines the vibration of the axial mode of the PZT tube and the radial mode of the TFMG pipe. Theoretical analyses of the TFMG pipe and PZT tube, with a comparison of the finite element modeling, clarify the vibration characteristics so that the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions, and driving voltage signals are designed. In the experiment, the designed vibrator was fabricated and the vibration characteristics were measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer system. The pure traveling wave propagation obtained theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the validity of this work. This study shows a new way to achieve a pure traveling wave on a short cylindrical pipe driven by PZT tubes. View full abstract»

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  • An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation

    Page(s): 1612 - 1620
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    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading. View full abstract»

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  • Octave omnidirectional band gap in a three-dimensional phononic crystal

    Page(s): 1621 - 1625
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    We report on the experimental observation of a one-octave-large omnidirectional elastic band gap for longitudinal waves in a three-dimensional phononic crystal consisting of face-centered-cubic arrays of close-packed steel beads in a solid epoxy matrix. The 60% relative width of the band gap is larger than expected based on the contrast in material properties, and is confirmed by band structure diagram and transmission spectra computations. The coupling between shear and longitudinal polarizations is pointed out as a mechanism for enlarging the band gap by comparing with the steel beads in water matrix case. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent complementary sliding-mode control for lusms-based X-Y-θ motion control stage

    Page(s): 1626 - 1640
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    An intelligent complementary sliding-mode control (ICSMC) system using a recurrent wavelet-based Elman neural network (RWENN) estimator is proposed in this study to control the mover position of a linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs)-based X-Y-Θ motion control stage for the tracking of various contours. By the addition of a complementary generalized error transformation, the complementary sliding-mode control (CSMC) can efficiently reduce the guaranteed ultimate bound of the tracking error by half compared with the sliding-mode control (SMC) while using the saturation function. To estimate a lumped uncertainty on-line and replace the hitting control of the CSMC directly, the RWENN estimator is adopted in the proposed ICSMC system. In the RWENN, each hidden neuron employs a different wavelet function as an activation function to improve both the convergent precision and the convergent time compared with the conventional Elman neural network (ENN). The estimation laws of the RWENN are derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem to train the network parameters on-line. A robust compensator is also proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, and higher-order terms in Taylor series. Finally, some experimental results of various contours tracking show that the tracking performance of the ICSMC system is significantly improved compared with the SMC and CSMC systems. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk