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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Phase-Noise Analysis in Rotary Traveling-Wave Oscillators Using Simple Physical Model

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1465 - 1474
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that the rotary traveling wave oscillator (RTWO) is well treated as a superposition of multiple standing-wave oscillators (SWOs). Based on the proposed physical interpretation, we derive a phase-noise formula for the SWO, and extend it to the RTWO, which can predict thermally induced phase noise with no more complexity than the well-understood LC voltage-controlled oscillator. Measurement and simulation validate the analysis. The physically based approach and simple resulting expressions make it possible to design the RTWO for a given phase noise without lengthy simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Layout Optimization of Small-Size Ferroelectric Parallel-Plate Varactors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1475 - 1484
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The extremely high permittivity of ferroelectric varactors (typically ϵr > 100) imposes specific design and fabrication constraints for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. In this paper, small-size parallel-plate ferroelectric varactors insensitive to fabrication misalignment tolerances are studied experimentally. It is shown that the total resistance of the varactors strongly depends on the shape factor of the plates. Moreover, due to the small sizes of the varactors, the interconnecting strips become narrow and their contribution to the total resistance dominates. A simple procedure for optimization of the shape factor to minimize the varactor resistance is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • A Two-Port WR75 Waveguide Turnstile Gyromagnetic Switch

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1485 - 1492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The two-port reflection gyromagnetic waveguide switch described in this paper consists of a 90° Faraday rotator in a re-entrant or an inverted re-entrant turnstile geometry in the E-plane at the junction of two H-plane rectangular waveguides. It adjustment is a two-step eigenvalue problem. One adjustment fixes the electrical length of the circular Faraday rotator waveguide and produces a passband in its frequency response and the other fixes its gyrotropy and produces a stopband there. This paper also includes the separate synthesis of the passband condition in a WR75 waveguide at a frequency of 13.25 GHz using two different processes. The switch has two passband conditions at the design frequency, each of which is verified experimentally The stopband is separately established experimentally by magnetizing the gyromagnetic resonator. View full abstract»

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  • Ferrite-Filled Antisymmetrically Biased Rectangular Waveguide Isolator Using Magnetostatic Surface Wave Modes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1493 - 1501
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The complex dispersion diagram of an antisymmetrically biased ferrite-filled rectangular waveguide (RWG) is investigated, revealing that the waveguide supports a band-limited unidirectional magnetostatic surface wave mode. This mode is subsequently used to design a novel RWG isolator. A parametric analysis including loss is performed to characterize the isolation band. A prototype waveguide isolator has been fabricated using a small metallized ferrite substrate measuring 30-mm long, 6-mm wide, and 0.8-mm high. Measurements in the 10-20-GHz range confirm the theory and mark the first time that a ferrite isolator has been built using a completely filled RWG. The fabricated 6-mm-long waveguide isolator provides a peak isolation figure-of-merit (IFM) of 42.5 dB at 15.4 GHz. An IFM of over 16.2 dB is sustained from 15.2 to 18.3 GHz (18.5% bandwidth). The simplicity of this compact isolator makes it amenable to package-scale integration, such as in ferrite low-temperature co-fired ceramic, where it could be readily embedded within a multichip package. View full abstract»

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  • Improving Backscatter Radio Tag Efficiency

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1502 - 1509
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies tag properties for optimized tag-to-reader backscatter communication. The latter is exploited in RF identification (RFID) systems and utilizes binary reflection coefficient change of the tag antenna-load circuit. It is shown that amplitude maximization of complex reflection coefficient difference between the two states is not sufficient for optimized tag-to-reader backscatter communication, contrary to what is commonly believed in the field. We provide a general tag load selection methodology that applies to any tag antenna, including minimum scattering antennas as a special case. The method is based on tag antenna structural mode closed-form calculation (given three values of tag radar cross section), employs simple antenna/communication theory, and applies to both passive, as well as semipassive RFID tags. View full abstract»

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  • A Comparative Analysis of the Complexity/Accuracy Tradeoff in Power Amplifier Behavioral Models

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1510 - 1520
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A comparative study of state-of-the-art behavioral models for microwave power amplifiers (PAs) is presented in this paper. After establishing a proper definition for accuracy and complexity for PA behavioral models, a short description on various behavioral models is presented. The main focus of this paper is on the modeling accuracy as a function of computational complexity. Data is collected from measurements on two PAs-a general-purpose amplifier and a Doherty PA designed for WiMAX-for different output power levels. The models are characterized in terms of accuracy and complexity for both in-band and out-of-band error. The results show that, among the models studied, the generalized memory polynomial behavioral model has the best tradeoff for accuracy versus complexity for both PAs, and can obtain high performance at half of the computational cost of all other models analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial Harmonics and Homogenization of Negative-Refractive-Index Transmission-Line Structures

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1521 - 1531
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we discuss negative-refractive-index transmission-line (NRI-TL) metamaterial structures with respect to spatial harmonics. The power in the fundamental spatial harmonic is shown to yield a measure that relates to the homogeneity of the metamaterial. It is shown that NRI-TL metamaterials yield highly homogeneous field distributions if both the unit cell is short compared to the guided wavelength, and if the unloaded unit cell is short compared to the “free space” wavelength. Based on the homogeneity, we provide practical design choices for NRI-TL metamaterial unit cells. Under the restriction of a high homogeneity we derive expressions for extracting an effective permittivity and permeability. Circuit theory results and full-wave eigenmode simulations of two NRI-TL structures are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Study of Extraordinary Transmission in a Circular Waveguide System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1532 - 1542
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Extraordinary transmission through periodic distributions of sub-wavelength holes made in opaque screens has been demonstrated and exhaustively studied along the last decade. More recently, extraordinary transmission has also been predicted and experimentally observed through electrically small diaphragms located inside hollow pipe waveguides. This last phenomenon cannot be explained in terms of surface waves excited along the periodic system (the so-called surface plasmon polaritons). Transverse resonances can be invoked, however, as a sound explanation for extraordinary transmission in this kind of systems. In this paper, a simple waveguide system, exhibiting exactly the same behavior previously observed in periodic 2-D arrays of holes, is analyzed in depth. Analogies and differences with the periodic case are discussed. The theoretical and experimental results reported in this paper provide strong evidence in favor of the point of view emphasizing the concept of impedance matching versus surface wave excitation. The role of material losses is discussed as an important practical issue limiting the maximum achievable subwavelength transmission level. Most of our conclusions can be applied to both periodic arrays of holes and diaphragms in closed waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • Generating Pure Circular TE _{ mn} Modes Using Y-Type Power Dividers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1543 - 1550
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1169 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a methodology of exciting a pure circular TEmn modes using cascaded Y-type power dividers. The dividers partition the input signal into several parts, which are then coupled to a circular waveguide through apertures. The coupling apertures induce magnetic dipoles. With proper arrangement of the magnetic dipoles on the circumference of the circular waveguide, they then jointly excite the desired mode. The coupling strength and the mode purity are calculated using the reciprocity theorem and magnetic current sources. Three mode converters, i.e., TE21, TE01, and TE41, were designed, built, and tested at W-band. Back-to-back transmission measurements exhibit excellent agreement to the results of computer simulations when the conductor loss is taken into consideration. The measured transmissions are high and the bandwidths are broad. These Y-type converters are structurally simple, but the machining errors are critical. The factors affecting the performance will be discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Multistub Loaded Resonator and Its Application to High-Order Dual-Band Filters

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1551 - 1556
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel multistub loaded resonator and its application to high-order dual-band bandpass filters are presented in this paper. A key merit of the filter configuration is that the characteristics of the second passband can be conveniently controlled, whereas that of the first passband are fixed. As the multistub loaded resonator contains six symmetric stubs, which can provide sufficient coupled sections between adjacent resonators, it is realizable to build the high-order dual-band filters using the proposed resonators. To illustrate the concept, two dual-band filters of third and sixth order are designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Loss Frequency-Agile Bandpass Filters With Controllable Bandwidth and Suppressed Second Harmonic

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1557 - 1564
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel approach to design frequency-agile bandpass filters with constant absolute bandwidth and passband shape, as well as a suppressed second harmonic. A novel mixed electric and magnetic coupling scheme is proposed to control the coupling coefficient variation. Theoretical analysis indicates that it is able to achieve desired coupling coefficients between the proposed resonators at various frequencies so as to obtain constant absolute bandwidth. Moreover, this half-wavelength resonator has a Q higher than the quarter- and half-wavelength counterparts, thus resulting in low insertion loss. A filter of this type is designed to validate the proposed idea. To remove the spurious responses of the filter, a method is then introduced to suppress the second harmonic without degrading the passband performance. For demonstration, two frequency-agile filters with 60- and 80-MHz constant absolute bandwidth are implemented with the frequency tuning range from 680 to 1000 MHz. Comparisons of experimental and simulated results are presented to verify the theoretical predications. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Ended and Differential Radial Power Combiners Implemented With a Compact Broadband Probe

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1565 - 1572
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A radial power-combiner design is presented using broadband probes and a radial cavity configuration. The 8:1 combiner (which can also be used as a power divider) is demonstrated experimentally in both single-ended and differential configurations. The broadband probe is composed of cylindrical conductors and dielectric spacers, arranged on a rod for mechanical stability. The proposed radial power combiner provides low loss, broad bandwidth (800-1800 MHz), and high power capability. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-Shifter Design Using Phase-Slope Alignment With Grounded Shunt \lambda /4 Stubs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1573 - 1583
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the theory and a design method for distributed digital phase shifters, where both the phase-error bandwidth and the return-loss bandwidth are considered simultaneously. The proposed topology of each phase bit consists of a transmission-line (TL) branch and a bandpass filter (BPF) branch. The BPF branch uses grounded shunt λ/4 stubs to achieve phase alignment with the insertion phase of the TL branch. By increasing the number of transmission poles of the BPF branch, the return-loss bandwidth can be increased. Analysis of the BPF topology with one, two, and three transmission poles is provided. The design parameters for 22.5° , 45° , 90° , and 180° are provided for bandwidths of 30%, 50%, 67%, and 100%. The relations between phase error, return loss, and maximum achievable phase shift are shown for the three topologies for design purposes. The methodology is also applicable to bandwidths larger than 100%. To validate the method, four separate L-band phase bits (1-2 GHz) are designed and measured. A complete 4-bit phase shifter with single-pole double-throw switches is then designed and measured. The measured rms phase error of the phase shifter is less than 3.6 °, while the return loss is larger than 15 dB from 1.06 to 1.95 GHz for all 16 phase states. View full abstract»

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  • On the Applications of the Coupled-Line Composite Right/Left-Handed Unit Cell

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1584 - 1591
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two applications of the coupled-line composite right/left-handed (CL-CRLH) unit cell, compact-size rat-race hybrid, and arbitrary coupling directional coupler. Benefiting from the slow-wave effect present in both the right- and left-handed regions of the CL-CRLH unit cell, two compact-size rat-race hybrids were realized. 60% area reduction was achieved while preserving the conventional rat-race performance. The arbitrary coupling directional coupler, which operates in the stopband around the balance frequency, showed excellent in-band and out-of-band performance. To reduce its size, a slow-wave CL-CRLH unit cell was proposed. The proposed unit cell achieves a 38% size reduction. The rat-race hybrids were fabricated on microstrip technology, whereas the directional couplers were fabricated on stripline technology. Simplified circuit models for the unit cells were developed. Theoretical expectations were confirmed by electromagnetic simulations and measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Realization of a Calculable RF Power Standard in Coplanar Technology on Alumina Substrate

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1592 - 1598
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (694 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the first efforts toward a calculable power standard in the RF domain based on a modeling approach. Consequently, it could be possible to theoretically determine the input reflection coefficient and the efficiency of the power detector. We simulated and realized a coplanar thermistor mount prototype in the 50-MHz-8-GHz frequency range whose performance has been validated by measurements. The maximum deviations between simulated and measured values do not exceed 0.06 for the reflection coefficient. The mean relative error between the measured and computed efficiency is about 1.2% over the whole frequency band. Finally, the input reflection coefficient is less than -15 dB and the efficiency is greater than 0.90 in the 50-MHz-7-GHz frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • Complete On-Wafer Noise-Figure Characterization of 60-GHz Differential Amplifiers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1599 - 1608
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we show that the differential noise figure of differential amplifiers is better measured directly by using baluns rather than be derived from single-ended measurements. For on-wafer measurements at 60 GHz, this can best be done using RF probes with integrated baluns. To extract the full 4 × 4 noise correlation matrix needed to predict the circuit behavior under any operating condition, this needs to be extended with at least one single-ended noise-figure measurement taken on an individual amplifier. For the experimental two-stage differential amplifier realized in 45-nm node CMOS studied in this paper, we found a noise figure of 3.2 dB. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest noise figure reported at 60 GHz in any CMOS technology thus far. View full abstract»

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  • 60-GHz Ultra-Wideband Radio-Over-Fiber System Using a Novel Photonic Monocycle Generation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1609 - 1620
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An impulse-radio ultra-wideband (UWB) photonic generation system targeting high user density in-flight communications with simultaneous ranging capabilities in the 60-GHz radio band is proposed and demonstrated experimentally and the implementation cost is analyzed. Impulse-radio UWB monocycles are employed for signaling. The monocycles are generated employing a pulsed laser and a differential photoreceiver with phase shifting. Optical frequency up-conversion is performed employing a low-frequency RF carrier and a Mach-Zehnder electrooptical modulator operating in the nonlinear regime. In the experiment, Gaussian monocycles at a 1.244-Gbit/s data rate with 3.8-GHz bandwidth are generated and up-converted to 57 GHz. The performance of the 57-GHz UWB signal after the transmission over a standard single-mode fiber at in-cabin distances up to 100 m is studied. The experimental results show that good quality UWB pulses can be obtained with the proposed system. The impact of the system parameters on performance including wireless transmission and associated cost is analyzed, indicating that a high number of UWB access nodes can be cost-effectively supported by the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • Contributions to the Modeling and Design of Reconfigurable Reflecting Cells Embedding Discrete Control Elements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1621 - 1628
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents new contributions to the modeling and design of reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements such as microelectromechanical system (MEMS) or diodes. First, a rigorous assessment of the different possibilities to simulate and measure the reconfigurable cell in a periodic environment is proposed. Strategies to efficiently model a cell comprising discrete control elements are then presented and discussed in terms of versatility, required assumptions, and computational effort. The most efficient method allows computing all reconfigurable states cell parameters, including information such as the total and dissipated power in each MEMS or diode, in a few minutes using a commercial full-wave solver and adequate post-processing. Finally, the benefit of such an efficient modeling is illustrated by the optimization of an element phase states distribution using a particle swarm optimizer. The concepts presented are also directly applicable to reconfigurable transmitting cells. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance 1.5–2.5-GHz RF-MEMS Tunable Filters for Wireless Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1629 - 1637
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents high-performance RF microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) tunable filters with constant absolute bandwidth for the 1.5-2.5-GHz wireless band. The filter design is based on corrugated coupled lines and ceramic substrates (εr=9.9) for miniaturization, and the 3-bit tuning network is fabricated using a digital/analog RF-MEMS device so as to provide a large capacitance ratio and continuous frequency coverage. Narrowband (72 ± 3 MHz) and wideband (115 ± 10 MHz) 1-dB bandwidth two-pole filters result in a measured insertion loss of 1.9-2.2 dB at 1.5-2.5 GHz with a power handling of 25 dBm and an IIP3 >> 33 dBm. The filters also showed no distortion when tested under wideband CDMA waveforms up to 24.8 dBm. The designs can be scaled to higher dielectric-constant substrates to result in smaller filters. To our knowledge, these filters represent the state-of-the-art at this frequency range using any planar tuning technology. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques information for authors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1638
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  • Special issue on radio-frequency nanoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1639
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  • IEEE Foundation [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1640
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  • IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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