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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): c1
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  • [Staff list]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Elected Administrative Committee

    Page(s): c3
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c4
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 1241 - 1244
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 1245
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  • Estimation of scattering object characteristics for image reconstruction using a nonzero background

    Page(s): 1248 - 1262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (967 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two methods are described to estimate the boundary of a 2-D penetrable object and the average sound speed in the object. One method is for circular objects centered in the coordinate system of the scattering observation. This method uses an orthogonal function expansion for the scattering. The other method is for noncircular, essentially convex objects. This method uses cross correlation to obtain time differences that determine a family of parabolas whose envelope is the boundary of the object. A curve-fitting method and a phase-based method are described to estimate and correct the offset of an uncentered radial or elliptical object. A method based on the extinction theorem is described to estimate absorption in the object. The methods are applied to calculated scattering from a circular object with an offset and to measured scattering from an offset noncircular object. The results show that the estimated boundaries, sound speeds, and absorption slopes agree very well with independently measured or true values when the assumptions of the methods are reasonably satisfied. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of distortion in tunable ferroelectric capacitors

    Page(s): 1263 - 1266
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    The harmonic distortion in ferroelectric capacitors is measured using a parallel resonant circuit approach. The measured results have been compared with simulated results based on the nonlinearities in capacitance versus the voltage characteristics of ferroelectric capacitors. View full abstract»

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  • Back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible organic substrates

    Page(s): 1267 - 1275
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and the fabrication of two low-loss X-band back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible liquid crystal polymer substrates using wire-bonded BST capacitors as analog tuning elements. The back-to-back topology consists of three resonators on both sides of the substrate coupled by apertures in their common ground plane, allowing the overall size of the filter to be reduced. BST varactors made on a sapphire substrate are easily diced and mounted on the polymer substrates to achieve the desired tuning. Both 3-pole tunable filters show a 1-dB bandwidth of 8 to 10%, low insertion loss (3.6 to 1.95 dB for the best one) with bias voltages from 0 to 35 V, a better compactness compared with classical tunable structures (reduced footprint area by 30% for the best filter) and a frequency tuning of about 11 to 13% at 8 GHz. The demonstrated feasibility opens interesting prospects for the fabrication of compact tunable filters with more resonators. View full abstract»

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  • Network time and frequency transfer with GNSS receivers located in time laboratories

    Page(s): 1276 - 1284
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    In this paper we investigate a possible network solution, similar to the IGS analysis center solutions, that can be easily managed by a network of timing institutes to solve for all the clock differences (in addition to other quantities) in a unique system to understand the feasibility and the advantages of this approach in time and frequency transfer. The investigation is based on a suite of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) software products that allows the users to perform a wide range of calculations and analyses related to GNSS, from the evaluation of performances at the user level to the computation of precise GNSS orbits and clocks, including the calculation of precise receiver coordinates. The time and frequency transfer capabilities of the network solution (named ODTS) are evaluated and compared with PPP solutions as well as to other time transfer results. View full abstract»

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  • Modal control of mechanically coupled NEMS arrays for tunable RF filters

    Page(s): 1285 - 1295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel tuning strategy of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)-based filters is proposed based on the modal control of mechanically coupled NEMS arrays. This is done by adjusting separately addressed distributed actuation and detection configurations proportionally to desired modal vectors. This control scheme enhances the global output signal, raising the power handling of the filter on all channels. Although the modal control of 1-D arrays exhibits narrow-band responses with adjustable resonance frequency, its application to 2-D arrays produces filters with both adjustable bandwidth and central frequency. One possible realization scheme is suggested by using electrostatically driven coupled NEMS arrays whose transduction gains are adjusted by changing the electrodes' bias voltages. Dispersion effects on both 1-D array and 2-D array frequency response are analytically expressed using eigenvalues perturbation theory. Based on these results, we show how to reduce their impact by appropriately choosing the coupling stiffness and the number of resonators. View full abstract»

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  • Indicator dilution models for the quantification of microvascular blood flow with bolus administration of ultrasound contrast agents

    Page(s): 1296 - 1310
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Indicator dilution methods have a long history in the quantification of both macro- and microvascular blood flow in many clinical applications. Various models have been employed in the past to isolate the primary pass of an indicator after an intravenous bolus injection. The use of indicator dilution techniques allows for the estimation of hemodynamic parameters of a tumor or organ and thus may lead to useful diagnostic and therapy monitoring information. In this paper, we review and discuss the properties of the lognormal function, the gamma variate function, the diffusion with drift models, and the lagged normal function, which have been used to model indicator dilution curves in different fields of medicine. We fit these models to contrast-enhanced ultrasound time-intensity curves from liver metastases and the ovine corpora lutea. We evaluate the models' performance on the image data and compare their predictions for hemodynamic-related parameters such as the area under the curve, the mean transit time, the full-width at half-maximum, the time to the peak intensity, and wash-in time. The models that best fit the experimental data are the lognormal function and the diffusion with drift. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid beamforming and steering with reconfigurable arrays

    Page(s): 1311 - 1319
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    Reconfigurable arrays offer an advantage over traditional ultrasound arrays because of their flexibility in channel selection. To improve ultrasound beamforming and coverage through beam steering, we propose a hybrid beamforming technique to elongate the depth of focus of transmit beams and a method of element selection that improves steering capabilities that take advantage of array reconflgurability using annular rings. A local minimization technique to optimize the hybrid aperture is discussed in this paper. The chosen hybrid apertures covering four focal zones result in improved range in depth of focus when compared with pure spherical beams via point spread functions (PSF) and lesion signal-tonoise ratio (LSNR) calculations. Improvements were statistically significant at focal depth extremes. Our method of beam steering utilizing a quantized phase delay selection to minimize delay errors indicated better performance by removing an artifact present with traditional ringed element selection. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of porosity distribution in the propagation direction on ultrasound waves through cancellous bone

    Page(s): 1320 - 1328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (981 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cancellous bone is a porous material composed of numerous trabecular elements, and its porosity changes according to its position within a bone. In this study, the effect of porosity distribution in the propagation direction on ultrasound waves through cancellous bone was numerically investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Fifty-four numerical models of cancellous bone were reconstructed from 3-D X-ray microcomputed tomographic (μCT) images at 6 positions in a bovine femoral bone. To generate trabecular structures with distinct porosity distributions, 3 erosion procedures were performed in which the trabecular elements in each cancellous bone model were eroded. In one procedure, erosion was uniformly distributed over the whole spatial region of the cancellous bone model, but in the other 2 procedures, the spatial distribution of erosion was changed in a specific direction. Fast and slow waves propagating through the 3-D μCT cancellous bone models in the porosity-distributed direction were simulated using the viscoelastic FDTD method. The wave amplitudes and propagation speeds of the fast and slow waves were measured for the cancellous bone models eroded by each procedure, and the effect of porosity distribution was investigated in terms of change in the trabecular microstructure. The results suggest that both wave amplitudes increased when porosity distribution was low and when trabecular structure was more uniform, but that the speed of the fast wave increased when porosity distribution was high and when longer trabecular elements were present. View full abstract»

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  • Wiener beamforming and the coherence factor in ultrasound imaging

    Page(s): 1329 - 1346
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    The coherence factor (CF) is used for aberration correction and sidelobe suppression in ultrasound imaging. Unfortunately, it suffers from artifacts when the SNR is low. We show how the CF can be interpreted as an implementation of the Wiener postfilter for a delay-and-sum beamformer. In addition, we show that a minimum-variance, distortionless-response beamformer followed by CF weighting can be interpreted as an implementation of the Wiener beamformer. These interpretations provide us with a theoretical framework for analyzing and improving CF-based methods. We use this theory to develop more robust implementations for both the Wiener postfilter and beamformer. The performance of these implementations is shown on simulated and real data. View full abstract»

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  • A fast normalized cross-correlation calculation method for motion estimation

    Page(s): 1347 - 1357
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    High-precision motion estimation has become essential in ultrasound-based techniques such as time-domain Doppler and elastography. Normalized cross-correlation (NCC) has been shown as one of the best motion estimators. However, a significant drawback is its associated computational cost, especially when RF signals are used. In this paper, a method based on sum tables developed elsewhere is adapted for fast NCC calculation in ultrasound-based motion estimation, and is tested with respect to the speed enhancement of the specific application of ultrasound-based motion estimation. Both the numerator and denominator in the NCC definition are obtained through pre-calculated sum tables to eliminate redundancy of repeated NCC calculations. Unlike a previously reported method, a search region following the principle of motion estimation is applied in the construction of sum tables. Because an exhaustive search and high window overlap are typically used for highest quality imaging, the computational cost of the proposed method is significantly lower than that of the direct method using the NCC definition, without increasing bias and variance characteristics of the motion estimation or sacrificing the spatial resolution. Therefore, high quality, high spatial resolution, and high calculation speed can be all simultaneously obtained using the proposed methodology. The high efficiency of this method was verified using RF signals from a human abdominal aorta in vivo. For the parameters typically used, a real-time, very high frame rate of 310 frames/s was achieved for the motion estimation. The proposed method was also extended to 2-D NCC motion estimation and motion estimation with other algorithms. The technique could thus prove very useful and flexible for real-time motion estimation as well as in other fields such as optical flow and image registration. View full abstract»

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  • Shear modulus estimation with vibrating needle stimulation

    Page(s): 1358 - 1367
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ultrasonic shear wave imaging technique is being developed for estimating the complex shear modulus of biphasic hydropolymers including soft biological tissues. A needle placed in the medium is vibrated along its axis to generate harmonic shear waves. Doppler pulses synchronously track particle motion to estimate shear wave propagation speed. Velocity estimation is improved by implementing a k-lag phase estimator. Fitting shear-wave speed estimates to the predicted dispersion relation curves obtained from two rheological models, we estimate the elastic and viscous components of the complex shear modulus. The dispersion equation estimated using the standard linear solid-body (Zener) model is compared with that from the Kelvin-Voigt model to estimate moduli in gelatin gels in the 50 to 450 Hz shear wave frequency bandwidth. Both models give comparable estimates that agree with independent shear rheometer measurements obtained at lower strain rates. View full abstract»

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  • Application of a matched filter approach for finite aperture transducers for the synthetic aperture imaging of defects

    Page(s): 1368 - 1382
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    The suitability of the synthetic aperture imaging of defects using a matched filter approach on finite aperture transducers was investigated. The first part of the study involved the use a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate the phased array ultrasonic wave propagation in an aluminum block and its interaction with side-drilled hole-like defects. B-scans were generated using the FDTD method for three active aperture transducer configurations of the phased array (a) single element and (b) 16-element linear scan mode, and (c) 16-element steering mode. A matched filter algorithm (MFA) was developed using the delay laws and the spatial impulse response of a finite size rectangular phased array transducer. The conventional synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) algorithm and the MFA were independently applied on the FDTD signals simulated with the probe operating at a center frequency of 5 MHz and the processed B-scans were compared. The second part of the study investigated the capability of the MFA approach to improve the SNR. Gaussian white noise was added to the FDTD generated defect signals. The noisy B-scans were then processed using the SAFT and the MFA and the improvements in the SNR were estimated. The third part of the study investigated the application of the MFA to image and size surface-crack-like defects in pipe specimens obtained using a 45° steered beam from a phased array probe. These studies confirm that MFA is an alternative to SAFT with little additional computational burden. It can also be applied blindly, like SAFT, to effect synthetic focusing with distinct advantages in treating finite transducer effects, and in handling steered beam inspections. Finally, limitations of the MFA in dealing with larger-sized transducers are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of contact acoustic nonlinearity in delaminations by shearographic imaging, laser doppler vibrometric scanning and finite difference modeling

    Page(s): 1383 - 1395
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    Full-field dynamic shearography and laser Doppler vibrometric scanning are used to investigate the local contact acoustic nonlinear generation of delamination-induced effects on the vibration of a harmonically excited composite plate containing an artificial defect. Nonlinear elastic behavior caused by the stress-dependent boundary conditions at the delamination interfaces of a circular defect is also simulated by a 3-D second-order, finite-difference, staggered-grid model (displacement-stress formulation). Both the experimental and simulated data reveal an asymmetric motion of the layer above the delamination, which acts as a membrane vibrating with enhanced displacement amplitude around a finite offset displacement. The spectrum of the membrane motion is enriched with clapping-induced harmonics of the excitation frequency. In case of a sufficiently thin and soft membrane, the simulations reveal clear modal behavior at sub-harmonic frequencies caused by inelastic clapping. View full abstract»

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  • Mesh-free modeling of the interaction between a point-focused acoustic lens and a cavity

    Page(s): 1396 - 1404
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    Interaction between a cavity or void in a liquid and a converging ultrasonic beam generated by a point-focused acoustic lens is investigated. A semi-analytical technique called the distributed point source method (DPSM) is adopted because no analytical solution is available for this problem involving cavities of different size and the finite element method is not very efficient for modeling high-frequency ultrasonic problems. The solution shows that if the cavity is placed very close to the focal point of the lens then it can be detected by the acoustic lens. The detectability of the cavity at the off-focus position depends on the distance of the cavity from the focal point. The variation of this distance as the cavity moves in horizontal and vertical directions from the focal point is also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Guided wave diffraction tomography within the born approximation

    Page(s): 1405 - 1418
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    Detection and sizing of corrosion in pipelines and pressure vessels over large, partially accessible areas is of growing interest in the petrochemical industry. Low-frequency guided wave diffraction tomography is a potentially attractive technique to rapidly evaluate the thickness of large sections of partially accessible structures. Finite element simulations of a 64-element circular array on a plate show that when the scattering mechanism of the object to be reconstructed satisfies the Born approximation, the reconstruction of the thickness is accurate. However, the practical implementation is more challenging because the incident field is not known. This paper describes the baseline subtraction approach commonly used in structural health monitoring applications and proposes a new approach in which the measurement of the incident field is not required when using a circular array of transducers. Experimental results demonstrate that ultimately the scattering from the array of transducers is a major source of error in the tomographic reconstruction, but when there is no scattering from the array of transducers the reconstructions are very similar to the finite element simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric energy harvesting based on shear mode 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals

    Page(s): 1419 - 1425
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we theoretically and experimentally present a nonresonant vibration energy harvesting device based on the shear mode of 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals. The electrical properties of the energy harvesting device were evaluated using an analytical method. Good consistency was obtained between the analytical and experimental results. Under a mass load of 200 g, a peak voltage of 11.3 V and maximum power of 0.70 mW were obtained at 500 Hz when connecting a matching load resistance of 91 kΩ. A high output could always be obtained within a very wide frequency range. The results demonstrate the potential of the device in energy harvesting applied to low-power portable electronics and wireless sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear clapping modulation of lamb modes by normally closed delamination

    Page(s): 1426 - 1433
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (722 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The nonlinear interaction between a high-frequency probing Lamb mode, propagating through a bilayer containing an initially closed tangential delamination at the interlayer interface whose contact conditions are dynamically changing because of a high-amplitude Lamb pump wave with long wavelength, is modeled in a quasi-stationary approach. The proposed criterion for the delamination to open is based on the magnitude, with respect to a threshold value, of the pump-wave-induced normal stress components that are pulling on both sides of the interface during part of its cycle. The temporal evolution of the contact condition during the pump wave cycle is calculated and the spectral enrichment caused by cross-modulation spectral components between the probing wave and the modulating wave is predicted. The impact of the cross-modulation on the normal displacement at the externally accessible surfaces is investigated for two different types of incident probing wave in an absorbing bilayer structure, and for different variations of the contact quality modulation. The results can serve as a parametric guide for experimenters considering the use of nonlinear harmonic generation of Lamb waves as a tool for nondestructive testing of bilayers such as rubber-steel composite walls that are typically used in storage tanks and pipelines for corrosive liquids. View full abstract»

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  • Noncontact ultrasonic transportation of small objects in a circular trajectory in air by flexural vibrations of a circular disc

    Page(s): 1434 - 1442
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    We have developed a noncontact ultrasonic technique for transporting small objects with a linear trajectory over long distances using a bending vibrating plate and a reflector. In this paper, noncontact transportation of small particles around a circular trajectory was investigated. A circular aluminum plate with a piezoelectric ring was employed as a vibrating plate. On the basis of finite element analysis (FEA) calculations, the electrodes of the piezoelectric ring were divided into 24 pieces to generate a flexural vibration mode with one nodal circle and four nodal lines at the resonance frequency of 47.8 kHz. A circular plate having the same dimensions as the vibrating plate was installed parallel to the vibrator. It was used as a reflector to generate an acoustic standing wave in the air between the two plates. The acoustic field between the vibrating plate and reflector was calculated by FEA and the distribution of the acoustic radiation force acting on a small rigid particle was calculated to predict the position of the trapped particle. Using a prototype of the vibrating plate, polystyrene particles with diameters of several millimeters could be trapped at regular intervals along the horizontal nodal line of the standing wave. The sound pressure distribution between the vibrating plate and reflector was measured by a fiber optic probe and the experimental and calculated results showed good agreement. By switching the driving conditions of the divided electrodes in the circumferential direction, the nodal lines of the vibrating plate could be rotated and the trapped particle could be manipulated with a circular trajectory in air. View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of acoustic trapping capability on the orientation and shape of particles

    Page(s): 1443 - 1450
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of the dependence of acoustic trapping capability on the orientation and shape of particles to be trapped in different media. In the experimental investigation, two sharp edges of metal strips in ultrasonic vibration are used to trap particles in air. Experimental particles are made of clay, having the same mass and volume but different shapes. In the theoretical investigation, a method which combines the analysis of finite element method and theory of acoustic radiation force is used to calculate the acoustic radiation force acting on particles with different shapes and orientations. Both the experimental and theoretical results show that the acoustic trapping capability depends on the orientation and shape of particles. It is found that both in air and in water, for a particle with a given shape, the trapping capability is different at different orientations; for some commonly shaped particles, such as rectangular cuboid, cylinder, cone, cube, sphere, and hollow cylinder; the trapping capability for each particle shape at its best trapping orientation decreases in the listed sequence of shapes. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk