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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date May-june 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 473 - 474
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  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Biophotonics—Part 1

    Page(s): 475 - 477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB)  

    The first part of this special issue on biophotonics can be broken down into six sections: 1) advanced bioimaging and microscopy; 2) novel approaches in biophotonic diagnostics and therapeutics; 3) photoacoustic tomography; 4) light-cell and light-tissue interactions; 5) novel biosensing techniques; and 6) advanced nanobiophotonics. There are 23 papers in this issue. View full abstract»

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  • In Vivo Virtual Biopsy of Human Skin by Using Noninvasive Higher Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    Page(s): 478 - 492
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1983 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Higher harmonic generation microscopy (HHGM), combining both second- and third-harmonic generation (SHG and THG) modalities, is a new paradigm for in vivo noninvasive virtual biopsy. With the ability to achieve noninvasiveness, high resolution, and high penetrability at the same time, HHGM is a promising tool for future noninvasive diagnosis of skin diseases. In this paper, we report our preliminary pilot clinical trial results on in vivo virtual biopsy of human skin by using HHGM. In vivo virtual biopsy imaging has been performed on 21 volunteers' inside and outside forearm skin along with the damage evaluation. Together with an embryo viability study, our results not only indicate a superior viability performance of the developed system, but also a much improved penetrability in different skin types. Ex vivo studies further confirm the capability of the developed virtual biopsy system to pathohistologically distinguish different skin diseases. Our in vivo HHGM biopsy study of human skin with different colors also reveals the central role of melanin in the epi-THG resonance enhancement and attenuation. With a unique capability to molecular image the melanin distribution, epi-THG microscopy is also highly valuable for diagnosing and screening early melanocytic lesions. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies

    Page(s): 493 - 505
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fluorescence imaging in neurosurgery has a long historical development, with various biomarkers and biochemical agents being used, and numerous technological approaches. This review focuses on contrast agents, summarizing endogenous fluorescence, exogenously stimulated fluorescence, and exogenous contrast agents, and then on tools used for imaging. It ends with a summary of key clinical trials that lead to consensus studies. The practical utility of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as stimulated by administration of δ-aminolevulinic acid has had substantial pilot clinical studies and basic science research completed. Recently, multicenter clinical trials using PpIX fluorescence to guide resection have shown efficacy for improved short-term survival. Exogenous agents are being developed and tested preclinically, and hopefully hold the potential for long-term survival benefit if they provide additional capabilities for resection of microinvasive disease or certain tumor subtypes that do not produce PpIX or help delineate low-grade tumors. The range of technologies used for measurement and imaging varies widely, with most clinical trials being carried out with either point probes or modified surgical microscopes. Currently, optimized probe approaches are showing efficacy in clinical trials, and fully commercialized imaging systems are emerging, which will clearly help to lead adoption into neurosurgical practice. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy of Cellular Lipid Storage

    Page(s): 506 - 515
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (846 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasing number of studies using nonlinear microscopy in the biosciences, an awareness for the potentials of nonlinear optics has begun to emerge among a broader audience. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is one of the most technically challenging methods in this category, forming images of molecular distributions based on their vibrations by a multiphoton interaction process. The primary strength of CARS microscopy lies in the ability of imaging lipids; the full 3-D distribution in living cells can be mapped without exogenous tags. Thus, CARS microscopy has a strong potential to become a central instrument for in vivo studies of the lipid metabolism at cellular level, improving present understanding of the mechanisms behind the many metabolism-related diseases, the impact of natural bioactive components in foods, and supporting the development of efficient pharmaceuticals as well as bioengineering processes exploiting the metabolism of microorganisms for the production of alternative energy sources. We illustrate this wide range of biological applications of CARS microscopy with a series of examples from our research. View full abstract»

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  • Multiphoton Microscopy of Live Tissues With Ultraviolet Autofluorescence

    Page(s): 516 - 523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current research on multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy is primarily focused on imaging the signal from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleatide (NADH) in tissue. NADH levels in cells are useful reporters of metabolic information, as well as early indicators in precancer and cancer diagnosis. While NADH is typically imaged in the 400-500 nm spectral window, the amino acid tryptophan is the major source of tissue fluorescence in the Ultraviolet range. Here, we briefly review current progress in multiphoton autofluorescence imaging of live tissues and cells, and report our recent findings of in vivo mouse skin imaging based on multiphoton excited tryptophan autofluorescence. This new method enables noninvasive imaging of skin tissue at video-rate and allows for the visualization and identification of cellular components in the epidermis, dermis, and muscle layers. It is also possible to image through small blood vessels in the mouse skin and observe circulating leukocytes in situ. View full abstract»

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  • Volumetric Imaging of Blood Flow Within Cochlea in Gerbil In Vivo

    Page(s): 524 - 529
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Changes in blood flow to the inner ear are thought to influence a number of cochlear diseases, including noise-induced hearing loss, sudden hearing loss, and Meniere's disease. Advances have been made in the areas of vital microscopic studies of microcirculation, and the laser Doppler flowmetry. But none of these techniques can provide in vivo 3-D mapping of microvascular perfusion within the cochlea. To overcome this limitation, we have developed and used a method of optical microangiography (OMAG) that can generate 3-D angiograms within millimeter of tissue depths by analyzing the endogenous optical scattering signal obtained from an illuminated sample. We used OMAG to visualize the cochlear microcirculation of adult living gerbil through the intact cochlea, which would be difficult, if not impossible, by use of any other current techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Assesssment of Tumor Resection Margins in the Breast

    Page(s): 530 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Breast conserving surgery, in which the breast tumor and the surrounding normal tissue are removed, is the primary mode of treatment for invasive and in situ carcinomas of the breast, conditions that affect nearly 200 000 women annually. Of these nearly 200 000 patients who undergo this surgical procedure, between 20%-70% of them may undergo additional surgeries to remove tumor that was left behind in the first surgery, due to the lack of intraoperative tools that can detect whether the boundaries of the excised specimens are free from residual cancer. Optical techniques have many attractive attributes that may make them useful tools for intraoperative assessment of breast tumor resection margins. In this paper, we discuss clinical design criteria for intraoperative breast tumor margin assessment and review optical techniques applied to this problem. In addition, we report on the development and clinical testing of quantitative diffuse reflectance imaging (Q-DRI) as a potential solution to this clinical need. Q-DRI is a spectral imaging tool, which has been applied to 55 resection margins in 48 patients at Duke University Medical Center. Clear sources of contrast between cancerous and cancer-free resection margins were identified with the device, and resulted in an overall accuracy of 75% in detecting positive margins. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Microangiography: A Label-Free 3-D Imaging Technology to Visualize and Quantify Blood Circulations Within Tissue Beds In Vivo

    Page(s): 545 - 554
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a recently developed volumetric imaging technique that is capable of producing 3-D images of dynamic blood perfusion within microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo . The imaging contrast of OMAG image is based on the intrinsic optical scattering signals backscattered by the moving blood cells in patent blood vessels, thus, it is a label-free imaging technique. In this paper, I will first discuss its recent developments that use a constant modulation frequency introduced in the spectral interferograms to achieve the blood perfusion imaging. I will then introduce its latest development that utilizes the inherent blood flow to modulate the spectral interferograms to realize the blood perfusion imaging. Finally, examples of using OMAG to delineate the dynamic blood perfusion, down to capillary level resolution, within living tissues are given, including cortical blood perfusion in the brain of small animals and blood flow within human retina and choroids. View full abstract»

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  • Parametric Diffuse Optical Imaging in Reflectance Geometry

    Page(s): 555 - 564
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a model-based technique used for noninvasive characterization of subsurface tissue function and structure. Compared to more common transmission geometries, reflectance DOI has the advantage of being portable and easily implemented in a clinical setting. However, reflectance measurements are generally not compatible with conventional DOI image reconstruction methods because they typically provide a limited number of unique tissue views. In this paper, we describe a fast and reliable DOI image reconstruction method based on parameterization of tissue and tumor optical contrast, using physiological a priori knowledge. The reconstruction method is formulated within the general Bayesian inversion framework and is capable of handling both model and measurement errors. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the application of this approach, using a limited number of source-detector combinations. It is also shown that parametric reflectance DOI is robust to model misspecifications and measurement noise. View full abstract»

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  • Infrared Neural Stimulation of Thalamocortical Brain Slices

    Page(s): 565 - 572
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been well characterized in the peripheral nervous system, and has been shown to enable stimulation with high spatial precision and without causing the typical electrical stimulation artifact on the recording electrode. The next step in the development of INS is to demonstrate feasibility to stimulate neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS). Thalamocortical brain slices were used to establish feasibility of INS in the CNS and to optimize laser parameters. Infrared light was used to evoke action potentials in the brain slice with no electrical stimulation artifact. This response was blocked by the application of tetrodotoxin demonstrating neurological origin of the recorded signal. Threshold radiant exposure decreased as the absorption coefficient of the wavelength of light increased. Higher repetition rates lead to a decrease in threshold radiant exposure, and threshold radiant exposure was found to decrease as the spot size diameter increased. Additionally, neuronal responses to INS were intracellularly recorded demonstrating artifact free electrical recordings. The results from this paper lay the foundation for future in vivo studies to develop INS for CNS stimulation. View full abstract»

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  • The In Vivo Diagnosis of Malaria: Feasibility Study Into a Magneto-Optic Fingertip Probe

    Page(s): 573 - 580
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An in-depth analysis is presented into the feasibility of implementing a new magneto-optic test diagnostic for malaria in the form of a noninvasive finger probe. The diagnostic principle quantifies the malaria pigment hemozoin concentration in the blood stream by measuring the fractional change in transmitted optical intensity arising from the Cotton-Mouton effect on application of a magnetic field. Hemozoin is, to varying degrees, responsive to probing in this manner whether free in the blood plasma following lysis or, more commonly, contained in intracellular vacuoles of erythrocytes or leukocytes. Measurements made on living tissue and sophisticated phantoms, which mix solid and liquid phase media to mimic fingertip physiology, demonstrate that hemozoin concentrations less than 0.02 μg/ml may be readily detectable when blood, caused to pool in the capillary loop arterioles of the extensively vascularized nail bed, is interrogated through the fingernail. On conservative assumptions regarding the relationship between hemozoin production and parasitemia and taking account of the effect of locale on hemozoin responsivity the study indicates that an instrument built on this premise may in principle offer rapid non-invasive detection of malaria at parasitemia levels below 100 parasitized red blood cells per ml. View full abstract»

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  • Design of an Advanced Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Tomography System

    Page(s): 581 - 587
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design of an improved multichannel time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT) system. For the spread spectrum TD-DOT, the image quality depends on the stability of the time-resolved signals, which can be affected by fluctuation in the source modulation depth and drift in the detector gain. A microcontroller-based bias controller is designed to lock the bias of a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator at the positive quadrature point. With additional temperature stabilization over the avalanche photodiodes, the temporal stability of the time-resolved signals has been significantly improved-the fluctuations of the temporal point spread function have been limited to ±2% for a testing period of a few hours. The image quality and reproducibility have been substantially improved with the stabilized signals. View full abstract»

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  • Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging

    Page(s): 588 - 599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is a catheter-based, minimally invasive, imaging modality capable of providing high-resolution optical absorption map of the arterial wall. Integrated with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, combined IVPA and IVUS imaging can be used to detect and characterize atherosclerotic plaques building up in the inner lining of an artery. In this paper, we present and discuss various representative applications of combined IVPA/IVUS imaging of atherosclerosis, including assessment of the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, imaging of macrophages within the plaques, and molecular imaging of biomarkers associated with formation and development of plaques. In addition, imaging of coronary artery stents using IVPA and IVUS imaging is demonstrated. Furthermore, the design of an integrated IVUS/IVPA imaging catheter needed for in vivo clinical applications is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Absorbing Chromophores Used in Tissue Phantoms for Quantitative Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Imaging

    Page(s): 600 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the optical properties of absorbing compounds that are often used to construct tissue phantoms for quantitative photoacoustic spectroscopy and imaging are investigated. The wavelength dependence of the optical absorption of inorganic chromophores, such as copper and nickel chloride, and organic chromophores, such as cyanine-based near infrared dyes, was measured using transmittance spectroscopy and compared with that determined using photoacoustic spectroscopy. In addition, the relative change in the Grüneisen coefficient of these solutions with concentration was determined. The sound speed of aqueous gels and lipid emulsions as a function of concentration was also measured. It was found that copper and nickel chloride are suitable chromophores for the construction of photoacoustic tissue phantoms due to their photostability. By contrast, organic dyes were found unsuitable for quantitative photoacoustic measurements due to optically induced transient changes to their absorption spectrum and permanent oxidative photobleaching. View full abstract»

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  • Intracellular Dielectric Tagging for Improved Optical Manipulation of Mammalian Cells

    Page(s): 608 - 618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical micromanipulation of transparent microparticles such as cellular materials relies upon the application of optical forces that are crucially dependent on the refractive index contrast between the particle and the surrounding medium. We briefly review the application of optical forces for cell manipulation and sorting, highlighting some of the key experiments over the last twenty years. We then introduce a new technique for enhancing the dielectric contrast of mammalian cells, which is a result of cells naturally taking up microspheres from their environment. We explore how these intracellular dielectric tags can influence the scattering and gradient forces upon these cells from an externally applied optical field. We show that intracellular polymer microspheres can serve as highly directional optical scatterers and that scattering forces can enable sorting through axial guiding onto laminin-coated glass coverslips upon which the selected cells adhere. Such internal dielectric tagging presents a simple, inexpensive, sterile technique to enhance optical manipulation procedures for cellular material and may enable new sorting techniques within microfluidic systems. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering

    Page(s): 619 - 626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early precancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (LSC). When ls* <; LSC, a diffusion-approximation-based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r ) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that precancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties. View full abstract»

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  • Condensed Monte Carlo Modeling of Reflectance From Biological Tissue With a Single Illumination–Detection Fiber

    Page(s): 627 - 634
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to facilitate rapid simulation of reflectance spectroscopy for biological tissue, we have derived convolution equations needed to apply the condensed Monte Carlo (MC) modeling approach to single illumination-detection fiber probes. This approach was validated against a standard MC model, and then implemented to perform three computationally demanding tasks. First, by performing simulations at a wide range of optical property combinations, we characterized the effect of fiber diameter on the relationship between reflectance and tissue optical properties. Second, we simulated reflectance from 400 to 500 nm based on the optical properties of malignant and adipose breast tissues to elucidate the effect of fiber diameter on detected reflectance spectra. The third task involved evaluating the effect of adding an illumination-detection fiber to a linear array fiber probe for optical property determination. The implications of this approach for optimization of probe geometries are discussed. In addition to providing an important tool for high-volume MC simulation, this study has generated unique insights into the role of device design for reflectance spectroscopy. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Reflectance Imaging for a Multiplexed, High-Throughput, Label-Free, and Dynamic Biosensing Platform

    Page(s): 635 - 646
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are a number of emerging optical biosensing techniques utilizing interferometric and resonant characteristics of light. We have recently demonstrated an interferometric technique, the spectral reflectance imaging biosensor (SRIB) that uses optical wave interference to detect changes in the optical path length as a result of capture of biological material on the microarray surface without the need for labels and secondary reagents. In this paper, we review the principles and performance of the SRIB technique in the context of label-free biosensors and demonstrate its high-throughput, quantitative and calibrated, versatile, and dynamic (kinetic) capabilities. A unique aspect of the SRIB system is that the measurement technique is independent of surface conformation and allows for utilization of novel polymeric coatings for surface binding, thus providing a versatile and high-density platform. We present experimental results on multiplexed antibody/antigen arrays and DNA hybridization in real time, as well as specific binding of whole virus particles. The simplicity of the overall system, its high sensitivity and compatibility with glass surface chemistries, and a linear dynamic range of nearly four orders of magnitude makes SRIB a promising platform for multiplexed detection of different biological analytes in a complex sample, with potential impact in research and clinical applications. View full abstract»

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  • High Specificity Binding of Lectins to Carbohydrate-Functionalized Fiber Bragg Gratings: A New Model for Biosensing Applications

    Page(s): 647 - 653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The functionalization of an etched fiber Bragg grating was realized using a carbohydrate-siloxane conjugate. No fluorescent probes were used. Concanavalin A bound with high specificity to the glucose biosensor, but not to the lactose functionalized fiber. Conversely, peanut agglutinin bound to the lactose sensor with high specificity over its glucose counterpart. Quasi-monolayer selective binding of the lectins to the fiber sensor was inferred based on a theoretical analysis of the observed changes in the refractive index. Our results open the way to the use of unlabeled carbohydrate-based sensors for the study of the human glycome. View full abstract»

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  • Label-Free Biosensor Arrays Based on Silicon Ring Resonators and High-Speed Optical Scanning Instrumentation

    Page(s): 654 - 661
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A platform for performing rapid, real-time binding assays on sensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators is presented in this paper. An array of 32 sensors is interrogated simultaneously. Using eight sensors as controls, 24 simultaneous binding curves are produced. The bulk refractive index sensitivity of the system was demonstrated down to 7.6 × 10-7 and sensor-to-sensor variability is 3.9%. Using an 8-min incubation, real-time binding was observed over 8-logs of concentration down to 60 fM using immobilized biotin to capture streptavidin diluted in bovine serum albumin solution. Multiplexing in complex media is demonstrated with two DNA oligonucleotide probes. Time to result and repeatability are demonstrated to be adequate for clinical applications. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoplasmonic-Particle-Enhanced Optical Molecular Sensing

    Page(s): 662 - 671
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Metallic nanoparticles have a strong localized plasmon resonance that is influenced by the physical properties of the nanoparticles and their immediate ambient environment. Electromagnetic field and plasmon energy can also be manipulated by engineering nanoparticle plasmonic structures to concentrate and transport the electromagnetic energy, as well as by transferring the plasmon energy. If coupled with chemical and biological molecules on the surfaces, nanoplasmonic particles and related structures can be used to detect and measure static and dynamic molecular interactions in intro and in vivo. The nanoplasmonic particle molecular sensor is an emerging research tool to help in answering questions of sophisticated genetic processing and cellular signaling mechanisms, as well as early diagnostic imaging of human diseases. The optical molecular sensing enhanced by plasmonic nanoparticles is discussed in the aspects of fundamental theories, nanofabrication, optical spectroscopy, and imaging. Many biomedical applications are also reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Using Some Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Optical Bioimaging

    Page(s): 672 - 684
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The introduction of nanometric contrast agents to optical imaging is helpful for the understanding of some biological processes at the molecular level, as well as the development of diagnostic tools and therapies. Optical imaging agents such as gold nanorods (GNRs), quantum dots (QDs), and organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles can overcome many drawbacks of conventional agents, such as poor contrast, photobleaching, and low chemical and optical stability in biological environment. These nanoparticles can also be developed for absorbance, emission, and scattering in the near-IR region, which allows optical approaches for deep-tissue real-time imaging. The synthesis methods and optical properties of GNRs, QDs, and ORMOSIL nanoparticles are briefly introduced, and some of their applications in optical bioimaging are demonstrated. Specific targeting, “green” synthesis methods, and optical signal demodulation are also introduced. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University