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Photonics Journal, IEEE This IEEE Publication is an Open Access only journal. Open Access provides unrestricted online access to peer-reviewed journal articles.

Issue 3 • Date June 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 276 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1070 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a common belief that coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) has inferior nonlinear performance in the fiber optic channel due to its high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). In this paper, we show that due to the uniqueness of chromatic dispersion in the optical fiber, properly designed CO-OFDM can, in fact, possess a nonlinearity advantage over a coherent single carrier (SC) for ultrahigh-speed transport at 100 Gb/s and beyond. In particular, we propose a novel approach called multiband DFT-spread OFDM (MB-DFT-S-OFDM), by which the DFT-S-OFDM is applied to each subband of the multiband CO-OFDM to reduce the PAPR within each subband. It is found that eight-band DFT-S-OFDM surpasses the conventional OFDM and the coherent SC by 1.3 and 0.5 dB, respectively, for SSMF107-Gb/s transmission over a 1000-km standard-single-mode-fiber (SSMF). View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Study of the Gordon–Mollenauer Effect and of the Optical-Phase-Conjugation Compensation Method in Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 284 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical phase-modulated systems are promising candidates for the development of ultrahigh-bit-rate transmission links, thanks to their high spectral efficiency and increased tolerance to fiber-optic nonlinearities. However, their implementation was considerably slowed down by theoretical studies, suggesting that the transmission performance can be severely hindered by nonlinear phase noise (the so-called Gordon-Mollenauer effect). The simulations presented here show that, in realistic systems (including nonlinearity, dispersion, and attenuation), Gordon-Mollenauer noise does not represent the main source of signal distortions. We demonstrate that all nonlinear impairments can be efficiently compensated by optical phase conjugation, independent of system characteristics. The combination of optical-phase-conjugation with phase-modulation formats could enable ultrahigh-transmission-capacity and easy embedded-link upgrading. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Based on Tunable Liquid Crystal Technology

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 292 - 298
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a photoelastic pressure sensor using a liquid crystal (LC) tunable fiber polarizer. The polarizer contains an etched single-mode fiber sealed in an LC cell. A low-index LC is used as a tunable birefringent cladding of the fiber. Any electric-field-induced LC director reorientation may thus affect the fiber's light-guiding characteristics. Different polarization states experience different LC cladding indices. The transmittance contrast between the x- and y-polarized modes reaches 31.9 dB, which is sensitive enough to monitor any polarization state change in the fiber. A pressure sensor with the sensitivity of 0.25 rad/N is thus demonstrated. The corresponding stress-optic coefficient of the fiber is measured at 1550-nm telecomm band. The advantages and applications of the LC tuning and sensing technologies are discussed. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • InP/InGaAs Photodetector on SOI Photonic Circuitry

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 299 - 305
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an InP-based membrane p-i-n photodetector on a silicon-on-insulator sample containing a Si-wiring photonic circuit that is suitable for use in optical interconnections on Si integrated circuits (ICs). The detector mesa footprint is 50 μm2, which is the smallest reported to date for this kind of device, and the junction capacitance is below 10 fF, which allows for high integration density and low dynamic power consumption. The measured detector responsivity and 3-dB bandwidth are 0.45 A/W and 33 GHz, respectively. The device fabrication is compatible with wafer-scale processing steps, guaranteeing compatibility toward future-generation electronic IC processing. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Near-Infrared Ge Photodiodes for Si Photonics: Operation Frequency and an Approach for the Future

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 306 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1005 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Operation frequency is discussed for near-infrared photodiodes (PDs) using Ge layers on Si, which are indispensable for the photonic-electronic convergence on an Si chip. Based on the formula derived from the continuity equation, Ge pin PDs on Si are found to operate with the 3-dB cut-off frequency as high as 80 GHz, which is limited by the slow diffusion current from the n and p layers. In order to increase the frequency, a new structure is examined, which is composed of a p-Ge/i-Si/n-Si heterojunction. In this structure, electrons generated in the p layer of Ge are collected by the i layer of wider gap Si, being similar to uni-traveling-carrier PDs of InGaAs/InP in III-V systems. Reflecting the larger saturation velocity of carriers for i-Si in comparison with i-Ge, higher operation frequencies as large as 100 GHz are expected by optimizing the layer thicknesses. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Enhancing the 3-dB Bandwidth via the Gain-Lever Effect in Quantum-Dot Lasers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 321 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the small-signal modulation response of two-section, gain-lever, quantum-dot semiconductor lasers. A three-pole modulation function is derived from a 3-D set of rate equations, and a 70% 3-dB bandwidth enhancement is computed and experimentally realized in an undoped quantum-dot gain-lever laser under extreme asymmetric-bias conditions. Finally, it is demonstrated that the 3-dB bandwidth is three times the free-running relaxation oscillation frequency in these types of laser structures, as opposed to 1.55 times in the case of conventional single-section lasers. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Multi-Carrier Coherent Receiver Based on a Shared Optical Hybrid and a Cyclic AWG Array for Terabit/s Optical Transmission

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 330 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a multi-carrier coherent-receiver scheme where the coherent beating between an ultra-high-speed multi-carrier signal and multiple optical local oscillators (OLOs) is conducted in a single optical hybrid, followed by carrier separation through an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) array. Sharing the optical hybrid for multiple OLOs simplifies the coherent receiver complexity and eases the timing alignment among multiple modulated carriers. Based on this scheme, a compact coherent-receiver front end consisting of an integrated 4 ?? 40 AWG array following a polarization-diversity optical hybrid is demonstrated and used for complete demodulation of a 1.12-Tb/s multi-carrier signal having ten 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexed (PDM)-quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) carriers spaced at 50 GHz. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio for the 1.12-Tb/s signal is 27 dB at 10-3 bit error ratio. The cyclic feature of the AWG array allows the receiver to receive modulated carriers that are not adjacently spaced. We also extend this receiver scheme for multi-carrier signals whose carriers are closely spaced, e.g., under the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) condition, for high-spectral-efficiency Terabit/s transmission applications. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Error Performance of Burst-Mode Receivers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 338 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a mathematical model for the evaluation of the bit error rate (BER) performance of burst-mode receivers by taking the effect of random noise and charging/discharging parameters of the receiver into consideration. The distribution of the threshold voltages will be similar to that of the distribution of the values corresponding to logical 1's of the preamble for threshold setting. The threshold setting will also vary when a long string of consecutive 0's arrive in the incoming data that report errors in detection. The average threshold is determined for a particular bit position in the consecutive string of 0's. The expression based on the threshold is also used to determine the BER of the receiver. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • High-Speed Communications Over Polymer Optical Fibers for In-Building Cabling and Home Networking

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 347 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on high-speed cabling using polymer optical fibers (POF) in home networking. In particular, we report about the results obtained in the POF-ALL European Project, which is relevant to the Sixth Framework Program, and after two years of the European Project POF-PLUS, which is relevant to the Seventh Framework Program, focusing on their research activities about the use of poly-metyl-metha-acrilate step-index optical fibers for home applications. In particular, for that which concerns POF-ALL, we will describe eight-level pulse amplitude modulation (8-PAM) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) approaches for 100-Mb/s transmission over a target distance of 300 m, while for that which concerns POF-PLUS, we will describe a fully digital and a mixed analog-digital solution, both based on intensity modulation direct detection, for transmitting 1 Gb/s over a target distance of 50 m. The ultimate experimental results from the POF-ALL project will be given, while for POF-PLUS, which is still ongoing, we will only show our most recent preliminary results. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Ultrafast Analog All-Optical Signal Processors Based on Fiber-Grating Devices

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 359 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1817 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews recent work on the design, experimental implementation, and application of two fundamental all-optical analog signal processing functionalities, namely, photonic temporal differentiation and photonic temporal integration, using customized grating devices directly written in optical fibers. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Data-Aided Versus Blind Single-Carrier Coherent Receivers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 387 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1076 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fiber-optic research in signal processing for the first generation of coherent communication systems was dominated by receivers with blind adaptation. Next-generation systems will require a scalable and modular design for higher order modulation formats. Due to the nature of the fiber channel and the required parallelization in high-speed receivers, data-aided and blind algorithms call for a general reassessment when used in coherent optic receivers employing higher order modulation formats. In this paper, blind and data-aided receivers are compared for coherent single-carrier optical systems in terms of complexity, tracking ability, and convergence speed. Methods for equalization are discussed for time-domain- and frequency-domain-based receivers covering the most important algorithms. The general superiority of data-aided frequency-domain equalization is demonstrated. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Compact Optical Switches and Modulators Based on Dispersion Engineered Photonic Crystals

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 404 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We use slow-light photonic crystals to enhance optical switching and modulation in silicon. By using dispersion-engineered designs, a switch as short as 5 ??m was achieved, in which we have demonstrated rerouting of optical pulses on a 3-ps time scale through the absorption of a femtosecond pulse. We additionally demonstrate a modulator with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) configuration with flat-band slow-light photonic crystal phase shifters that is designed to give a large group-index-bandwidth product. An extinction ratio in excess of 15 dB is obtained over the entire 11-nm bandwidth of the modulator. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Long-Wavelength High-Contrast Grating Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 415 - 422
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structure based on a subwavelength high-contrast grating (HCG) as the output mirror has been realized. By design, these devices are highly polarization stable, are single mode at large apertures, and solve the VCSEL-mirror problem at long wavelengths in an elegant way. With cost-effective mass fabrication in mind, the top HCG reflector consists of amorphous silicon on isolator (amorphous silica). The single-mode laser emission is tailored to be around 1320-nm wavelength, targeting applications in high-speed optical data transmission, particularly those for passive optical networks. We report single-mode emission for devices with apertures as large as 11 μm operating in continuous wave with output powers in excess of 0.4 mW. Pulsed operation with output powers up to 4 mW at room temperature is demonstrated as well. This is the first electrically pumped VCSEL structure realized in this wavelength regime utilizing an HCG mirror. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Polarization Rotation in Silicon Waveguides: Analytical Modeling and Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 423 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1031 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The efficient use of optical nonlinearities in silicon is crucial for the implementation of silicon-based photonic devises. In this paper, we present an approximate analytical study of nonlinear polarization rotation in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides; the rotation is predominantly caused by the effects of self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, stemming from the anisotropic Kerr nonlinearity. In the first part of the paper, we analyze the transmittance of the Kerr shutter in the continuous-wave regime and address the problem of its optimization. It is essential for the generality of our conclusions that both free-carrier effects and two-photon absorption are properly accounted for in this study. We specifically show that the signal transmittance may be optimized by adjusting the waveguide length, the pump power, and the incident linear polarizations of pump and signal beams. In the second part of the paper, we examine the problem of power equalization with SOI waveguides. We validate the derived analytical solutions by comparing their predictions with the data from numerical simulations and illustrate the solutions by the examples of practical interest. The results of our work may prove useful for the design and optimization of SOI-based Kerr shutters, all-optical switches, and power equalizers. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Extreme Miniaturization of Silicon Add–Drop Microring Filters for VLSI Photonics Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 436 - 444
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We theoretically and experimentally investigated the performance of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring add-drop filters in the limit of extreme miniaturization for potential application in very dense integration of silicon photonic devices. Rigorous numerical analyses were performed to predict the theoretical limit of achievable intrinsic quality factors as the microring radius is scaled down to 1 μm. Experimental measurements of fabricated SOI microring resonators showed that ultracompact add-drop microring filters with radii as small as 1 μm can be achieved with a free spectral range exceeding 80 nm and an insertion loss of only 1 dB. These devices are also shown to exhibit intrinsic quality factors approaching the theoretically achievable limit set by the bending loss in ultracompact microring resonators. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • A Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Passive Optical Network With Simultaneous Centralized Light Source and Broadcast Capability

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 445 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) architecture with simultaneous centralized light source and broadcast capability. The proposed WDM-PON supports simultaneous delivery of 10-Gb/s broadcast on-off-keying (OOK) signals and 10-Gb/s point-to-point (P2P) differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) signals. The broadcast OOK signals are obtained by modulating a part of the P2P DPSK signals to enhance the wavelength utilization efficiency. Then, the two kinds of signals are transmitted to the optical network unit (ONU) through different fiber links, and this configuration guarantees the good transmission performance. At each ONU, a portion of the P2P DPSK signal provides the seeding source for remodulating the upstream 10-Gb/s OOK signal, which avoids the cost of a wavelength-specific laser at each ONU. The performance of the proposed WDM-PON with a symmetrical capacity is comprehensively investigated through both simulation and experiment. The results verify that the proposed WDM-PON scheme is a good candidate to provide broadcast service through the WDM-PON infrastructure. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Multiband Real-Time Coherent Optical OFDM Reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km Transmission

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 454 - 459
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based multiband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal reception after 600-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission and 400-ps differential-group delay (DGD) at 110-Gb/s. The coherent OFDM (CO-OFDM) signal is generated with a recirculating frequency shifter producing 11 uncorrelated OFDM orthogonal bands. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • InGaAs Communication Photodiodes: From Low- to High-Power-Level Designs

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 460 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While InGaAs absorption material has been used for various applications up to 1.6-μm wavelength, specific designs for low-level detection have become of main interest using high responsivity and low-dark-current detectors. By adding an avalanche multiplication layer to form an avalanche photodiode (APD) using the Separated Absorption and Multiplication (SAM) structure, one can take advantage of the very low-noise properties of the multiplication process in large-bandgap AI(Ga)(ln)As material to improve receiver sensitivity by > 10 dB. Under high-power-level injection, specific PIN structures have been developed to improve space charge effects and linear operation as needed for power applications such as high bit rates using coherent detection or analog photonic links. Specific designs to achieve simultaneously broad bandwidth, high responsivity, very high power saturation, and high linearity will be discussed. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Fringe Visibility Enhanced Extrinsic Fabry–Perot Interferometer Using a Graded Index Fiber Collimator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 469 - 481
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a fringe visibility-enhanced extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) by fusion splicing a quarter-pitch length of a graded-index fiber (GIF) to the lead-in single mode fiber (SMF). The performance of the GIF collimator is theoretically analyzed using a ray matrix model and experimentally verified through beam divergence angle measurements. The fringe visibility of the GIF-collimated EFPI is measured as a function of the cavity length and compared with that of a regular SMF-EFPI. At the cavity length of 500 m, the fringe visibility of the GIF-EFPI is 0.8, while that of the SMF-EFPI is only 0.2. The visibility-enhanced GIF-EFPI may provide a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for applications where a large dynamic range is desired. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Exploring Waveguiding Properties of Heavily Doped  \hbox {Yb}^{3+}:\hbox {KLu}(\hbox {WO}_{4})_{2} Epitaxial Layers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 482 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-quality epitaxial layers of heavily doped Yb:KLu( WO4)2 grown on KLu(WO4)2 substrates by liquid phase epitaxy were characterized in terms of lattice mismatch and refractive indexes of the layer and the substrate. The effective refractive indexes of the guided modes that these structures can support were modeled and measured experimentally for the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) mode excitation by dark m-lines spectroscopy. The upper limit for optical losses in these waveguides corresponding only to scattering processes was estimated to be ~1.5 dB/cm at λ=632.8 nm. These results show that, apart for highly efficient thin-disk laser applications, these epilayers can be used as waveguide devices at wavelengths different from those used to excite Yb3+. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Angular Selective Light Filter Based on Photonic Crystals for Photovoltaic Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 490 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a new angular selective filter design that is based on photonic bandgap engineering principles. The operation of the filter is based on the occurrence of angular-dependent photonic stopbands and passbands in a photonic crystal structure. Such a filter allows for the propagation of normally incident light while disallowing the propagation of obliquely incident light waves. When the filter is applied to a solar cell structure that consists of a diffraction grating structure on the back surface, a high-efficiency light trap can be formed. Hence, the light-trapping capacity of the new structure is dependent on the photonic band structure of the light filter rather than on refractive optical properties of the active photovoltaic material. This paper presents a model of such a structure and investigates the possibilities afforded by the new structure. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Thermoelectric Effect in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 500 - 509
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1085 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The choice of polarity of operation in a quantum cascade (QC) laser is made at the beginning of every QC laser design and growth, yet little work has been done to ascertain any performance benefits of one polarity versus the other. In this paper, we compare two QC lasers of the same design, differentiated only by the reversing of the growth order of the heterostructure layers in the laser core, which results in opposite polarities of operation. Analysis is performed through continuous wave (CW) and pulsed threshold current measurements to observe the change in active core temperature with input power. A thermoelectric effect is observed, where the direction of current flow improves thermal transport in negative polarity lasers (electron flow toward the heat sink) over positive polarity (electron flow away from the heat sink), leading to a maximum observed reduction in laser core heating of 10.0 ± 5.5 K for a thermal load of 7.2 kW/cm2 in CW operation. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Transmission Analysis of OFDM-Based Wireless Services Over Turbulent Radio-on-FSO Links Modeled by Gamma–Gamma Distribution

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 510 - 520
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-on-free space optical (RoFSO) communication systems are rapidly gaining popularity as an efficient and cost-effective means of transferring high data rates and radio frequency (RF) signals with the same capacity as optical fiber. However, the performance of those systems depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions and the nonlinear characteristics of the optical link. In this paper, we introduce an analytical model for the transmission of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based signals over freespace optics (FSO) links. Further, we derive a closed-form bit error probability (BEP) and outage probability expressions, taking into account the optical noises, the laser diode nonlinear distortion, and the atmospheric turbulence effect on the FSO channel modeled by the gamma-gamma distribution. This paper reports the most significant parameters that degrade the transmission performance of the OFDM signal over FSO links and indicates the cases that provide the optimal operating conditions for the link. The obtained results can be useful for designing, predicting, and evaluating the RoFSO system's ability to transmit wireless services over turbulent FSO links under actual conditions. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Computational Analysis of the Power Spectral Shifts and Widths Along Dye-Doped Polymer Optical Fibers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 521 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polymer optical fibers doped with organic dyes can be used as efficient optical amplifiers and lasers in the visible region. We computationally analyze the spectral features of both their fluorescence and their amplified emission for different amounts of overlap between the emission and absorption spectra of the dyes employed. Representative cases are compared by calculating the respective evolutions along the doped fiber of the average wavelength, peak wavelength, and full-width at half-maximum of the output power obtained. View full abstract»

    Open Access

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IEEE Photonics is an online-only rapid publication archival journal of top quality research at the fore-front of Photonics.  Photonics integrates quantum electronics and optics to accelerate progress in the generation of novel photon sources and in their utilization in emerging applications at the micro and nano scales spanning from the far-infrared/THz to the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Niloy Dutta
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University of Connecticut
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