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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date May 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 265 - 266
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 267
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  • Introduction to the Special Section on Electronic and Ionic Interfaces to Biomolecules and Cells

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 268
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  • Design and Implementation of Functional Nanoelectronic Interfaces With Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissue Using Nanowire Device Arrays

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 269 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanowire FETs (NWFETs) are promising building blocks for nanoscale bioelectronic interfaces with cells and tissue since they are known to exhibit exquisite sensitivity in the context of chemical and biological detection, and have the potential to form strongly coupled interfaces with cell membranes. We present a general scheme that can be used to assemble NWs with rationally designed composition and geometry on either planar inorganic or biocompatible flexible plastic surfaces. We demonstrate that these devices can be used to measure signals from neurons, cardiomyocytes, and heart tissue. Reported signals are in millivolts range, which are equal to or substantially greater than those recorded with either planar FETs or multielectrode arrays, and demonstrate one unique advantage of NW-based devices. Basic studies showing the effect of device sensitivity and cell/substrate junction quality on signal magnitude are presented. Finally, our demonstrated ability to design high-density arrays of NWFETs enables us to map signal at the subcellular level, a functionality not enabled by conventional microfabricated devices. These advances could have broad applications in high-throughput drug assays, fundamental biophysical studies of cellular function, and development of powerful prosthetics. View full abstract»

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  • Nanopore Sequencing: Electrical Measurements of the Code of Life

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 281 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sequencing a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using a nanopore is a revolutionary concept because it combines the potential for long read lengths (>5 kbp) with high speed (1 bp/10 ns), while obviating the need for costly amplification procedures due to the exquisite single molecule sensitivity. The prospects for implementing this concept seem bright. The cost savings from the removal of required reagents, coupled with the speed of nanopore sequencing places the $1000 genome within grasp. However, challenges remain: high fidelity reads demand stringent control over both the molecular configuration in the pore and the translocation kinetics. The molecular configuration determines how the ions passing through the pore come into contact with the nucleotides, while the translocation kinetics affect the time interval in which the same nucleotides are held in the constriction as the data is acquired. Proteins like ??-hemolysin and its mutants offer exquisitely precise self-assembled nanopores and have demonstrated the facility for discriminating individual nucleotides, but it is currently difficult to design protein structure ab initio, which frustrates tailoring a pore for sequencing genomic DNA. Nanopores in solid-state membranes have been proposed as an alternative because of the flexibility in fabrication and ease of integration into a sequencing platform. Preliminary results have shown that with careful control of the dimensions of the pore and the shape of the electric field, control of DNA translocation through the pore is possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different base pairs of DNA may be feasible. Thus, a nanopore promises inexpensive, reliable, high-throughput sequencing, which could thrust genomic science into personal medicine. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel Recording of Single Ion Channels: A Heterogeneous System Approach

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 295 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The convergence of integrated electronic devices with nanotechnology structures on heterogeneous systems presents promising opportunities for the development of new classes of rapid, sensitive, and reliable sensors. The main advantage of embedding microelectronic readout structures with sensing elements is twofold. On the one hand, the SNR is increased as a result of scaling. On the other, readout miniaturization allows organization of sensors into arrays. The latter point will improve sensing accuracy by using statistical methods. However, accurate interface design is required to establish efficient communication between ionic-based and electronic-based signals. This paper shows a first example of a concurrent readout system with single-ion channel resolution, using a compact and scalable architecture. An array of biological nanosensors is organized on different layers stacked together in a mixed structure: fluidics, printed circuit board, and microelectronic readout. More specifically, an array of microholes machined into a polyoxymethylene homopolymer (POMH or Delrin) device coupled with ultralow noise sigma-delta converters current amplifiers, is used to form bilayer membranes within which ion channels are embedded. It is shown how formation of multiple artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) is automatically monitored by the interface. The system is used to detect current signals in the pA range, from noncovalent binding between single, BLM-embedded ??-hemolysin pores and ??-cyclodextrin molecules. The current signals are concurrently processed by the readout structure. View full abstract»

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  • Ion-Channel Biosensors—Part I: Construction, Operation, and Clinical Studies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 303 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the construction and operation of a novel biosensor that exploits the molecular switching mechanisms of biological ion channels. The biosensor comprises gramicidin A channels embedded in a synthetic tethered lipid bilayer. It provides a highly sensitive and rapid detection method for a wide variety of analytes. In this paper, we outline the fabrication and principle of operation of the ion-channel switch (ICS) biosensor. The results of a clinical study, in which the ion-channel biosensor is used to detect influenza A in untreated clinical samples, is presented to demonstrate the utility of the technology. Fabrication of biochip arrays using silicon chips decorated with ??ink jet?? printing is discussed. We also describe how such biochip arrays can be used for multianalyte sensing. Finally, reproducibility/stability issues of the biosensor are addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Ion Channel Biosensors—Part II: Dynamic Modeling, Analysis, and Statistical Signal Processing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 313 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the dynamic modeling, analysis, and statistical signal processing of the ion channel switch biosensor. The electrical dynamics are described by a second-order linear system. The chemical kinetics of the biosensor response to analyte concentration in the reaction-rate-limited regime are modeled by a two-timescale nonlinear system of differential equations. Also, the analyte concentration in the mass-transport-influenced regime is modeled by a partial differential equation subject to a mixture of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. By using the theory of singular perturbation, we analyze the model so as to predict the performance of the biosensor in transient and steady-state regimes. Finally, we outline the use of statistical signal processing algorithms that exploit the biosensor dynamics to classify analyte concentration. View full abstract»

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  • SPICE Circuit Simulation of the Electrical Response of a Semiconductor Membrane to a Single-Stranded DNA Translocating Through a Nanopore

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 322 - 329
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (427 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe a circuit-element model for the electric detection of biomolecules in translocation through a nanopore in a semiconductor-oxide-semiconductor (SOS) membrane. The biomolecules are simulated as a superposition of individual charges moving through the nanopore and inducing a charge variation on the membrane electrodes that is modeled as a current source. The SOS membrane is discretized into interconnected elementary circuit elements. The model is tested on the translocation of 11 base single-stranded C3AC7 DNA molecule, for which the electric signal shows good qualitative agreement with the multiscale device approach of Gracheva et al., while quantifying the low-pass filtering in the membrane. Overall, the model confirms the possibility of identifying the sequence of the DNA bases electrically. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant Frequency Behavior of Silicon Cantilevers Coated With Nanostructured and Microcrystalline VO _2 Films

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 330 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter reports the resonant frequency shifts of single crystal silicon cantilevers coated with vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films with different average crystallite sizes during the coating's insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) and the Young's modulus of such thin films as a function of temperature for their monoclinic phase. The IMT was induced by sample heating, and resonant frequency shifts, close to 4% of their room temperature value, were observed for the coated cantilevers with crystallite sizes in the order of ~100 nm. The resonant frequency shifts and the hysteresis curve steepness were found to be decreased for samples with smaller VO2 film crystallite sizes and similar compositions. The crystallite sizes were controlled by the in situ annealing time to which the samples were subjected after their deposition at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition. The Young's modulus for VO2 samples along the monoclinic (011) plane was found to be linearly dependent on the temperature. A sigmoid curve fit was used to model the behavior of the resonant frequency of the coated cantilevers during the IMT. The results presented show that the VO2 thin films can be useful in novel microscale and nanoscale electromechanical resonators in which the resonant frequency can be tuned electrically, thermally, or optically. View full abstract»

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  • Variable Interface Dipoles of Metallated Porphyrin Self-Assembled Monolayers for Metal-Gate Work Function Tuning in Advanced CMOS Technologies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 335 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a technique for continuous tuning of the metal-gate work function (??metal) using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of metallated porphyrins. Porphyrin SAM was prepared on SiO2 followed by Al evaporation to form MOS capacitors (MOSCAPs). The variation in the dipole moment achieved by changing the central metal ion (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) in metallated porphyrins has been shown as a way to modify the gate work function. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) on Zn-porphyrin shows that the molecule is stable upto 450??C. Temperature stability experiments on MOSCAPs show that the above method can be effectively implemented in advanced CMOS technologies involving the gate-last process. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Antiphase-Coupled RTD Microwave Oscillator Operating at Extremely Low DC-Power Consumption

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 338 - 341
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new resonant tunneling diode (RTD) microwave oscillator operating at extremely low dc-power consumption is proposed, which utilizes the antiphase-coupled quantum-effect RTD oscillations for efficient ac-power generation at a summing node of output based on a push-push principle. The fabricated integrated circuit of the RTD microwave oscillator by using an InP-based RTD/HBT quantum-effect IC technology shows an extremely low total dc-power consumption of 85 ??W at an oscillation frequency of 29.1 GHz. In order to achieve the extremely low dc-power consumption, the device size of RTD has been scaled down to 0.7 ?? 0.7 ??m2. The obtained total dc-power consumption of 85 ??W at an applied bias of 0.49 V is found to be the lowest reported up to date, corresponding to about 1/170 of that in the conventional-type low-power oscillators in the related frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • HFinFET: A Scalable, High Performance, Low Leakage Hybrid n-Channel FET

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 342 - 344
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we propose the design and simulation study of a novel transistor, called HFinFET, which is a hybrid of an HEMT and a FinFET, to obtain excellent performance and good off-state control. Followed by the description of the design, 3-D device simulation has been performed to predict the characteristics of the device. The device has been benchmarked against published state of the art HEMT as well as planar and nonplanar Si n-MOSFET data of comparable gate length using standard benchmarking techniques. View full abstract»

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  • On the Choice of High- \kappa Dielectrics for Metal Nanocrystal Memory to Improve Data Retention

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 345 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An investigation on the optimized choice of high-κ gate dielectrics and metal nanocrystals (NCs) for improving retention capability of a flash memory is presented. The influence of charge neutrality level (CNL) of gate dielectrics on retention time is quantified. Results show that retention efficacy of metal NCs with high work function (WF) is adversely affected when embedded in certain oxides with high CNLs. This unravels that both the CNL and WF must be tuned together to maximize the retention period. View full abstract»

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  • On-Chip Clocking for Nanomagnet Logic Devices

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 348 - 351
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report local control of nanomagnets that can be arranged to perform computation in a cellular automata-like architecture. This letter represents the first demonstration of deterministically placed quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) devices (of any implementation), where devices are controlled by on-chip local fields. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Sub-10-nm Diameter, Gate-All-Around Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors for Electrostatic Discharge Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 352 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) robustness of a promising nanoscaled device, the gate-all-around nanowire field-effect transistor (NW FET), was characterized for the first time using the transmission-line pulsing technique. The effects of gate length, nanowire dimension, and nanowire count on the failure current, leakage current, trigger voltage, and on-resistance were investigated. ESD performances of the gate-all-around NW FET and other nanostructure devices, such as the poly-Si nanowire thin-film transistor and FinFET were also compared and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Deposition of Pd Nanoparticles on InP by Electrophoresis: Dependence on Electrode Polarity

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 355 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Layers of nanoparticles deposited onto n-type InP single crystals were prepared by electrophoresis from colloid solutions with reverse micelles-containing Pd nanoparticles. Pd nanoparticles in colloid solutions were monitored by transmission electron microscopy and by optical absorption of Pd surface plasmons. Two types of layers were prepared by electrophoresis with an InP wafer placed on the positive electrode or on the negative electrode, respectively. The layers showed a large distinctness between conductivities in axial and lateral direction. The layers were studied by secondary ions mass spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was shown that only the layers deposited on the positive electrode contained Pd nanoparticles. Diodes were prepared on InP wafers with both types of deposited layers, and their current-voltage characteristics and admittance-frequency characteristics were studied at room temperature. Diodes-containing Pd nanoparticles providing large values of Schottky barrier height 0.856 eV appear to be suitable for making sensitive sensors of hydrogen gas in the air. View full abstract»

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  • Selective Growth of the Silicon-Oxide Nanodot Array Using Nanosphere Lithography and Liquid-Phase Deposition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 361 - 366
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we demonstrated that a well-ordered array of silicon oxide dots with diameter of 50-60 nm can be easily formed at low temperature using a newly developed technique. Specifically, silicon oxide dots were selectively deposited at temperatures of 50??C or less using a liquid-phase deposition (LPD) technique on the Si/Pt/Au substrates, which have a well-ordered array of nanoholes formed by photoresist ashing of the self-organized polystyrene bead and the deposition/liftoff of metal films (i.e., Pt/Au). Since the Si layer was exposed only at the bottom of nanoholes and silicon oxide was selectively deposited only on Si during the LPD process, silicon oxide was deposited in the form of a dot array in nanometer scale. View full abstract»

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  • Controlling a Magnetic Force Microscope to Track a Magnetized Nanosize Particle

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 367 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce a scheme for tracking a magnetic nanoparticle moving in three dimensions using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The stray magnetic field of the magnetic particle induces a shift in the phase of oscillation of the tip of the MFM. We present a nonlinear feedback control law that translates the measurement of this phase shift into a trajectory for the tip of the MFM and prove that this trajectory converges to a neighborhood of the magnetic particle. The viability of the proposed tracking scheme is verified through numerical simulations of the tracking algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A Direct-Write Approach for Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Deposition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 375 - 380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanowriting was used to directly pattern carbon nanotube (CNT) catalyst solution with a scanning probe microscope. Glass nanopipettes filled with iron-based catalyst solutions were scanned in predefined patterns using contact mode atomic force microscopy on silicon/silicon dioxide substrates to create nanoscale catalyst surface distributions. Chemical vapor deposition using methane feedstock at 900??C produced single-walled CNTs in the patterned regions. Examination of patterning and growth conditions provided insight into the catalyst nanowriting process and the associated CNT growth. Two-terminal electronic transport measurements of the nanotube samples showed a typical resistance of 1 M??. The nanowriting technique allows precise nanoscale catalyst patterns of almost arbitrary geometry to be directly defined for CNT growth in a simple and inexpensive manner suitable for device prototyping and applications. View full abstract»

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  • Patterning of Carbon Nanotubes by Material Assisted Laser Ablation Process

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 381 - 385
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon nanotubes were patterned by a nonphotolithographic, low energy, large area, and high-throughput laser patterning process [material-assisted laser ablation (MALA)]. In this process, a residue layer was observed after the patterning process, requiring an additional cleaning process for the fabrication of electronic devices. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of the residue layer formation, and optimized the MALA process so that no residue layer is formed after the patterning of carbon nanotubes. We demonstrated patterning of carbon nanotubes on 100 mm diameter silicon wafers, and the patterns of carbon nanotubes were sufficiently clean and sharp to be applicable in high-volume fabrication of electronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Trigated Poly-Si Nanowire SONOS Devices for Flat-Panel Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 386 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method is proposed and demonstrated to fabricate planar thin-film transistors and trigated nanowire (NW) devices simultaneously on the same panel. By using an oxide-nitride-oxide stack as the gate dielectric, the NW devices could also serve as nonvolatile Si-oxide-nitride-oxide-Si (SONOS) memory devices. Our results indicate that the combination of trigate and NW channels help to improve the device performance in terms of steppers subthreshold swing and reduced threshold voltage. Improvement in programming and erasing efficiency of the nonvolatile SONOS memory devices is also demonstrated with the trigated NW structure. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Fabrication of an Active Multiaxis Probing System for High Speed Atomic Force Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 392 - 399
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and fabrication of an active multiaxis probing system for high-speed atomic force microscopy is presented. The probing system employs a multiaxis compliant manipulator that is actuated by two magnetic actuators to control the tip position simultaneously along the vertical and the lateral directions. The manipulator is optimally designed to achieve high bandwidth actuation and large scanning range. A novel process to fabricate multiaxis compliant manipulators reliably by using focused ion beam milling is proposed. The fabricated active multiaxis probing system is demonstrated to have high bandwidth of actuation with the lateral and vertical resonance frequencies at 46.4 and 101.5 kHz, respectively. The lateral scanning range is estimated to be ~350 nm at a magnetic field of 20 ?? 10-4 T. It enables imaging rate of 10 frame/s with pixel resolution of 100 ?? 100 pixels. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.