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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2010

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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c2
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  • From the Editors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2
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  • Model for JPALS/SRGPS Flexure and Attitude Error Allocation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 483 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops a linearized parametric error model for assessing the effects of structural flexure and attitude uncertainties on the shipboard variant of the joint precision approach and landing system (JPALS). The outputs of the error model are position domain error bounds on the estimate of the ship reference point (SRP) coordinates. The model is parameterized in terms of GPS antenna installation geometry and the covariance matrices capturing the statistics of GPS measurement, ship structural flexure, and ship attitude estimation uncertainty. The performance of the model is evaluated via a set of simulation studies. It is shown that when the attitude errors are small and the flexure statistics well characterized, the error model provides an accurate and convenient way of mapping attitude and flexure uncertainties into SRP position uncertainties. Estimation of SRP position errors is a nonlinear problem and when ship attitude uncertainties are large, the nonlinearities can be important. However, the bounds calculated by the error model developed can be inflated to deal with these nonlinearities. Finally, by analyzing data collected from ship trials, it is shown that perhaps a more challenging issue may be the potential for highly correlated, bias-like structural flexure uncertainties. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Data Association, Registration, and Fusion using EM-KF

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 496 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In performing surveillance using a sensor network, data association and registration are two essential processes which associate data from different sensors and align them in a common coordinate system. While these two processes are usually addressed separately, they actually affect each other. That is, registration requires correctly associated data, and data with sensor biases will result in wrong association. We present a novel joint sensor association, registration, and fusion approach for multisensor surveillance. In order to perform registration and association together, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is incorporated with the Kalman filter (KF) to give simultaneous state and parameter estimates. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed joint association, registration, and fusion method based on EM-KF. View full abstract»

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  • Accumulative Learning using Multiple ANN for Flexible Link Control

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 508 - 524
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a scheme of multiple neural networks (MNNs) with a new strategy of combination. This combination can obtain an accumulative learning: the knowledge is increased by gradually adding more neural networks to the system. This scheme is applied to flexible link control via feedback-error-learning (FEL) strategy, here called multi-network-feedback-error-learning. Three different neural control approaches are used to control a flexible link, and it is shown that a better inverse dynamic model of the plant is obtained in this case. View full abstract»

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  • Canonical Scattering Feature Models for 3D and Bistatic SAR

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 525 - 541
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops three-dimensional (3D), bistatic parametric models that describe canonical radar scattering responses of several geometric objects. These models find use in inverse scattering-based processing of high-frequency radar returns. Canonical feature models are useful for extracting geometry from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) scattering measurements and as feature primitives for automatic target recognition (ATR) and scene visualization. Previous work has considered monostatic feature models for two-dimensional (2D) radar processing; we extend this work to consider bistatic and 3D radar apertures. In the work presented here, we generalize geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) solutions for several scattering mechanisms in a plane. Products of these planar mechanisms in azimuth and elevation are used to produce 3D bistatic scattering models for six canonical shapes: a rectangular plate, dihedral, trihedral, cylinder, top-hat, and sphere. The derived models are characterized by a small number of parameters, and are shown to agree with results obtained from high-frequency, asymptotic scattering simulations. View full abstract»

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  • COTS-Based Wireless Magnetic Sensor for Small Satellites

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 542 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3994 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the utilization of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) magnetic sensor for the mission NANOSAT-01 and the set of tests that have been developed to up-screen it. The magnetic sensor head is a Wheatstone bridge formed by four anisotropic magnetoresistances (AMR). AMR sensors are an adequate choice for medium- to high-sensitivity (~3 mV/V/G) and resolution (~ 3 ¿G) requirements, mostly due to their low weight and volume that are so interesting for the aerospace industry. The whole system installed in NANOSAT-01 is formed by two biaxial sensors with two redundant PCBs (printed circuit boards) of RAD-HARD proximity electronics, which conditions the AMR output signal, measure the temperature, and resets the AMR. This magnetic sensor belongs to the attitude control system (ACS) of the satellite. View full abstract»

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  • NEW: Network-Enabled Electronic Warfare for Target Recognition

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 558 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Network-enabled electronic warfare (NEW) is the development of modeling and simulation efforts that explore the advantages and limitations of NEW concepts. The advantages of linking multiple electronic support measures (ESM) and electronic attack (EA) assets to achieve improved capabilities across a networked battle force have yet to be quantified. In this paper, we utilize radar sensors as ESM and EA assets to demonstrate the advantages of NEW in collaborative automatic target recognition (CATR). Signal (waveform) design for radar sensor networks (RSN) in NEW is studied theoretically. The conditions for waveform coexistence and the interferences among waveforms in RSN are analyzed. We apply the NEW to CATR via waveform diversity combining and propose maximum-likelihood (ML)-ATR algorithms for nonfluctuating targets as well as fluctuating targets. Simulation results indicate that our NEW-CATR performs much better than the single sensor-based ATR algorithm for nonfluctuating and fluctuating targets. View full abstract»

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  • Spacial Extrapolation-Based Blind DOA Estimation Approach for Closely Spaced Sources

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 569 - 582
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new blind direction of arrival (DOA) estimation approach for closely-spaced sources. The new method first estimates the autoregressive (AR) coefficients via an initial DOA estimation and then uses the AR coefficients for the linear extrapolation of the correlation matrix to implement a fine DOA estimation. Both initial and fine DOA estimations are performed using the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. Unlike a conventional AR coefficient estimation method which estimates the AR coefficients on the snapshot basis, our AR coefficients are estimated in the correlation domain once for a block of snapshots, thus significantly reducing the computational complexity of the antenna array. Moreover, the proposed spatial extrapolation-based DOA estimation approach is analyzed using perturbation theory. Both the theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional techniques in terms of the mean square error (MSE) of the DOA estimation when the angle of separation of the signal sources is very small. View full abstract»

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  • Multihypothesis Viterbi Data Association: Algorithm Development and Assessment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 583 - 609
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2033 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two algorithms for tracking in clutter, based on the Viterbi algorithm are presented: single-target Viterbi data association (ST-VDA) and multihypothesis VDA (MH-VDA). MH-VDA is designed specifically for multiple-target tracking (MTT), although ST-VDA still achieves good performance on MTT problems. The basic philosophy of both methods is to set up an optimisation problem for the sequence of measurement-to-target associations rather than directly seeking the target state estimates. The joint optimisation problem for the data association sequence is decomposed into a sequence of scalar optimisation problems by means of an approximate forward dynamic programming recursion to which the Viterbi algorithm is applicable. Once the data association problem is solved, the target state estimates can be retrieved by backtracking. The operation of the algorithms is easily visualised as a search on a trellis for the optimal path. For ST-VDA, nodes in the trellis correspond to measurements. For MH-VDA, nodes correspond to multitarget data association hypotheses. Conventional measurement gating is extended to work within this context. Results from simulations that compare the performance of ST-VDA and MH-VDA with four, standard, zero-scan-back tracking approaches are given. The performance assessment includes metrics for track loss and track swaps in a multiple crossing target context. The Viterbi data association (VDA) algorithms are shown to outperform the alternative algorithms. In particular the ST-VDA is found to have the best track swap performance, while MH-VDA has the lowest track loss figure. Average state estimation errors for both VDA algorithms are only about 10% larger than a Kalman filter with known data associations. While both variants of VDA are essentially batch processing approaches, the simulation results indicate that the algorithms can be implemented with a fixed processing lag of only a few scans without significant loss in performance. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Likelihood Angle-Doppler Estimator using Importance Sampling

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 610 - 622
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new joint angle-Doppler maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) based on importance sampling (IS) is proposed. The IS method allows one to compute the maximum likelihood estimator in a computationally efficient manner. It is based upon generating random variates using an importance function which approximates the compressed likelihood function. The performance is very close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The choice of the algorithm parameters, which will affect the estimation performance, is also addressed. With a reasonable parameter choice, even the angles/Dopplers for closely spaced sources can be accurately estimated, whereas conventional subspace methods fail. Comparison with some suboptimal methods demonstrates that the IS method produces better performance at low signal-to-noise (SNR) and/or a small number of snapshots. View full abstract»

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  • DC/DC Converter for the International Space Station

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 623 - 634
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dc/dc converter for power distribution aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and space vehicles employing the 120 V dc bus is proposed. It is well suited to supply power to multiple loads including peripheral low voltage point-of-load (POL) regulators. The dc/dc converter is phase-shift controlled at the constant frequency of 500 kHz. The topology is characterized by distribution in a sequence of 4 metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), switched ON at zero voltage. The linear model has first-order dynamics. Responses to small and large load variations benefit from its advantageous control features. A peculiar characteristic is its high dynamic independence of load typology and output power. To focus on this quality, dynamic performances are investigated through analyses, simulations, and measurements considering three types of loads: constant current, resistive, and constant power. Experimental data from a 100 W prototype fit the model forecasts well. View full abstract»

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  • Generative Model for Maneuvering Target Tracking

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 635 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the challenging problem of tracking highly maneuverable targets with unknown dynamics and introduce a new generative maneuvering target model (GMTM) that, for a rigid body target, explicitly estimates not only the kinematics, here considered as effect variables, but also the underlying causative dynamic variables including forces and torques acting on the rigid body target in a Newtonian mechanics framework. We formulate relationships between the dynamic and kinematic state variables in a novel graphical model that naturally facilitates the feedback of physical constraints from the target kinematics to the maneuvering dynamics model in a probabilistic form, thereby achieving improved tracking accuracy and efficiency compared to competing techniques. We develop a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) inference algorithm that is embedded with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) steps to generate probabilistic samples amenable to the feedback constraints. The proposed algorithm can estimate both maneuvering dynamics and target kinematics simultaneously. The robustness and efficacy of this approach are illustrated by experimental results obtained from noisy video sequences of both simulated and real maneuvering ground vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Timescale Nonlinear Robust Control for a Miniature Helicopter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 656 - 671
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new nonlinear control approach, which is applied to a miniature aerobatic helicopter through a multi-timescale structure, is proposed. Because of the highly nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated nature of a miniature helicopter, it is a challenge to design an autonomous flight control system that is capable of operating in the full flight envelope. To deal with unstable internal dynamics, the translational, rotational, and flapping dynamics of the helicopter (eleven degrees of freedom) are organized into a three-timescale, nonlinear model. The concepts of dynamic inversion and sliding manifold are combined together such that 1) the controller proposed is robust with respect to functional and parametric uncertainties, and 2) the settling time in faster modes is guaranteed to be less than the fixed step size of slower modes. A time-varying feedback gain, derived according to global stability and sliding manifold variations, is proved to be uniquely solvable based on the Perron-Frobenius Theorem. Partial uncertainties are explicitly taken into account in the nonlinear robust control design, and Monte Carlo simulations are used for validations under other sensor noises, model uncertainties, and a Federal Aviation Administration suggested gust condition. View full abstract»

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  • Hyper Chaotic Logistic Phase Coded Signal and Its Sidelobe Suppression

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 672 - 686
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel hyperchaotic coding scheme and corresponding optimal selection method are proposed to obtain the hyper chaotic logistic phase code (HCLPC) signal, which exhibits great electronic counter-counter measure (ECCM) performance in the presence of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) repeat jammers and netted radar systems. Similar to the random noise signal, the HCLPC signal has an ideal average ambiguity function and cross ambiguity function. However, the HCLPC signal can overcome the difficulties of reference signal storage and transmitter-receiver isolation for random signals. High range sidelobe would exist for finite length of transmit signal in practice. The Tikhonov regularization constrained total least squares algorithm (TRCTLSA) is first proposed to range sidelobe suppression of the HCLPC signal when data inaccuracy and white Gaussian noise is taken into account, and a global optimal solution to this algorithm is given. Simulation shows that it has a better sidelobe suppression effect than other ways. When Gaussian-noise variance is less than 0.01, the sidelobe level can decrease to the order of -55 dB, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss is less than 0.05 dB. As a digital sidelobe suppression filter procedure, it can be widely used in noise reduction environments, image enhancements, and easily ported to sidelobe suppression applications of other signals as well. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Approach to Position and Orientation Estimation in Vision-Based UAV Navigation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 687 - 700
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach to position and orientation estimation for vision-based UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) navigation is described. In this approach the position and orientation estimation problem is formulated as a tracking problem and solved by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The state and observation models of the EKF are established based on an analysis of the imaging geometry of the UAV's video camera in connection with a DEM (digital elevation map) of the area of flight, which helps to control estimation error accumulation. The efficacy of our approach is demonstrated by simulation experiment results. View full abstract»

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  • Using Target RCS when Tracking Multiple Rayleigh Targets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 701 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2011 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Closely-spaced (but resolved) targets pose a challenge for measurement-to-track data association algorithms. Since the Mahalanobis distances between measurements collected on closely-spaced targets and tracks are similar, several elements of the corresponding kinematic measurement-to-track assignment cost matrix are also similar. Lacking any other information upon which to base assignments, it is not surprising that data association algorithms make mistakes. Given this problem many in the target tracking community have speculated that measurement-to-track data association could be improved through the use of features. Since the radar cross section (RCS) naturally occurs with the detection and kinematic measurement and does not require use of high-energy/high-resolution waveforms, it is typically a favored feature for radar systems. To gain insight into its impact on measurement-to-track data association, the benefits of RCS-assisted tracking are analytically assessed in several simple cases. Both the rigorous hypothesis probability approach and several less rigorous ad hoc approaches (which are commonly used in practice) are treated. Results vary between the approaches, but the conclusion is that the benefit of RCS-assisted tracking is limited. In fact applying it blindly in every dwell can actually degrade measurement-to-track data association. For this reason the steps required to incorporate RCS-assisted tracking in a beneficial manner are also identified. View full abstract»

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  • Unaugmented GPS-Based Flight Inspection System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 717 - 724
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A unaugmented Global Positioning System (GPS)-based flight inspection system (FIS) that performs airborne inspection of the instrument landing system (ILS) is introduced. This novel system relies on a TV positioning system (TVPS) that measures the horizontal position over the runway threshold and a radar altimeter (RA) to determine a reference point that is able to remove the GPS biases. Because of the near-real-time nature of flight inspection, it is possible to reconstruct an accurate approach trajectory even though the reference point occurs after the completion of the trajectory. The precise relative positioning (PRP) algorithm is applied to achieve the desired results. It includes a first-order fit to the ionospheric error, based on code and carrier measurements, that enables a significant reduction in this error source. This system has an autonomous integrity feature, called FIS-RAIM (receiver autonomous integrity monitoring), that is equipped in this system to protect against GPS satellite failures that may cause significant positioning errors. The FIS-RAIM is specifically designed for a flight inspection problem, and much of its detail is also described. Experimental flight tests strongly suggest that the system architecture and algorithm could meet FIS accuracy requirements for CAT III ILS with better performance than current flight inspection systems in terms of cost and efficiency. The system is not dependent on any GPS augmentation system; therefore the unaugmented GPS-based FIS provides low cost and high efficiency with worldwide availability. View full abstract»

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  • Gain-Varying Guidance Algorithm using Differential Geometric Guidance Command

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 725 - 736
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new gain-varying algorithm for the three-dimensional pure proportional navigation (PPN) guidance problem is presented using the differential geometric (DG) guidance command. To this end, classical differential geometry theory is introduced, firstly, to transform and modify the DG guidance curvature command so as to facilitate the practical implementation and to avoid singularity of the guidance command. Then, a new gain-varying guidance scheme is developed using the modified DG guidance command, as well as the principle of the PPN guidance law, the new guidance law does not need the evaluation of time-to-go information. Furthermore, the capture analysis of the PPN-type guidance law is qualitatively studied in terms of the DG formulations, and a post-launch capture condition is derived and expressed in geometric terms. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance algorithm performs better than the conventional PPN guidance law in the case of intercepting maneuvering targets. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Generation of f^{\alpha } Noise Sequences for Pulsed Radar Simulation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 737 - 744
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Efficient algorithms for the generation of noise samples are required for the software simulation of radar systems. In many cases, such as the modelling of oscillator phase noise, noise samples with a power spectral density (PSD) that match an fα model are required. An algorithm for the generation of sequences of fα noise samples, based on a multirate filterbank is presented. A technique for pruning of the multirate filterbank, allowing highly efficient generation of pulsed sequences of fα noise samples while preserving long term correlations, is also presented, as well as a noise generation algorithm designed to model the phase noise of precision oscillators. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of Measurement Noise and Bias on Hill-Climbing MPPT Algorithms

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 745 - 760
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4989 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Erroneous measurement of solar array voltage and current degrades the performance of hill-climbing, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) systems. This degradation is observed as a reduced climbing rate, erroneous settling point, and/or random operating point excursions. The effect of measurement bias and noise on MPPT performance is analyzed. Tracking problems are then classified according to their cause, which allows for easier debugging of a faulty tracker. The effectiveness of several error-mitigating techniques is then studied, and recommendations are given accordingly. Conclusions of the analysis are then experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Control for Radiation-Hardened Switching Converters in Space

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 761 - 770
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Single-event hardening solutions for two converter designs with digital control are considered for space radiation environments: 1) a boost converter using static random access memory (SRAM)-based field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In this case the hardening approach is based on duplication at both the logic and device levels and on a nondisruptive resynchronization mechanism that ensures the converter operation if single-event functional interrupt occurs. 2) An integrated buck converter that uses redundancy at the register level, as well as modification of the very high speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) hardware description language (VHDL) code. These hardening techniques are validated through experiments and simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Reducing Orbit Covariance for Continuous Thrust Spacecraft Transfers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 771 - 791
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The calculus of variations is used to develop the necessary theory and derive the optimality conditions for a spacecraft to transfer between a set of initial and final conditions, while minimizing a combination of fuel consumption and a function of the estimation error covariance matrix associated with the spacecraft state. The theory is developed in a general manner that allows for multiple observers, moving observers, covariance associated with an arbitrary frame, a wide variety of observation types, multiple gravity bodies, and uncertainties in the spacecraft equations of motion based on the thrusting status of the engine. A series of example trajectories from low Earth orbit (LEO) to a near geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) shows that either the trace of the covariance at the final time or the integral of the trace of the covariance matrix associated with the error in the Cartesian position and velocity can be reduced significantly with a small increase in the fuel consumption. An additional example illustrates the covariance associated with the semimajor axis can be significantly reduced for a transfer from Earth orbit to lunar orbit. This example illustrates multiple, moving observers as well as a transfer in a multi-body gravitational field. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory